Presentation on theme: "THE SKELETAL SYSTEM There are 206 bones Functions of the skeleton: 1.Framework – gives structure and support 2. Protects the internal organs What does."— Presentation transcript:
THE SKELETAL SYSTEM There are 206 bones
Functions of the skeleton: 1.Framework – gives structure and support 2. Protects the internal organs What does the cranium (skull) protect? The brain!
What does the ribcage protect? The heart and lungs !
3. Bones work with muscles to make the body move.
Ribs The ribcage is often called the chest. It is also called the thorax, which does not include the arms and hands.
Types of Bones 2.Irregular bones: -Facial bones -Vertebrae (spine or back bone) -Ilium and Iliac Crest (hip)
Vertebrae ( Back Bone / Spine) -The bones in the backbone are called vertebrae. -It consists of 33 bones divided into 3 sections. -Vertebrae pictures from: pictures from:
Vertebrae Sections: 1. Cervical Region (neck) 2. Thoracic Region
Vertebrae Section (continued) 3. Lumbar region (lower back)
Ilium & Iliac Crest Irregular Bones:
Types of Bones: 3. Long Bones: -Humerus -Radius -Ulna -Femur -Tibia -Fibula
Humerus (Upper arm)
Long bones: Radius& Ulna: Humerus, Radius & Ulna :
Femur The femur is the upper leg bone. Helps form the hip joint by articulating (fit together) with the pelvis. The hip joint is the largest ball and socket joint in the body.
Tibia and Fibula The tibia, in the outer lower leg, supports most of the body's weight. The fibula is the smaller bone that provides support for the ankle and space for muscle attachments. Patella is the knee cap. my/skeletal/leg/leg.jpg my/skeletal/leg/leg.jpg
Types of Bones: 4. Short Bones -Wrist and hand : -Carpals -Metacarpals -Phalanges -Ankle and foot: -Tarsals -Metatarsals -Phalanges
Wrist and Hand Bones
Foot and Ankle Bones:http://content.answers.com/main/content/img/oxford/Oxford_Sports/ tarsus.1.jpghttp://content.answers.com/main/content/img/oxford/Oxford_Sports/ tarsus.1.jpg
What keeps the skeleton together? Ligaments – bone to bone oc/graphics/images/en/12686.jpg oc/graphics/images/en/12686.jpg
What else keeps the skeleton together? Tendons – Connects bone to muscle
What is tendonitis? - itis means inflammation or infection of Your answer? Inflammation of the tendons !
What are JOINTS ? The point where 2 bones meet is a joint. Joints are necessary for motion to occur. What provides lubrication of a joint? – Joints are filled with synovial fluid.
CLASSIFICATION OF JOINTS Joints can be grouped by the amount of motion allowed.
IMMOVABLE – unable to move at all. 1.Sternum
Immovable Joint 2.Cranium (Skull)
SLIGHTLY MOVEABLE 1.Vertebrae (spine or backbone)
Slightly Moveable 2. Pelvis
FREELY MOVEABLE 1. Wrist
Freely Moveable Joints 2. Elbow
Freely Moveable Joints 3. Shoulder
Freely Moveable Joints 4. Ankle
Freely Moveable Joints 5.Toes Toe Injuries and Disorders: MedlinePlus
4 TYPES OF JOINTS 1. BALL AND SOCKET- rounded end of one bone fits snugly into the other bones socket. Examples: a. Shoulder b. Hip
Types of Joints 2.Hinge – movement of joint is in one direction (like a door) Examples: a. Elbow b. Knee c. Knuckles d. Jaw Screen clipping taken: 7/31/2009
Types of Joints: 3.Gliding - bones slipping over other bones with a free flowing movement. Examples: a.Ankle b. Wrists Screen clipping taken: 7/31/2009, 12:15 PM
Types of Joints 4.Pivot - bone rests on top of another bone allowing full movement
Review Types of Joints…
1. Arthritis Arthro - means joint - Itis = means inflammation or infection Symptoms: a. swelling b. stiffness c. pain d. redness e. loss of ability to function
2. DEGENERATIVE JOINT DISEASE (DJD) – changes in the structure of the joints that occur with aging
3. DISLOCATION – end of the bone is out of alignment.
4. FRACTURES – break in a bone A.Simple fracture: Bone is broken, and the skin is not open around the bone.
B. Compound Fracture Bone is broken, and the skin is penetrated by the bone. on_left_ankle.jpg
C.Comminuted Fracture- Bone breaks into pieces and the bone fragments are lodged in the surrounding tissue.
D.Greenstick Fracture Bone is bent and splits, causing an incomplete break. (Similar to a tree branch that is bent too far)
What type of fracture is it?
Find the greenstick fracture….
Let’s do a few more…..
YES! Greenstick fracture
You got it! Simple Fracture
5. KYPHOSIS - OSIS means condition in which. Condition in which there is an abnormal posterior curve of the spine (hunchback).
6. LORDOSIS The condition in which there is an excessive concave (inward) curve of the spine. (Swayback).
7. Osteomyelitis Infection or inflammation of the bone, usually caused by a bloodborne pathogen.
8. Osteoporosis Condition in which bones become full of tiny holes, causing them to break easily. Common in women after menopause. OSTEO- means bone -OSIS means condition PORO- means holes, porous like a sponge
Take care of your bones!
9. RICKETS Condition in which the bones are soft because they do not calcify. Often caused by a lack of calcium and phosphorus in the diet
10. SCOLIOSIS Condition in which there is a lateral (to the side) curve of the spine.
11. SPRAIN – Severe stretching or tearing of a ligament
Muscles Definition - body tissue composed of cells and fibers which produce movement of the body part or organ.
Types of Muscles: 1. Striated / Skeletal - – Voluntary; moves with conscious thought – Muscles form a bridge over joints – Cell structure: striped looking; bundles of stringy fibers of different lengths – As your muscles flex (contract) and relax (extend) your bone moves
STRIATED/ SKELETAL MUSCLE
Striated Muscle – forms a bridge over joints for movement
Types of Muscles: 2. Visceral / Smooth – - Involuntary; Moves without conscious thought - Muscles form the walls of internal organs of the body - Digestive organs - Diaphragm - Blood vessels - Cellular structure: Spindle shaped (tapers at the ends) with a central nucleus
Disorders of the Muscular System Fibromyalgia – Pain of the connective tissue and muscles Fibrositis – Inflammation of the connective tissue Muscle Strain – Trauma to the muscle, usually caused by a violent contraction.
Muscular Dystrophy (congenital and chronic) deterioration of muscle tissue that progresses over time. Myalgia – Muscle pain. Torn muscle – tear of a muscle tissue; usually caused by extreme trauma to the muscle.