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THE SKELETAL SYSTEM There are 206 bones Functions of the skeleton: 1.Framework – gives structure and support 2. Protects the internal organs  What does.

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Presentation on theme: "THE SKELETAL SYSTEM There are 206 bones Functions of the skeleton: 1.Framework – gives structure and support 2. Protects the internal organs  What does."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 THE SKELETAL SYSTEM There are 206 bones

3 Functions of the skeleton: 1.Framework – gives structure and support 2. Protects the internal organs  What does the cranium (skull) protect? The brain!

4  What does the ribcage protect? The heart and lungs !

5 3. Bones work with muscles to make the body move.

6 4. Bone marrow produces blood cells.

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8 5. Stores calcium in the bone marrow.

9 Types of Bones 1. Flat bones – Cranium – Scapula – Clavicle – Ribs – Sternum

10 Cranium

11 Cranium Bones

12 Scapula

13 Clavicle

14 Ribs The ribcage is often called the chest. It is also called the thorax, which does not include the arms and hands.

15 Sternum

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17 Types of Bones 2.Irregular bones: -Facial bones -Vertebrae (spine or back bone) -Ilium and Iliac Crest (hip)

18 Facial Bones

19 Vertebrae ( Back Bone / Spine) -The bones in the backbone are called vertebrae. -It consists of 33 bones divided into 3 sections. -Vertebrae pictures from: http://www.hughston.com/hha/spine.jpgVertebrae pictures from: http://www.hughston.com/hha/spine.jpg

20 Vertebrae Sections: 1. Cervical Region (neck) 2. Thoracic Region

21 Vertebrae Section (continued) 3. Lumbar region (lower back)

22 Vertebrae

23 Ilium & Iliac Crest http://www.sci-therapies.info/ilium.png http://www.alientravelguide.com/science/biology/anatomy/ilium.jpg http://www.sci-therapies.info/ilium.png http://www.alientravelguide.com/science/biology/anatomy/ilium.jpg Irregular Bones:

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25 Types of Bones: 3. Long Bones: -Humerus -Radius -Ulna -Femur -Tibia -Fibula

26 Humerus (Upper arm) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5b/Humerus_ant.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5b/Humerus_ant.jpg

27 Long bones: Radius& Ulna: http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/15/99115-004-EF2C9006.jpg Humerus, Radius & Ulna : http://www.shockfamily.net/skeleton/ARM.JPG

28 Femur The femur is the upper leg bone. Helps form the hip joint by articulating (fit together) with the pelvis. The hip joint is the largest ball and socket joint in the body. http://www.physioweb.org/IMAGES/femur.jpg

29 Tibia and Fibula The tibia, in the outer lower leg, supports most of the body's weight. The fibula is the smaller bone that provides support for the ankle and space for muscle attachments. Patella is the knee cap. http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/biology/humananato my/skeletal/leg/leg.jpg http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/biology/humananato my/skeletal/leg/leg.jpg

30 Types of Bones: 4. Short Bones -Wrist and hand : -Carpals -Metacarpals -Phalanges -Ankle and foot: -Tarsals -Metatarsals -Phalanges

31 Wrist and Hand Bones http://www.eorthopod.com/images/ContentImages/hand/hand_anatomy/hand_anatomy_bones01.jpg http://www.eorthopod.com/images/ContentImages/hand/hand_anatomy/hand_anatomy_bones01.jpg

32 Foot and Ankle Bones:http://content.answers.com/main/content/img/oxford/Oxford_Sports/0199210896.tarsus.1.jpghttp://content.answers.com/main/content/img/oxford/Oxford_Sports/0199210896.tarsus.1.jpg

33 What keeps the skeleton together? Ligaments – bone to bone http://www.clarian.org/ADAM/d oc/graphics/images/en/12686.jpg http://www.clarian.org/ADAM/d oc/graphics/images/en/12686.jpg

34 What else keeps the skeleton together? Tendons – Connects bone to muscle

35 What is tendonitis? - itis means inflammation or infection of Your answer? Inflammation of the tendons !

36 What are JOINTS ? The point where 2 bones meet is a joint. Joints are necessary for motion to occur. What provides lubrication of a joint? – Joints are filled with synovial fluid.

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38 http://www.cartilamine.com/images/joint_pain.jpg

39 CLASSIFICATION OF JOINTS Joints can be grouped by the amount of motion allowed.

40 IMMOVABLE – unable to move at all. http://iaks-www.ira.uka.de/home/haimerl/seminar/sternum.gif http://iaks-www.ira.uka.de/home/haimerl/seminar/sternum.gif 1.Sternum

41 Immovable Joint 2.Cranium (Skull)

42 SLIGHTLY MOVEABLE 1.Vertebrae (spine or backbone)

43 Slightly Moveable 2. Pelvis

44 FREELY MOVEABLE http://www.biometricsltd.com/images/wrist.jpg http://www.biometricsltd.com/images/wrist.jpg 1. Wrist

45 Freely Moveable Joints http://www.sportsinjuryclinic.net/gallery/elbow/studentselbow%20copy.jpg http://www.sportsinjuryclinic.net/gallery/elbow/studentselbow%20copy.jpg 2. Elbow

46 Freely Moveable Joints www.gentili.net/FBI/shoulder.gif www.gentili.net/FBI/shoulder.gif 3. Shoulder

47 Freely Moveable Joints 4. Ankle http://www.wobblenaught.com/images/ankle.jpg

48 Freely Moveable Joints 5.Toes Toe Injuries and Disorders: MedlinePlus http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/toeinjuriesanddisorders.html

49 Freely Moveable Joints 6.Knee (Patella) http://www.wmt.com/TotalKnee/kneeImages/knee-anatomy- callouts2.jpg

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51 Moveable Joints 7. Hips http://www.fitness-programs-for- life.com/images/FITP_HipJointsCirc.jpg

52 Moveable Joints http://www.skullsdirect.co.uk/assets/imgs/subpages/customProducts/5.jpg http://www.skullsdirect.co.uk/assets/imgs/subpages/customProducts/5.jpg 8. Jaw

53 4 TYPES OF JOINTS 1. BALL AND SOCKET- rounded end of one bone fits snugly into the other bones socket. Examples: a. Shoulder b. Hip

54 Types of Joints 2.Hinge – movement of joint is in one direction (like a door) Examples: a. Elbow b. Knee c. Knuckles d. Jaw http://www.wi-rheum.org/images/KneeJoint.jpg Screen clipping taken: 7/31/2009

55 Types of Joints: 3.Gliding - bones slipping over other bones with a free flowing movement. Examples: a.Ankle b. Wrists http://www.wobblenaught.com/images/ankle.jpg Screen clipping taken: 7/31/2009, 12:15 PM

56 Types of Joints 4.Pivot - bone rests on top of another bone allowing full movement http://www.jeron.je/anglia/learn/sec/science/humans3/pivot

57 Review Types of Joints…

58

59 http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_oIJPJ_A0dlM/R1YtItNmMWI/AAAAAAAAAEA/hA7DOZto2pY/s200/arthritis-knuckle-gout.jpg

60 1. Arthritis Arthro - means joint - Itis = means inflammation or infection Symptoms: a. swelling b. stiffness c. pain d. redness e. loss of ability to function

61 2. DEGENERATIVE JOINT DISEASE (DJD) – changes in the structure of the joints that occur with aging

62 3. DISLOCATION – end of the bone is out of alignment.

63 4. FRACTURES – break in a bone A.Simple fracture: Bone is broken, and the skin is not open around the bone. Http://www.ghi.com/webmd/topics/fracture.jpg

64 B. Compound Fracture Bone is broken, and the skin is penetrated by the bone. http://www.itim.nsw.gov.au/images/Compound_fracture_dislocati on_left_ankle.jpg

65 C.Comminuted Fracture- Bone breaks into pieces and the bone fragments are lodged in the surrounding tissue. http://www.shockfamily.net/skeleton/FRACTURE.JPG

66 D.Greenstick Fracture Bone is bent and splits, causing an incomplete break. (Similar to a tree branch that is bent too far) http://www.umm.edu/graphics/images/en/8856.jpg

67 What type of fracture is it?

68 Simple Fracture

69 Compound Fracture

70 Simple Fracture

71 Greenstick Fracture

72 Find the greenstick fracture….

73 Comminuted Fracture

74 Let’s do a few more…..

75 YES! Greenstick fracture

76 Compound Fracture

77 You got it! Simple Fracture

78 Comminuted Fracture

79 5. KYPHOSIS - OSIS means condition in which. Condition in which there is an abnormal posterior curve of the spine (hunchback).

80 6. LORDOSIS The condition in which there is an excessive concave (inward) curve of the spine. (Swayback).

81 7. Osteomyelitis Infection or inflammation of the bone, usually caused by a bloodborne pathogen.

82 8. Osteoporosis Condition in which bones become full of tiny holes, causing them to break easily. Common in women after menopause. OSTEO- means bone -OSIS means condition PORO- means holes, porous like a sponge

83 Take care of your bones! http://health.malaxi.com/uploaded_images/osteoporosis-771021.jpg http://health.malaxi.com/uploaded_images/osteoporosis-771021.jpg

84 9. RICKETS Condition in which the bones are soft because they do not calcify. Often caused by a lack of calcium and phosphorus in the diet

85 10. SCOLIOSIS Condition in which there is a lateral (to the side) curve of the spine. http://drosmon.com/images/scoliosis2.gif

86 11. SPRAIN – Severe stretching or tearing of a ligament

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91 Muscles Definition - body tissue composed of cells and fibers which produce movement of the body part or organ.

92 Types of Muscles: 1. Striated / Skeletal - – Voluntary; moves with conscious thought – Muscles form a bridge over joints – Cell structure: striped looking; bundles of stringy fibers of different lengths – As your muscles flex (contract) and relax (extend) your bone moves

93 STRIATED/ SKELETAL MUSCLE http://herkules.oulu.fi/isbn9514271521/html/x451.html http://herkules.oulu.fi/isbn9514271521/html/x451.html

94 Striated Muscle – forms a bridge over joints for movement

95 Types of Muscles: 2. Visceral / Smooth – - Involuntary; Moves without conscious thought - Muscles form the walls of internal organs of the body - Digestive organs - Diaphragm - Blood vessels - Cellular structure: Spindle shaped (tapers at the ends) with a central nucleus

96 Visceral / Smooth Muscles http://www.uoguelph.ca/zoology/devobio/210labs/muscle1.html http://www.uoguelph.ca/zoology/devobio/210labs/muscle1.html

97

98 Example of Smooth Muscle -

99 Combination of Voluntary & Involuntary Muscles Blinking - eyes Swallowing – esophagus Breathing - lungs

100 Muscle Types: 3.Cardiac – Heart - Branched, networked cells (all connected) - Generates electrical impulse

101 Cardiac Muscle: http://www.anatomyatlases.org/MicroscopicAnatomy/Images/Plate76.jpg http://www.anatomyatlases.org/MicroscopicAnatomy/Images/Plate76.jpg

102 Terms to know…. Atrophy – muscle gets smaller, shrinks from nonuse of muscle Contractures - permanent / abnormal shortening of muscle due to inactivity or paralysis.

103 Atrophy & Contracture http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_TUcw6t9-ZxM/SE2uw4PAqgI/AAAAAAAAACs/2uMUeep8JsY/S240/Muscle%2BAtrophy.jpg http://www.gillettechildrens.org/default.cfm/pid=1.7.8.2.24 http://www.gillettechildrens.org/default.cfm/pid=1.7.8.2.24

104 Terms to know…. PROM – Passive Range of Motion – Set of exercises done for the patients muscles and joints Paralyzed Weak Comatose

105 Basic Movements of the Skeletal Muscles Adduct – moving a body part toward the midline Abduct – moving a body part away from the midline

106 Extend – straightening a body part by moving it away from the body. Flex – bending a body part toward the body.

107 Orientation and Directional Terms

108 Superior – Toward the upper part of the body; above Inferior – Away from the head or toward the lower part of the body; below Anterior – Toward or at the front of the body

109 Posterior – Toward or at the back of the body Lateral – Away from the midline of the body; the outer side Medial- Toward the midline of the body; on the inner side

110 Review… http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_F5KUikh1 jTU/SYpKPevWjfI/AAAAAAAAACY/oE eUDieUBOw/s320/directional1.jpg

111 Superficial (external) – Toward or at the body surface Deep (internal) – Away from the body surface; more internal

112 Superficial http://www.azburncenter.org/site/reso urces/images/superficialpartial.jpg

113 Disorders of the Muscular System Fibromyalgia – Pain of the connective tissue and muscles Fibrositis – Inflammation of the connective tissue Muscle Strain – Trauma to the muscle, usually caused by a violent contraction.

114 Muscular Dystrophy (congenital and chronic) deterioration of muscle tissue that progresses over time. Myalgia – Muscle pain. Torn muscle – tear of a muscle tissue; usually caused by extreme trauma to the muscle.


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