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Warm-up Create a “word splash” of what you know about bones. Think of as many words as possible and write them down. Create a “word splash” of what you.

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Presentation on theme: "Warm-up Create a “word splash” of what you know about bones. Think of as many words as possible and write them down. Create a “word splash” of what you."— Presentation transcript:

1 Warm-up Create a “word splash” of what you know about bones. Think of as many words as possible and write them down. Create a “word splash” of what you know about bones. Think of as many words as possible and write them down.

2 LEQ What is the purpose of our skeletal system? What is the purpose of our skeletal system?

3 The Skeletal System  Parts of the skeletal system  Bones (skeleton)  Joints  Cartilage  Ligaments (bone to bone) (tendon= bone to muscle)

4 The Skeletal System Skeleton comes from a Greek word meaning dried up body. Skeleton comes from a Greek word meaning dried up body. Bone appears dead and dried up, but it is not! Bone appears dead and dried up, but it is not! Bone is living tissue Bone is living tissue Newborn human has 350 bones Newborn human has 350 bones Adult human has 206 bones Adult human has 206 bones

5 Changes in the Human Skeleton  In embryos, the skeleton is primarily hyaline cartilage  During development, much of this cartilage is replaced by bone  Cartilage remains in isolated areas  Bridge of the nose  Parts of ribs  Joints

6 Structure and Function Functions of the skeletal system Functions of the skeletal system Provides shape and support Provides shape and support Protects internal organs Protects internal organs Stores minerals and fat Stores minerals and fat Produces blood cells and platelets Produces blood cells and platelets Assists in movement Assists in movement Look at page 193 Look at page 193

7 The Two Skeletons Axial skeleton Axial skeleton Includes the 80 bones of the head and trunk Includes the 80 bones of the head and trunk Appendicular skeleton Appendicular skeleton Includes the 126 bones of the pelvis, shoulders, arms, and legs Includes the 126 bones of the pelvis, shoulders, arms, and legs

8 Table 13-2 Bones by Shapes

9 Bones by Shapes

10 Classification of Bones  Long bones  Typically longer than wide  Have a shaft with heads at both ends  Contain mostly compact bone  Found in legs and arms Examples: Femur, humerusExamples: Femur, humerus Page 193. Read about epiphysis and diaphysis.Page 193. Read about epiphysis and diaphysis.

11 Classification of Bones  Short bones  Generally cube- shape and small  Contain mostly spongy bone  Found in wrist, ankles, and toes  Examples: Carpals, tarsals

12 Classification of Bones  Flat bones  Thin and flattened  Usually curved  Cover organs/provide surface for lg. muscle  Thin layers of compact bone around a layer of spongy bone  Examples: Skull, ribs, sternum

13 Classification of Bones  Irregular bones  Irregular shape  Do not fit into other bone classification categories  Example: Vertebrae and hip, ear and face bones

14 Sesamoid Bones Sesamoid bones Sesamoid bones Small and usually embedded in tendons, used to protect integrity of tendons Small and usually embedded in tendons, used to protect integrity of tendons Patella Patella Some in hands and feet Some in hands and feet

15 Table 13-1 Bones of the Body

16 Answer LEQ What is the purpose of our skeletal system? What is the purpose of our skeletal system?

17 Warm-up What is one thing you would like to achieve in your lifetime? Why? What is one thing you would like to achieve in your lifetime? Why?

18 LEQ What are the bones in the face? What are the bones in the face?

19 The Axial Skeleton  Divided into three parts  Skull  Vertebral column  Bony thorax (chest area)

20 The Axial Skeleton Figure 5.6

21 The Skull (28 bones) (18 names!)  Sits on top of the vertebral column  Two sets of bones  Cranium (8 bones)  Facial bones (14 bones)  Bones are joined by sutures  Only the mandible is attached by a freely movable joint

22 Bones of the Cranium

23 Frontal View

24 Frontal Frontal View Forehead bone; and most of upper part of eye sockets

25 Parietal Frontal View Form bulging topsides of cranium

26 Temporal Frontal View Form lower sides of cranium and contains middle & inner ear structures

27 Nasal Frontal View Small; forms upper bridge of nose

28 Vomer Frontal View Forms lower, back part of nasal septum

29 Zygoma Frontal View

30 Maxilla Frontal View

31 Mandible Frontal View

32 Frontal Parietal Temporal Zygoma Nasal Vomer Maxilla Mandible Frontal View

33 Bones of the Skull Slide 5.22 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.11

34 Lateral View

35 Frontal Lateral View

36 Parietal Lateral View

37 Temporal Lateral View

38 Nasal Lateral View

39 Zygoma Lateral View

40 Maxilla Lateral View

41 Mandible Lateral View

42 Sphenoid Lateral View

43 Occipital Lateral View

44 Mastoid Process Lateral View

45 External Auditory Meatus Lateral View

46 Frontal Nasal Zygoma Maxilla Mandible Parietal Sphenoid Temporal Occipital External Auditory Meatus Mastoid Process Lateral View

47 The Skull Slide 5.21b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.7

48 Sutures

49 Sagittal Sutures

50 Frontal (Coronal) Sutures

51 Squamous Sutures

52 Lamboid Sutures

53 Frontal (Coronal) Sagittal Squamous Lambdoid Sutures

54 The Cranium That’s it! No more cranium bones! That’s it! No more cranium bones! 206 bones - 8 bones = 198 bones to go… 206 bones - 8 bones = 198 bones to go…

55 Activity! You and a partner will create a rap/song of what you’ve learned about the bones so far. You and a partner will create a rap/song of what you’ve learned about the bones so far. You can include types of bones, names, etc. You can include types of bones, names, etc. Doesn’t have to rhyme Doesn’t have to rhyme Must be 20 lines Must be 20 lines Keep it appropriate Keep it appropriate Everyone will perform. The top group gets extra credit! Everyone will perform. The top group gets extra credit!

56 LEQ What are the bones in the face? What are the bones in the face?

57 Warm-up  Answer the LEQ from yesterday.  Let’s finish the raps from yesterday.

58 LEQ What are the different sections of the spinal column?

59 Facial Bones 14 bones Most of these bones come in pairs Only the mandible and vomer are single bones

60 The Face

61 Facial Bones Mandible - the lower jaw bone Carries the lower teeth The anterior portion forms the chin Only freely movable joint in the skull

62

63 Facial Bones Maxilla (2) ~ Upper jaw Two bones fused together Roof of the mouth Also form parts of the nasal cavity and eye orbits

64 The Skull

65 The Facial Bones Zygomatic Bones (2) ~ the cheekbones Also forms a part of the orbits of the eyes

66 The Skull

67 Other Facial Bones  Lacrimal Bones (2) ~ inner wall of eye sockets  Nasal Bones (2) ~ bridge of nose  Vomer ~ nasal septum  Inferior Nasal Conchae (2)

68 The Skull

69 Facial Bones That’s it! No more facial bones! 198 bones - 14 bones = 184 bones to go…

70 The Vertebral Column The backbone or spine Consists of 26 bones called vertebrae

71 The Vertebral Column  Vertebrae separated by intervertebral discs (act as shock absorbers)  The spine has a normal curvature  Each vertebrae is given a name according to its location Figure 5.14

72 Vertebral column C1-C7 ~ in the neck region 7 cervical vertebrae T1-T12 ~ located in the chest region 12 thoracic vertebrae L1-L5 ~ located in the lower back 5 lumbar vertebrae

73 Vertebral column Sacrum ~ curved bone of the lower back (posterior wall of the pelvis) Fused sacral vertebrae 5 vertebrae at birth Coccyx ~ the tailbone 4 vertebrae at birth

74 The Bony Thorax (Thoracic Cage)  The chest region  Forms a cage to protect major organs  Composed of sternum, ribs and thoracic vertebrae. Figure 5.19a

75 Thoracic Cage Sternum ~ breastbone Dagger-shaped bone located along the midline of the anterior chest

76 Thoracic Cage Ribs ~ 12 pairs of ribs attach posterior to the thoracic vertebrae True ribs ~ first 7 pair False ribs ~ last 5 pairs

77 That is it for the axial skeleton! 154 bones - 24 ribs - 1 sternum = 129 bones to go!!!

78 Answer LEQ What are the different sections of the spinal column?

79 Bones of the Appendicular Skeleton

80 Warm-up Write the following words on a sticky note. One word per note. Split with your partner. Frontal Femur Tarsals Cervical vert Tibia Costals Xiphoid process Thoracic vert Calcaneus Ilium Sacrum Zygomatic bone Mandible Maxilla Humerus Radius Lumbar vert Coccyx Clavicle Ulna Carpals Occipital Temporal Parietal Metatarsals Phalanges Fibula Scapula Metacarpals Vomer

81 LEQ What makes up the appendicular skeleton? What makes up the appendicular skeleton?

82 The Appendicular Skeleton  Limbs (appendages)  Pectoral (shoulder) girdle  Pelvic girdle

83 The Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle  Composed of two bones  Clavicle – collarbone  Scapula – shoulder blade  These bones allow the upper limb to have exceptionally free movement

84 Bones of the Shoulder Girdle Slide 5.34a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.20a, b

85 Bones of the Upper Limb  The arm is formed by a single bone  Humerus  Head of humerus allows for rotation

86 Bones of the Upper Limb The forearm has two bones Ulna Radius

87 Radius Radius ~ locate on the lateral or thumb side when the palm of the hand is facing forward. Radius ~ locate on the lateral or thumb side when the palm of the hand is facing forward.

88 Ulna Ulna~ the longer of the two forearm bones. Ulna~ the longer of the two forearm bones. Located on the medial or little finger side of the forearm. Located on the medial or little finger side of the forearm.

89 Bones of the Upper Limb  The hand  Carpals – wrist  Metacarpals – palm  Phalanges – fingers

90 Carpals Bones of the Hand

91 Metacarpals Carpals Bones of the Hand

92 Phalanges Metacarpals Carpals Bones of the Hand

93 Bones of the Pelvic Girdle Slide 5.37  Composed of two coxal bones (hip bones)  Composed of three pair of fused bones  Ilium  Ischium  Pubis  The total weight of the upper body rests on the pelvis  Protects several organs  Reproductive organs  Urinary bladder  Part of the large intestine

94 The Pelvis Slide 5.38a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.23a

95 Gender Differences of the Pelvis Slide 5.39 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.23c

96 Bones of the Lower Limbs Slide 5.40a  The thigh has one bone  Femur – thigh bone

97 Bones of the Lower Limb Patella ~ knee cap Patella ~ knee cap Triangular bone located within a tendon that passes over the knee. Triangular bone located within a tendon that passes over the knee.

98 Bones of the Lower Limbs  The leg has two bones  Tibia ~ shin bone  Larger  Fibula  Long and thin

99 Bones of the Lower Limbs  The foot  Tarsals (7) – ankle  Metatarsals (5) – sole/instep  Phalanges (14) – toes Figure 5.25

100 Bones of the Foot Tarsals

101 Bones of the Foot Metatarsals Tarsals

102 Bones of the Foot Phalanges Metatarsals Tarsals

103 Sticky Note Activity

104 Answer LEQ What makes up the appendicular skeleton? What makes up the appendicular skeleton?

105 Warm-up Write about a time when you have experienced or seen a fracture. Give us a detailed description of what you remember. Write about a time when you have experienced or seen a fracture. Give us a detailed description of what you remember.

106 Warm-up Take out your skeleton labeling sheet. We will finish going over the answers. Take out your skeleton labeling sheet. We will finish going over the answers. Mr. Bones worksheet Mr. Bones worksheet List axial bones List axial bones List appendicular bones List appendicular bones Tell me one thing about each bone Tell me one thing about each bone

107 Warm-up Fill in the bingo sheet with bones from the body. Fill in the bingo sheet with bones from the body.

108 Complete worksheet on stool for warm-up. -Bring index cards to review.

109 Warm Up Bone museum walk and Ebola reading Bone museum walk and Ebola reading Give yourself partner 1 and 2 between you and your shoulder partner Give yourself partner 1 and 2 between you and your shoulder partner Start reading the article Start reading the article

110 LEQ What are the types of joints and where are they located? What are the types of joints and where are they located?

111 Synovial Joints Hinge joint Hinge joint Movement is like two boards joined together by a hinge Movement is like two boards joined together by a hinge Movement in one direction Movement in one direction Elbow, knees, fingers Elbow, knees, fingers

112 Types of Synovial Joints Ball and Socket Joint Ball and Socket Joint When ball-shaped end of one bone fits into the cup- shaped socket of another When ball-shaped end of one bone fits into the cup- shaped socket of another Bones can move in many directions Bones can move in many directions Shoulder, hip Shoulder, hip

113 Types of Synovial Joints Pivot Joint Pivot Joint Allows only for rotation around the length of a bone Allows only for rotation around the length of a bone Head (side to side “no” action) Head (side to side “no” action) Forearm joints (palms) supination/pronation Forearm joints (palms) supination/pronation

114 Types of Synovial Joints Saddle Joint Saddle Joint When the surfaces of both articulation bones are saddle-shaped When the surfaces of both articulation bones are saddle-shaped Concave/conve x Concave/conve x Thumb Thumb Wide range of motion Wide range of motion

115 Types of Synovial Joints Gliding Joint Gliding Joint Interaction of flat surfaces of articulating bones Interaction of flat surfaces of articulating bones Limited but complex movement Limited but complex movement Wrist, ankle Wrist, ankle

116 Types of Synovial Joints Condyloid Joint Condyloid Joint Oval-shaped surface of one bone fits into the oval-shaped depression of another Oval-shaped surface of one bone fits into the oval-shaped depression of another Mandible, knuckles Mandible, knuckles

117 Answer LEQ What is the purpose of each type of joint? What is the purpose of each type of joint?

118 Warm Up Take a body outline worksheet from the stool. Write your name on it. Take a body outline worksheet from the stool. Write your name on it.

119 LEQ What are the different types of bone fractures? What are the different types of bone fractures?

120 Bone Fractures (Breaks) Bone fractures are classified by: Bone fractures are classified by: The position of the bone ends after fracture The position of the bone ends after fracture The completeness of the break The completeness of the break Whether or not the bones ends penetrate the skin Whether or not the bones ends penetrate the skin

121 Types of Bone Fractures Complete – bone is broken all the way through Complete – bone is broken all the way through Incomplete (greenstick) – bone is not broken all the way through Incomplete (greenstick) – bone is not broken all the way through

122 Types of Bone Fractures Compound (open) – bone ends penetrate the skin Compound (open) – bone ends penetrate the skin Simple (closed) – bone ends do not penetrate the skin Simple (closed) – bone ends do not penetrate the skin

123 Common Types of Fractures Spiral – ragged break when bone is excessively twisted; common sports injury Spiral – ragged break when bone is excessively twisted; common sports injury Depressed – broken bone portion pressed inward; typical skull fracture Depressed – broken bone portion pressed inward; typical skull fracture

124 Common Types of Fractures Comminuted – bone fragments into three or more pieces; common in the elderly Comminuted – bone fragments into three or more pieces; common in the elderly Compression – bone is crushed; common in porous bones Compression – bone is crushed; common in porous bones

125 Common Types of Fractures Table 6.2.1

126 Common Types of Fractures Table 6.2.2

127 Common Types of Fractures Table 6.2.3

128 LEQ What are the different types of bone fractures? What are the different types of bone fractures?

129 Agenda Take out your body review homework. Make sure your name is on it. I only need the human outline. Take out your body review homework. Make sure your name is on it. I only need the human outline. Review fractures homework Review fractures homework Pick muscle disease project Pick muscle disease project Pick health fair topic/partners Pick health fair topic/partners Review with bone bingo Review with bone bingo

130 Bone Bingo Fill in each blank with a name from the following options. Fill in each blank with a name from the following options. Name of a bone Name of a bone Name of a joint Name of a joint Type of a fracture Type of a fracture All blanks must be filled in! All blanks must be filled in!


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