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Presentation on theme: "D EDUCING THE LIFE STYLE OF THE DINOSAUR “ T YRANNOSAURUS R EX ” T HE “T YRANT L IZARD K ING ” OF THE C RETACEOUS P ERIOD The most “popular dinosaur” of."— Presentation transcript:

1 D EDUCING THE LIFE STYLE OF THE DINOSAUR “ T YRANNOSAURUS R EX ” T HE “T YRANT L IZARD K ING ” OF THE C RETACEOUS P ERIOD The most “popular dinosaur” of all time... Portrayed as both deadly and loveable

2 “Sue” Discovered by Sue Hendrickson in 1990 Field Museum of Natural History bought it for $7.6 million in % of its bones recovered “Stan” Discovered by Stan Sacrison in 1987 Black Hills Institute of Geological Research 65% of its bones recovered (replicate at Tellus)

3 This T-rex Skull Cost Nicholas Cage $275,000 M ODERN B ONE W ARS Dueling Dinosaurs – Asking price $7 million Academic Study Vs. Commercial Sales

4 Hell Creek Formation - 75 T-rex specimens; mostly from Montana & S.D. River Deposits in a Delta

5 Diapsids two “holes” in skull behind the eye orbit (white arrows) Archosaurs flat teeth hole in jaw hole between eye & nose (black arrows) A mniotic - Egg Laying 4 4


7 Lizard- like Pelvis Bird- like Hip Pelvis Pubis slopes steeply forward Pubis slopes gently backward


9 Classification: Hips... Neck & Teeth..... Feet.... Stiff Tail Meat Eaters hips teeth toes

10 ?

11 Arms so short it is comical Were they useless ?? Why T-rex was not a good boxer If this pecking is annoying just reach up and slap be off

12 Stress Analysis of very thick upper arm (humerus) indicates the arms were very strong.... Indicates could easily lift 500 pounds.

13 Mating Position Museo del Jurásico de Asturias “Museum of the Jurassic” Asturias, Spain

14 Female ? Male ? “gracile” morph “robust” morph

15 ? The Stiff Tail.... and Posture

16 Posture 77 years of Incorrect Upright Stance Studies of Vertebrae and Joints Indicate he would have dislocated hip and pinched nerves in his tail Correct Posture

17 “Sue” Discovered by Sue Hendrickson in 1990 Largest know T-rex to date at 9 ½ tons If she was “average” then largest would be 11 ½ tons “Stan” Discovered by Stan Sacrison in 1987 Black Hills Institute of Geological Research Is about 20 th largest on a list of 75

18 Unveiled in Spring 2014 at Smithsonian Museum On loan from “Museum of the Rockies” Dr. John R. Horner Montana State University at Bozeman, Montana “Wankel” Closest full T-rex to us. Discovered by Rancher Kathy Wankel in 1988

19 Putting your head in the “Lion’s Mouth” Or Future Dentist? T EETH Teeth are... Curved Backwards Serrated Sharp Points Overlapping jaws

20 S HED T EETH : Tooth Replacement Rate for a T-rex Erickson G PNAS 1996;93: National Academy of Sciences A = Old Tooth B = Replacement He got new teeth about every two years

21 W HAT & H OW DID T-REX EAT ? Early idea About Teeth mismatch CONCLUSION... COULD NOT “CHEW” Thus shred meat only C OPROLITE Fossil Feces – T-rex Poop F ILLED WITH SHREDDED BONES Can’t chew... Can’t crush?

22 Found in Canada, Studied at Univ. of Colorado Bone fragments are of a skull of a Pachycephalosaur Connective muscle tissue in some undigested pieces of meat T-Rex Coprolite Cross- Section Skull plate is 10” thick

23 Large Head + Muscles Power to jaws.... (via 3-D stress analysis) 100,000 Newton 6 tons of pressure Very large elephant sitting on you Could crush a car Would easily crack vertebrae Or break up a skull Strongest “bite” for any animal that ever existed on our planet

24 Hunter Bites to Kill... Would have gone for neck vertebrae Scavenger Bites for food... Would have gone for large shoulder muscles

25 Teeth Marks Only Arm Bone has Teeth marks for 24 ft. long grazing Dino. - Scavenger Bite marks healed on a vertebrate of Stan and vertebrae of Triceratops Another T- rex attacked Stan, but he survived the attack. Thus... T-rex was a “ Hunter ” (and a fighter)

26 Nerve signals have a speed limit of 180 ft/sec..... T-Rex would not feel what it steps on if it is running 20 mph... Would be “running blind” -- moved more like a modern elephant Scavenger Arguments Not a “fast” runner... based upon distance from foot to spinal cord

27 Running is > S/H = m / 2.5 m = 3.1 S / H HOW FAST ?? Trackways (Trace Fossils) & Stride Distance

28 Relative Stride length = (Left foot to Left foot) 7.75 m / (Height to Hip) 2.5 m = 3.1 Speed = (dimensionless speed) x  (H.H/) x (G.A.) = 1.5 x  2.5 x 9.8 = 7.4 m/s (Gravitational Acceleration = 9.8 m/sec 2 ) = about 17 mph 7.75m

29 Muscle Analysis from Structure & Motion Laboratory University of London – Biomechanical Modeling 18 mph John Hutchinson

30 Movie “Jurassic Park 2”.... T-rex ran about 40 mph Skull Structure – Stress Analysis.... A fall at that Speed would be “fatal”

31 Life Span and Growth Rates of Tyrannosaurs Rex With “dormant periods” each year... Yearly growth tree rings Out side edge of Bone Section

32 Life Span and Growth Rates of Tyrannosaurs Rex “Sue” was 29 years old when she died of old age ? Teen Age Growth Spurt.... Adding about 4.5 lbs a day

33 Rare Fossil of “young” T-rex in death pose Survivorship shows an almost “human” pattern (very few young died)

34 Sue Dinosaur Size Comparison

35 In 2010 one of the largest coprolites ever found was dug up just feet from Sarah Palin’s back porch in Alaska. Sarah was on lecture tour, and when she was advised that coprolite was buried in her back yard, she is reported as saying... “I don’t know what the heck you’re talking about. I don’t have any corporate executives buried in my back yard, for heaven’s sake” L ARGEST C OPROLITE ?

36 Spinosaurs is largest carnivores dinosaur At 14 tons (28,000 lbs) T-rex Ave. At 7 ½ tons (15,000 lbs)

37 “Jack” Horner found a 68-million yr. old Juvenile Too Heavy for Helicopter to lift... Had to break the leg bones in the field Revealed “soft tissue” preserved Amino Acids & Proteins are present (they are similar to those of chickens..... Dr. Mary Schweitzer - NCSU ) F UTURE - Science Fiction becomes Science Reality ?

38 How Many Existed? - Food Supply - Pyramids Cold Blooded Warm Blooded Eats 70% of base Eats 90% of base

39 D INOSAUR F OOD P YRAMID Each Level Consumes 90% of Level below it Need 100 lbs. of plants to support 10 lbs of plant eaters....To Support... 1 lb of T-rex Edmontosaurus

40 If you want to find a T-rex... Go to 47 o 35’N 106 o 55’W Two still in rock: First is 135 yd. bearing 60 o ; + Second is 110 yd. bearing 150 o X

41 Horner JR, Goodwin MB, Myhrvold N (2011)

42 Pie chart of the census for large-bodied dinosaurs from the entire Hell Creek Formation Horner JR, Goodwin MB, Myhrvold N (2011) Ratio “Live” Prey : T-rex 4 : 1 ( not 9 : 1 ) She had to have a more diverse diet than seen in the fossil record “scavenger / cannibal” (eating your own can get to 9:1)

43 From relative ratio... To how many in North America? What proportion of land animals die in a stream or coastal region? What proportion in a stream get covered by sediment prior to decaying or being eaten? How big is the land mass? How much territory does each one need to have enough food? BEST ESTIMATE... A million to make 1 fossil skeleton Over 100 million roamed Laramidia At any one time – 90,000 alive 1 per 110 mi 2 (about 75 in metro Atlanta area)

44 INTELLIGENCE (EQ)... Ratio of Actual Brain Size to Predicted Brain Size (weight) EQ of T-Rex is about 1.8 If we can compare to mammals... Greater than a “cat” Less than a “monkey”

45 “ I S PEAK 11 P HRASE Probably not that smart But Kids “love” T-rex

46 Being a T-Rex for Halloween “You’re Doing It Wrong” Kids aren’t good at anatomy Aren’t Kids Fun !!

47 STOP !! Aren’t Kids Fun !! THE END

48 video.htm Guinness World Records Ltd. (2003) Guinness World Records. pg 90. Still soft and stretchyStill soft and stretchy, by Carl Wieland. National Geographic - T. Rex Soft Tissue Found Preserved c2-421a9aad1c0d


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