Presentation on theme: "BONE GROWTH & REPAIR. Classification of Bone (by shape) Long Bones Elongated shaft with expanded ends Bones in limbs (except patella, wrist, ankle)"— Presentation transcript:
BONE GROWTH & REPAIR
Classification of Bone (by shape) Long Bones Elongated shaft with expanded ends Bones in limbs (except patella, wrist, ankle) + clavicle Miniature long bones: phalanges, metacarpals, metatarsals Short Bones Equal sides, cube-shaped Carpals, tarsals, patella
Classification of Bone (by shape) Flat Bones Flat or “plate-like,” may be curved Typically form boundaries of body cavities Scapula, ribs, sternum, cranial plates Irregular Bones Odd shaped bones, typically joins other bones together Vertebra, coxa, calcaneus, mandible Subcategory: Pneumatic bones – skull bones with cavities (sphenoid, ethmoid, maxilla)
Osteogenesis (Ossification) The process of bone tissue formation Embryos: The formation of a bony skeleton Children: Bone growth Adults: Bone remodeling & repair
Intramembranous Ossification Prior to ossification, structures exist as fibrous membranes made of embryonic connective tissue known as mesenchyme. Formation of skull, pelvic & pectoral girdles Skull (frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital bones) Facial bones Clavicles Pelvis Scapulae
Endochondral Ossification Begins with the formation of a hyaline cartilage model which will later be replaced by bone. Most bones in the body develop via this model. More complicated than intramembranous because the hyaline cartilage must be broken down as ossification proceeds. Epiphyseal plate remains during adolescence to facilitate continued bone growth.
Bones & Blood At birth medullary cavities contain red marrow About half is replaced with yellow marrow starting around age of 5 Found in flat bones and epiphysis of long bones https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NM8zQLJ1ipQ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NM8zQLJ1ipQ
Infantile Skull At birth an infants skull is not completely formed Allows skull to compress and change shape Intramembranous regions are known as fontanels
Composition of Bone Cells (osteocytes) Osteoblasts Osteoclasts Extracellular Matrix (35%) Collagen fibers Mineral Salts (65%) Ca, K, P, Na, S, Mg, Cu Ions released into blood when needed OrganicInorganic
Structure of Bone Osteons - multiple cylindrical structural units Function as weight- bearing pillars. Resists 25,000 psi of compression
Osteons Each osteon consists of: A single central canal Concentric layers of calcified bone matrix (lamellae). Central canals allow the passage of blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerve fibers.
Interstitial Lamellae Interstitial lamellae Incomplete lamellae lying in between intact osteons. These fill the gaps between osteons or are remnants of bone remodeling.
Bone Cells Osteoblasts Create bone – secrete components of bone matrix Osteoclasts Dissolve bone Concentrated in the endosteum Osteocytes Osteoblasts trapped in bone matrix Maintain bone tissue
Bone Growth Epiphyseal cartilage (close to the epiphysis) of the epiphyseal plate divides to create more cartilage The diaphyseal cartilage (close to the diaphysis) of the epiphyseal plate is replaced with bony tissue.
A remnant (epiphyseal line) is visible on X- rays (do you see them in the adjacent femur, tibia, and fibula?)
Bone Remodeling Bone is a dynamic tissue. What does that mean? Wolff’s law holds that bone will grow or remodel in response to the forces or demands placed on it. Examine this with the bone on the left. WSOl08 WSOl08
Why might you suspect someone whose been a power lifter for 15 years to have heavy, massive bones, especially at the point of muscle insertion? Astronauts tend to experience bone atrophy after they’re in space for an extended period of time. Why?
Fractures Bone can crack or even break Extreme loads Sudden impacts Stresses from unusual directions Healing of a fracture depends on whether or not, the blood supply and cellular components of the periosteum and endosteum survive.
Fracture Repair 1. Blood vessels burst and form a hematoma. Cells die due to lack of nutrition Macrophages remove dead and damaged tissue. 2. A fibrocartilaginous callus forms to splint the broken bone. Fibroblasts create collagen, chondroblasts create cartillage, and osteoblasts create spongy tissue to fill the break
Fracture Repair 3. Bony callus forms from the fibrocartilaginous callus 6-8 weeks 4. Over several months the bony callus is remodeled. Osteoclasts work to remove the temporary supportive structures while osteoblasts rebuild the compact bone and reconstruct the bone so it returns to its original shape/structure.
Simple Fracture A break that does not break the skin. Simple fracture of the radius and ulna
Compound Fracture Breaks the skin and is open to infection Compound fracture of the humerous
Spiral Fracture A twisting motion breaks the bone at an angle Spiral fracture of the femur
Greenstick Fracture Incomplete break of the bone (like a young tree branch) Common in young children
What Type of Fracture? Simple Fracture
What Type of Fracture? Spiral Fracture
Spiral fracture after surgery. You can see the pins that were placed through the bone.
What Type of Fracture? Compound fracture of the tibia and fibula