Presentation on theme: "SKELETAL SYSTEM Skeletal system … made of organs that are called bones, there are 206 bones in the body."— Presentation transcript:
1 SKELETAL SYSTEMSkeletal system … made of organs that are called bones, there are 206 bones in the body.
2 WHAT IS A BONE CELL CALLED? Osteocytes are part of a dense network of connective tissue. The hardening and development process of the osteocytes is called ossification.
3 Functions of Bones Framework: support the body’s muscle fat, and skin. ProtectionSurround vital organs to protect themExamples.Skull that surrounds brainRibs that protect heart and lungs.Levers: attach to muscles to help provide movementProduce blood cells: produce red and white blood cells and platelets.Storage: store most of calcium supply blood
4 long bones Yellow marrow Contains mainly fat cells Red Bone Marrow Long bones are bones of extremities (arms and legs)Diaphysis is the long shaftRed marrowFound in certain bones such as vertebrae, ribs, sternum, cranium, and proximal ends of humerus and femur.Produces red blood cells platelets, and some white blood cells.Involved with the body’s immune systems.Used in diagnosing blood diseasesGiven as transplants to people with defective immune systemsYellow Bone MarrowYellow marrowContains mainly fat cells
5 CATEGORIES OF BONESLong and Short BonesFlat, Irregular, SesamoidLong- form the arms and legs; has a shaft called diaphysis, oxygen and nutrients are brought form the bloodstream. Short bones- small cube-shaped of the writs, ankles and toes.Flat bones- large somewhat flat surface; shoulder blades, pelvis and skull. Irregular- Bones of the ears vertebrae and face. Sesamoid bones- are formed in the tendon near joints, The patella is an example.
6 2 SECTIONS OF SKELETONAXIAL SKELETONAXIAL SKELETONMAIN TRUNK OF BODYINCLUDES THE SKULL, SPINAL COLUMN, RIBS, STERNUM8 BONES IN THE SKULLSPACES CALLED FONTANELS ALLOWS FOR SKULL TO EXPAND AS BRAIN GROWS14 FACIAL BONES, MAXILLA- UPPER JAW, MANDIBLE- LOWER JAWSUTURES: CRANIAL BONES JOINED TOGETHER.SPINAL COLUMN HAS 26 BONES; VERTEBRAE HAS 5 MAIN SECTIONS, ie. Waist area is the lumbarPROTECTS AND PROVIDES SUPPORTRIBS :12 PAIRS OF LONG BONESTRUE RIBS-FIRST 7 PAIRSFALSE RIBS-NEXT 3 AND THEN 2 LAST FLOATING PAIRS
7 APPENDECULAR SKELETON FORMS ARMS AND LEGS AND COMPOSED OF SHOULDER GIRDLE AND LONG BONESSHOULDER CONTAINS 2 CLAVICLES (COLLAR BONE) AND 2 SCAPULAS (ATTACHMENT OF UPPER ARM BONEBONES OF LEGS:FEMUR, PATELLA, TIBIA, FIBULA, METATARSALS-5, TARSALS- 7, AND PHALANGES -14 ON EACH FOOTJOINTS: 3 TYPESBONES OF THE ARMS:HUMERUS, RADIUS, ULNA, CARPALS-8, METACARPALS -5 ON EACH HAND, AND PHALANGES-14 ON EACH HAND TO FORM THE THUMB.
8 DISEASES OF SKELETAL SYSTEM ATHRITIS – Inflamation of the joints.2 MAIN TYPES – Both are chronic diseasesBURSITISOSTEOMYELITISOsteoarthritis – Occurs with agingSYMPTOMS: joint pain, stiffness, aching limited range of motion.TX: Rest, heat/cold applications, aspirin,antinflammator y medications, steroid injections, special exercises.
9 Diseases Continued….Rheumatoid arthritis – Inflammatory disease of connective tissue and joints. 3Xs more common in women, may begin at years. Permananent deformity from atrophy and scar tissue.TX: Rest and RX exercises, antiinflamatory medications, surgery or arthroplasty to replace damaged joints such as hips or kneesBursitis- Inflamation of bursae, small fluid sacs surrounding jointsFrequently affects shoulders, elbows, hip or kneesSymptoms: severe pain,limited movement, accumulations of fluid in jointTX: Pain meds and rest, steroid injections, aspiration (withdrawel of fluid w/needle), PT to preserve joint motion.
10 Osteomyelitis (NOT Osteoporosis) BONES, THEM BONES !Osteomyelitis (NOT Osteoporosis)FRACTURESInvolves a crack or break in boneGREENSTICK-incomplete break (common in children)SIMPLE-complete break, no damage to skinCOMPOUND-break in bone and skin, chance of infectionsIMPACTED-broken bone ends jam into each other.COMMINUTED: Bone fragment or splinters into more than 2 pieces.Inflammation of bone usually caused by pathogenic organism.Pathogens causes formation of abscess within bone and accumulation of pus in medullary canal.SYMPTOMS: Pain in site, swelling, chills, feverTX: Antibiotics for infection.
11 REDUCTION Process by which bone is put back into proper alignment. Closed reduction; position bone in alignment, usually with traction, and apply cast or splint to maintain positionOpen reduction; surgical repair of bone, and times, insertion of pins, plates and other devices.
12 WHAT ARE THE FOUR FUNCTIONS OF BONES? support the body’s muscle fat, and skin.Protection -Surround vital organs to protect them.levers: attach to muscles to help provide movement.Produce blood cells: produce red and white blood cells and platelets.
13 WHAT ARE 4 BONE DISEASES?DON’T FORGET TO STUDY FOR TEST ON WEDNES -DAY!RHEUMATOID ARTHRITISOSTEOARTHRITISBURSITISOSTEOMYELITITS