Presentation on theme: "SKELETAL SYSTEM Skeletal system … made of organs that are called bones, there are 206 bones in the body."— Presentation transcript:
SKELETAL SYSTEM Skeletal system … made of organs that are called bones, there are 206 bones in the body.
WHAT IS A BONE CELL CALLED? Osteocytes are part of a dense network of connective tissue. The hardening and development process of the osteocytes is called ossification.
Functions of Bones Framework: support the body’s muscle fat, and skin. Protection Surround vital organs to protect them Examples. oSkull that surrounds brain o Ribs that protect heart and lungs. Levers: attach to muscles to help provide movement Produce blood cells: produce red and white blood cells and platelets. Storage: store most of calcium supply blood
long bones Red Bone Marrow Yellow Bone Marrow Yellow marrow Contains mainly fat cells Red marrow Found in certain bones such as vertebrae, ribs, sternum, cranium, and proximal ends of humerus and femur. Produces red blood cells platelets, and some white blood cells. Involved with the body’s immune systems. Used in diagnosing blood diseases Given as transplants to people with defective immune systems Long bones are bones of extremities (arms and legs) Diaphysis is the long shaft
CATEGORIES OF BONES Long and Short BonesFlat, Irregular, Sesamoid Long- form the arms and legs; has a shaft called diaphysis, oxygen and nutrients are brought form the bloodstream. Short bones- small cube-shaped of the writs, ankles and toes. Flat bones- large somewhat flat surface; shoulder blades, pelvis and skull. Irregular- Bones of the ears vertebrae and face. Sesamoid bones- are formed in the tendon near joints, The patella is an example.
2 SECTIONS OF SKELETON AXIAL SKELETON MAIN TRUNK OF BODY INCLUDES THE SKULL, SPINAL COLUMN, RIBS, STERNUM 8 BONES IN THE SKULL SPACES CALLED FONTANELS ALLOWS FOR SKULL TO EXPAND AS BRAIN GROWS 14 FACIAL BONES, MAXILLA- UPPER JAW, MANDIBLE- LOWER JAW SUTURES: CRANIAL BONES JOINED TOGETHER. SPINAL COLUMN HAS 26 BONES; VERTEBRAE HAS 5 MAIN SECTIONS, ie. Waist area is the lumbar PROTECTS AND PROVIDES SUPPORT RIBS :12 PAIRS OF LONG BONES TRUE RIBS-FIRST 7 PAIRS FALSE RIBS-NEXT 3 AND THEN 2 LAST FLOATING PAIRS
APPENDECULAR SKELETON FORMS ARMS AND LEGS AND COMPOSED OF SHOULDER GIRDLE AND LONG BONES SHOULDER CONTAINS 2 CLAVICLES (COLLAR BONE) AND 2 SCAPULAS (ATTACHMENT OF UPPER ARM BONE BONES OF LEGS: FEMUR, PATELLA, TIBIA, FIBULA, METATARSALS-5, TARSALS- 7, AND PHALANGES -14 ON EACH FOOT JOINTS: 3 TYPES BONES OF THE ARMS: HUMERUS, RADIUS, ULNA, CARPALS-8, METACARPALS -5 ON EACH HAND, AND PHALANGES-14 ON EACH HAND TO FORM THE THUMB.
DISEASES OF SKELETAL SYSTEM ATHRITIS – Inflamation of the joints. 2 MAIN TYPES – Both are chronic diseases BURSITIS OSTEOMYELITIS Osteoarthritis – Occurs with aging SYMPTOMS : joint pain, stiffness, aching limited range of motion. TX: Rest, heat/cold applications, aspirin,antinflammator y medications, steroid injections, special exercises.
Diseases Continued…. Rheumatoid arthritis – Inflammatory disease of connective tissue and joints. 3Xs more common in women, may begin at years. Permananent deformity from atrophy and scar tissue. TX : Rest and RX exercises, antiinflamatory medications, surgery or arthroplasty to replace damaged joints such as hips or knees Bursitis- Inflamation of bursae, small fluid sacs surrounding joints Frequently affects shoulders, elbows, hip or knees Symptoms : severe pain,limited movement, accumulations of fluid in joint TX : Pain meds and rest, steroid injections, aspiration (withdrawel of fluid w/needle), PT to preserve joint motion.
BONES, THEM BONES ! Osteomyelitis (NOT Osteoporosis) FRACTURES Inflammation of bone usually caused by pathogenic organism. Pathogens causes formation of abscess within bone and accumulation of pus in medullary canal. SYMPTOMS: Pain in site, swelling, chills, fever TX: Antibiotics for infection. Involves a crack or break in bone GREENSTICK-incomplete break (common in children) SIMPLE-complete break, no damage to skin COMPOUND-break in bone and skin, chance of infections IMPACTED-broken bone ends jam into each other. COMMINUTED: Bone fragment or splinters into more than 2 pieces.
REDUCTION Process by which bone is put back into proper alignment. Closed reduction; position bone in alignment, usually with traction, and apply cast or splint to maintain position Open reduction; surgical repair of bone, and times, insertion of pins, plates and other devices.
WHAT ARE THE FOUR FUNCTIONS OF BONES? 1. support the body’s muscle fat, and skin. 2. Protection -Surround vital organs to protect them. 3. levers: attach to muscles to help provide movement. 4. Produce blood cells: produce red and white blood cells and platelets.
WHAT ARE 4 BONE DISEASES? DON’T FORGET TO STUDY FOR TEST ON WEDNES -DAY! 1. RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS 2. OSTEOARTHRITIS 3. BURSITIS 4. OSTEOMYELITITS