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Skeletal Structure Skeletal Systems Skeletal Systems.

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Presentation on theme: "Skeletal Structure Skeletal Systems Skeletal Systems."— Presentation transcript:

1 Skeletal Structure Skeletal Systems Skeletal Systems

2 Exo versus Endo Exoskeleton: (exo = outside) A hard outer layer found on many early animals. Used for protection and support - eg. Insects, spiders and crabs Endoskeleton: (endo = inside) A hard bone or cartilaginous structure found inside the body used for support. - eg. Mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians

3 The vertebrate skeletal system Function: -Support -Protection (ribs cage in lungs and heart) -Produces red blood cells (bone marrow) -Assist muscular system (muscles anchor themselves on bones)

4 2 Parts of the Skeletal system Axial skeleton: The center of the body – Ribs and breast bone – Spinalcord and skull – Middle ear bones (ossicles) Appendicular skeleton:

5 2 Parts of the Skeletal system Axial skeleton: The center of the body – Ribs and breast bone – Spinalcord and skull – Middle ear bones (ossicles) Appendicular skeleton: The outer body – Arms and Legs – Hands and Feet – Pelvic and Pectoral Girdle

6 Diagram: Axial Skeleton: Grey Appendicular Skeleton: Purple

7 Two Types of Bone Compact Bone: Dense hard material. Makes up most of the longer bone Spongy Bone: Lighter less dense material. Smaller bones such as ribs are made of spongy bone.

8 Parts of the bone Periosteum: A thin covering over the bone that contains blood vessels, nerves and bone forming cells

9 Bone Development Formation of bone: 1) forms in cartilage: -Cartilage cells that form bone are called Osteoblast -Osteoblasts begin to form bone tissue inside the shaft of cartilage

10 Embryo bone development Ossification: Embryo bones are made of cartilage. As the embryo develops calcium and phosphate ions are deposited in the cartilage. At this point the cartilage cells begin to die off and the bone cells form canals within the structure

11 Bone formation Haversain Canals: The canals formed during ossification. Used by nerves and blood as pathways. Eventually the canals grow together forming bone marrow.

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13 Structures in the Bone

14 Development of long bones Infant: Starts off as cartilage Child: Cartilage is converted into calcified cartilage Child-Adult: Calcified cartilage is replaced by bony tissue starting from the middle and moving towards the ends.

15 Long Bones Development of bone tissue in long bones:

16 Development of the bone Epiphyseal plates: aka growth plates. The ends of the long bone that still contain cartilage.

17 Development of the bone Epiphyseal plates: aka growth plates. The ends of the long bone that still contain cartilage. This tissue produces new cartilage cells but over time it is taken over by bone producing cells

18 Development of the bone Epiphyseal plates: aka growth plates. The ends of the long bone that still contain cartilage. This tissue produces new cartilage cells but over time it is taken over by bone producing cells Eventually (25 years) all the cartilage producing cells have all been replaced

19 Bone Development in Fibrous Connective Tissue Bone formation in connective tissue: Osteoblasts form spicules (bone splinters) These spicules join to form spongy bone If this process continues it forms compact bone

20 Assignment Pg


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