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Anatomy and Physiology

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Presentation on theme: "Anatomy and Physiology"— Presentation transcript:

1 Anatomy and Physiology
Animal Organ Systems Anatomy and Physiology

2 Fundamentals of Life All living things are made up of cells.
Cells are the most basic structure of life. Cells need oxygen, food/energy, and water to survive.

3 Natural Hierarchy Cells are the most basic and simple.
Cells that are all alike work together to form tissues which perform tasks. Tissues that are alike work together to form organs which complete jobs. Organs work together in organ systems to carry out processes. Organ systems work together to support the life of an organism.

4 How do we study animals? We look at the outside of them – the outer physical structures. We look inside of dead animals – the internal physical structures. We look at the tissues under a microscope – microscopic structures. We study the chemical reactions between cells, tissues, and organs.

5 Anatomy The study of the form, shape, and appearance of an animal – its structures both internal and external. Gross anatomy is the study of the structures – internal and external – that we can see with the naked eye. Microscopic anatomy is the structures that can only be seen under magnification

6 Physiology The study of the functions of the cells, tissues, and organs of the animal. Biochemistry How cells, tissues and organs work together to complete a task…digestion.

7 Why study anatomy and physiology?
Efficient production of livestock requires understanding the anatomy and physiology related to Production. Production is muscle gain, milk or egg production, and hair or wool production. Raising animals requires an understanding of the requires needed for animal wellbeing. Animal wellbeing is caring for animals so that their basic needs are met and they do not suffer.

8 Mammals vs Non-mammals
Most of our livestock are mammals. i.e. – vertebrate that has hair, gives birth to live young, produces milk, & maintains constant body temperature. Cattle, horses, pigs, goats & sheep, etc. Exceptions are poultry & aquacrops. Poultry – birds – ducks, chickens, turkeys, etc. Aquacrops – fish, shrimp, etc.

9 Organ Systems Skeletal Muscular Nervous Circulatory Respiratory
Excretory Digestive Endocrine Integumentary Reproductive

10 Skeletal Bones Cartilage Ligaments
50% water, 26% minerals (Ca & P), 20% protein, 4% fat Core is soft and spongy – called marrow Marrow makes new red blood cells for body. Cartilage Soft, tough tissue found between bones that cushions joints Ligaments Long stretchy tissue that holds joints together


12 Skeletal Gives structure and support Protects internal organs
Makes locomotion/movement possible

13 Skeletal - Joints

14 Skeletal - Skull Skull is made up of several fused bones

15 Skeletal - Spine The spine is made up of many vertebrae and cartilage disks 5 types of vertebrae Cervical – neck Thoracic – body Lumbar – lower back Sacral – around hip Coccygeal - tail






21 Muscular Muscles Tendons
Fibrous cells that are design to contract and relax in pairs Voluntary – under the organisms conscious control – triceps Involuntary – automatically move to regulate body functions – heart and diaphragm Tendons Long, thin, stretchy tissues that attach muscles to bones. Muscles pull against bone when they contract which causes movement.

22 Muscular Primary function is movement. Also protect delicate organs
External & internal Also protect delicate organs Muscles make up about half our livestock animals’ weight. Composed mostly of protein.

23 Muscular Three types of muscles Skeletal – meat – bicep – voluntary
Cardiac – heart – involuntary Smooth – digestive system - involuntary

24 Skeletal Cardiac Smooth

25 A=Rhomboideus capitis B=Splenius C=Levator scapulae ventralis D=Supraspinatus E=Infraspinatus F=Teres major G=Serratus dorsalis H=Longissimus dorsi I=Multifidae spinae J=Clavotrapezius K=Clavobrachialis L=Acromiodeltoid M=Spinodeltoid N=Acromiotrapezius O=Spinotrapezius P=Spinalis dorsalis Q=Latissimus dorsi R=Rhomboideus


27 Nervous Uses electrical impulses to send messages from brain throughout body. Controls activity, learning, memory Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System

28 Nervous Brain Nerves Sensory organs Spinal Cord
Soft tissues that coordinates all aspects of animal function Spinal Cord Main “highway” for nerve impulses to travel from brain to rest of body Nerves Branch out and reach rest of body Sensory organs Vision Olfactory Touch Taste Auditory

29 Nervous - Brain Bain Cerebrum – controls voluntary movement and thought Kicking, biting, vocals, licking, etc Cerebellum – coordination of animal’s movement Walking Brain Stem – most of the functions to maintain life Body temp, breathing, digestion, heart beat

30 Brain Stem Cerebellum Cerebrum

31 Nervous – Cranial Nerves
Number Nerve Sensory Funct Motor Function 1 Olfactory Smell 2 Optic Vision 3 Oculomotor Position of eye Move eye, constrict pupil, focus 4 Trochlear Move eye 5 Trigeminal Sense in face & teeth Chewing 6 Abducens 7 Facial Taste buds Blinking, facial expression 8 Auditory Hearing & balance 9 Glossopharyngeal Swallowing 10 Vagus Sensory of internal organs 11 Spinal accessory Muscles of shoulder Move neck and shoulders 12 Hypoglossal Muscles of tongue Move tongue

32 Nervous – Cranial Nerves

33 Nervous - Sight

34 Nervous – Touch

35 Circulatory Heart Arteries Veins Technically a muscle
Pumps blood with 4 chambers and 2 valves Arteries Carry oxygen rich blood from lungs and heart to tissues Veins Carry blood back from tissues to lungs and heart.

36 Circulatory – Heart - exterior

37 Circulatory – Heart - interior

38 Circulation – the flow of blood

39 Circulatory – Arteries and Veins
Aorta Vena Carva

40 Circulatory Blood Plasma white blood cells red blood cells Platelets
Neutrophil Monocyte Lymphocyte Eosinophil Basophil Fights pathogens Plasma Liquid part of blood – 55% of volume red blood cells Erythrocytes Carries O2 and carbohydrates (glucose) Platelets Thrombocytes Makes blood clot

41 Circulatory - Blood

42 Circulatory – Stained blood smears
Basophil Erythrocytes Eosinophil Nuetrophil Monocyte Thrombocyte Lymphocyte

43 Circulatory Also includes the Lymph Glands
Secrete disease fighting materials Moves materials throughout the body

44 Respiratory Nasal and Sinus Passages Pharynx & Larynx Trachea
External opening of the body and passageways Pharynx & Larynx Pharynx connects the esophagus and trachea Larynx is the “voice box” Trachea Wind pipe that connects nasal passages with bronchi

45 Respiratory Bronchus Bronchioles Alveoli Lungs
Tube that branch off of the trachea and carry air to lungs Bronchioles Smaller tubes that branch off of bronchi Alveoli Small sacks where gas exchange occurs Lungs “bags” that expand and contract to bring in fresh air and expel old air




49 Respiratory Function is to bring oxygen into the body and expel carbon dioxide. Exchange of gasses happens inside the lungs in the alveoli. Lungs expand and contract due to the movement of the diaphragm.

50 Excretory Also referred to as the Renal System. Kidneys Bladder
Remove waste materials from blood Nephrons filter out wastes (urine) Found in the Medulla and Cortex of kidney Bladder Holds urine Ureters Connect bladder to urethra Urethra Empties urine to the exterior of the animal



53 Digestive Large and varied system Breaks down food into usable energy
Removes unusable food from body

54 Digestion Monogastric – 1 stomach – can’t digest cellulose (fiber) – pigs and humans Ruminant – 4 stomachs – polygastric – digest cellulose, produce own B vitamins and proteins – cows and sheep Pseudo-ruminant - have 1 stomach, but have enlarged cecum that digests cellulose – horses and rabbits

55 Digestion - Monogastric
Moutn Prehension – gathering food – teeth, lips, tongue Mastication – Chewing – break food into smaller pieces for swallowing – teeth and saliva

56 Digestion - Teeth

57 Digestion - Monogastric
Esophagus – transport tube to stomach – muscular contractions move food down

58 Digestion - Monogastric
Stomach conditions – pH of 2, churning and contracting to mix and grind food ingredients – food, HCl, enzymes

59 Digestion - Monogastric
Small intestine major site of nutrient absorption Functions – villi absorb nutrients that have been broken down – minerals, vitamins, amino acids, Fatty acids, simple sugars

60 Glands – gallbladder secretes bile used for lipid breakdown; Pancreas secretes enzymes for protein and carbohydrate breakdown

61 Digestion - Monogastric
Large intestine – colon accumulates wastes absorbs water Rectum and Anus

62 Digestion - Monogastric
Cecum Rectum Esophagus Anus Large intestine Small intestine

63 Digestion - Ruminant Mouth Prehension – cow tongue is very long
Mastication – graze rapidly, and don’t chew much 1st time Esophagus – liquids to the reticulum and solids to the rumen Rumen – very large compartment

64 Digestion - Ruminant Regurgitation – when rumen full, force contents back up to re-chew Rumination re-mastication of cud or bolus Bolus – ball of grass Adds saliva to food Esophagus – re-swallow food Reticulum – honeycomb

65 Digestion - Ruminant Rumen fermentation vat 30 gal or more
contains microbes that break down the cellulose pH of 6.5 – 7 for microbes releases methane – belch creates B vitamins and proteins from amino acids also contains papalli that absorb nutrients released by microbes

66 Digestion - Ruminant Omasum – filter for large particles – grinds them down Abomasum – like the monogastric stomach – acidic Small intestine – same as monogastric Large intestine – same as monogastric Rectum and anus

67 Rumen Omasum Abomasum Reticulum

68 Digestion - Ruminant Rumen Large intestine Omasum Rectum Anus Cecum
Reticulum Abomasum Small intestine

69 Digestion – Pseudo-Ruminant
Mouth prehension Mastication Esophagus Stomach same as monogastric too small in horses and inactive – doesn’t break down cellulose require frequent smaller meals

70 Digestion – Pseudo-Ruminant
Small intestine – absorption of nutrients – same as monogastric **Still has not digested the cellulose – large amount Cecum enlarged area between small and large intestine contains microbes that break down cellulose like rumen

71 Digestion – Pseudo-Ruminant
Large colon – absorbs nutrients released by cecum Small colon – absorbs water and collects waste Rectum and Anus

72 Digestion – Pseudo-Ruminant
Small colon Large colon Rectum Esophagus Anus Cecum Small intesine

73 Endocrine Ductless glands in the body
hypothalamus, pituitary, pancreas, liver, thyroid, adrenal Secrete hormones that chemically regulate certain functions of the body Play a large role in reproduction, digestion, growth, etc.

74 Integumentary Skin, hair, hooves, horns, etc
Keeps out pathogens, regulates body temp, gives shape and color, protects internal organs System made almost entirely out of protein Animal skin is called the hide Most animal hides made into leather

75 Reproductive System Most complex system in animals
Allows for reproduction of animals and the continuation of the species Different structures between male and female Most animals fundamentally have the same system, just varies in structure between species.

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