Presentation on theme: "Anatomy and Physiology"— Presentation transcript:
1Anatomy and Physiology Animal Organ SystemsAnatomy and Physiology
2Fundamentals of Life All living things are made up of cells. Cells are the most basic structure of life.Cells need oxygen, food/energy, and water to survive.
3Natural Hierarchy Cells are the most basic and simple. Cells that are all alike work together to form tissues which perform tasks.Tissues that are alike work together to form organs which complete jobs.Organs work together in organ systems to carry out processes.Organ systems work together to support the life of an organism.
4How do we study animals?We look at the outside of them – the outer physical structures.We look inside of dead animals – the internal physical structures.We look at the tissues under a microscope – microscopic structures.We study the chemical reactions between cells, tissues, and organs.
5AnatomyThe study of the form, shape, and appearance of an animal – its structures both internal and external.Gross anatomy is the study of the structures – internal and external – that we can see with the naked eye.Microscopic anatomy is the structures that can only be seen under magnification
6PhysiologyThe study of the functions of the cells, tissues, and organs of the animal.BiochemistryHow cells, tissues and organs work together to complete a task…digestion.
7Why study anatomy and physiology? Efficient production of livestock requires understanding the anatomy and physiology related to Production.Production is muscle gain, milk or egg production, and hair or wool production.Raising animals requires an understanding of the requires needed for animal wellbeing.Animal wellbeing is caring for animals so that their basic needs are met and they do not suffer.
8Mammals vs Non-mammals Most of our livestock are mammals.i.e. – vertebrate that has hair, gives birth to live young, produces milk, & maintains constant body temperature.Cattle, horses, pigs, goats & sheep, etc.Exceptions are poultry & aquacrops.Poultry – birds – ducks, chickens, turkeys, etc.Aquacrops – fish, shrimp, etc.
9Organ Systems Skeletal Muscular Nervous Circulatory Respiratory ExcretoryDigestiveEndocrineIntegumentaryReproductive
10Skeletal Bones Cartilage Ligaments 50% water, 26% minerals (Ca & P), 20% protein, 4% fatCore is soft and spongy – called marrowMarrow makes new red blood cells for body.CartilageSoft, tough tissue found between bones that cushions jointsLigamentsLong stretchy tissue that holds joints together
21Muscular Muscles Tendons Fibrous cells that are design to contract and relax in pairsVoluntary – under the organisms conscious control – tricepsInvoluntary – automatically move to regulate body functions – heart and diaphragmTendonsLong, thin, stretchy tissues that attach muscles to bones.Muscles pull against bone when they contract which causes movement.
22Muscular Primary function is movement. Also protect delicate organs External & internalAlso protect delicate organsMuscles make up about half our livestock animals’ weight.Composed mostly of protein.
23Muscular Three types of muscles Skeletal – meat – bicep – voluntary Cardiac – heart – involuntarySmooth – digestive system - involuntary
27NervousUses electrical impulses to send messages from brain throughout body.Controls activity, learning, memoryCentral Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System
28Nervous Brain Nerves Sensory organs Spinal Cord Soft tissues that coordinates all aspects of animal functionSpinal CordMain “highway” for nerve impulses to travel from brain to rest of bodyNervesBranch out and reach rest of bodySensory organsVisionOlfactoryTouchTasteAuditory
29Nervous - BrainBainCerebrum – controls voluntary movement and thoughtKicking, biting, vocals, licking, etcCerebellum – coordination of animal’s movementWalkingBrain Stem – most of the functions to maintain lifeBody temp, breathing, digestion, heart beat
31Nervous – Cranial Nerves NumberNerveSensory FunctMotor Function1OlfactorySmell2OpticVision3OculomotorPosition of eyeMove eye, constrict pupil, focus4TrochlearMove eye5TrigeminalSense in face & teethChewing6Abducens7FacialTaste budsBlinking, facial expression8AuditoryHearing & balance9GlossopharyngealSwallowing10VagusSensory of internal organs11Spinal accessoryMuscles of shoulderMove neck and shoulders12HypoglossalMuscles of tongueMove tongue
35Circulatory Heart Arteries Veins Technically a muscle Pumps blood with 4 chambers and 2 valvesArteriesCarry oxygen rich blood from lungs and heart to tissuesVeinsCarry blood back from tissues to lungs and heart.
39Circulatory – Arteries and Veins AortaVena Carva
40Circulatory Blood Plasma white blood cells red blood cells Platelets NeutrophilMonocyteLymphocyteEosinophilBasophilFights pathogensPlasmaLiquid part of blood – 55% of volumered blood cellsErythrocytesCarries O2 and carbohydrates (glucose)PlateletsThrombocytesMakes blood clot
43Circulatory Also includes the Lymph Glands Secrete disease fighting materialsMoves materials throughout the body
44Respiratory Nasal and Sinus Passages Pharynx & Larynx Trachea External opening of the body and passagewaysPharynx & LarynxPharynx connects the esophagus and tracheaLarynx is the “voice box”TracheaWind pipe that connects nasal passages with bronchi
45Respiratory Bronchus Bronchioles Alveoli Lungs Tube that branch off of the trachea and carry air to lungsBronchiolesSmaller tubes that branch off of bronchiAlveoliSmall sacks where gas exchange occursLungs“bags” that expand and contract to bring in fresh air and expel old air
49RespiratoryFunction is to bring oxygen into the body and expel carbon dioxide.Exchange of gasses happens inside the lungs in the alveoli.Lungs expand and contract due to the movement of the diaphragm.
50Excretory Also referred to as the Renal System. Kidneys Bladder Remove waste materials from bloodNephrons filter out wastes (urine)Found in the Medulla and Cortex of kidneyBladderHolds urineUretersConnect bladder to urethraUrethraEmpties urine to the exterior of the animal
53Digestive Large and varied system Breaks down food into usable energy Removes unusable food from body
54DigestionMonogastric – 1 stomach – can’t digest cellulose (fiber) – pigs and humansRuminant – 4 stomachs – polygastric – digest cellulose, produce own B vitamins and proteins – cows and sheepPseudo-ruminant - have 1 stomach, but have enlarged cecum that digests cellulose – horses and rabbits
55Digestion - Monogastric MoutnPrehension – gathering food – teeth, lips, tongueMastication – Chewing – break food into smaller pieces for swallowing – teeth and saliva
63Digestion - Ruminant Mouth Prehension – cow tongue is very long Mastication – graze rapidly, and don’t chew much 1st timeEsophagus – liquids to the reticulum and solids to the rumenRumen – very large compartment
64Digestion - RuminantRegurgitation – when rumen full, force contents back up to re-chewRuminationre-mastication of cud or bolusBolus – ball of grassAdds saliva to foodEsophagus – re-swallow foodReticulum – honeycomb
65Digestion - Ruminant Rumen fermentation vat 30 gal or more contains microbes that break down the cellulosepH of 6.5 – 7 for microbesreleases methane – belchcreates B vitamins and proteins from amino acidsalso contains papalli that absorb nutrients released by microbes
66Digestion - RuminantOmasum – filter for large particles – grinds them downAbomasum – like the monogastric stomach – acidicSmall intestine – same as monogastricLarge intestine – same as monogastricRectum and anus
68Digestion - Ruminant Rumen Large intestine Omasum Rectum Anus Cecum ReticulumAbomasumSmall intestine
69Digestion – Pseudo-Ruminant MouthprehensionMasticationEsophagusStomachsame as monogastrictoo small in horses and inactive – doesn’t break down celluloserequire frequent smaller meals
70Digestion – Pseudo-Ruminant Small intestine – absorption of nutrients – same as monogastric**Still has not digested the cellulose – large amountCecumenlarged area between small and large intestinecontains microbes that break down cellulose like rumen
71Digestion – Pseudo-Ruminant Large colon – absorbs nutrients released by cecumSmall colon – absorbs water and collects wasteRectum and Anus
72Digestion – Pseudo-Ruminant Small colonLarge colonRectumEsophagusAnusCecumSmall intesine
73Endocrine Ductless glands in the body hypothalamus, pituitary, pancreas, liver, thyroid, adrenalSecrete hormones that chemically regulate certain functions of the bodyPlay a large role in reproduction, digestion, growth, etc.
74Integumentary Skin, hair, hooves, horns, etc Keeps out pathogens, regulates body temp, gives shape and color, protects internal organsSystem made almost entirely out of proteinAnimal skin is called the hideMost animal hides made into leather
75Reproductive System Most complex system in animals Allows for reproduction of animals and the continuation of the speciesDifferent structures between male and femaleMost animals fundamentally have the same system, just varies in structure between species.