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The Skeletal System By Carolyn Halford.

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1 The Skeletal System By Carolyn Halford

2 The Skeletal System Includes all the bones of the body
Also includes the joints the bones attach to Without a skeleton, even a simple bump on the head could injure vital organs The bones of the skeletal system are stronger than steel

3 The skeletal system The entire skeletal system of an adult weighs……
Less than 10 kilograms If you attempted to replace the human skeleton with a steel skeleton that was just as strong, it would weigh…… About 400 kilograms! Still not as resilient as bone

4 Name it! Harder than reinforced concrete Lighter than stainless steel
_________ is the near-perfect framework for the human body The answer? BONE

5 Basic shapes of bone This system has bones that come in 4 basic shapes: Long bones (femur) Short bones (wrist, ankle) Flat bones (skull, scapula) Irregular bones (vertebrae)

6 The Skeletal System There are 5 ways the skeletal system helps us
These are: Support Protection Movement Storage Homeostasis

7 Support Primary job of the skeleton Without bones, we would collapse
Skeletons are strong, but must also be lightweight

8 Protection Skeleton protects all internal organs and fragile tissues (brain, eyes, heart, lungs, spinal cord) Cranium protects the brain and eyes Ribs protect heart and lungs Vertebrae protects spinal cord


10 Movement Bones provide structure for muscles to attach (allowing movement) Tendons are tough inelastic bands that attach muscle to bone

11 Storage Bones have osteocytes These are cells that are able to store:
Calcium Phosphorous Fatty acids

12 Homeostasis Bones regulate the amount of blood calcium in our bodies

13 The skeletal system This system has 2 distinctive parts
Axial skeleton Appendicular skeleton Let’s see what they’re all about!

14 The axial skeleton Total of 80 bones
Consists of the vertebral column, the rib cage and the skull Transmits the weight from the head, the trunk and the upper extremities down to the lower extremities at the hip joints Helps in maintaining upright posture


16 The appendicular skeleton
Total of 126 bones Formed by the pectoral girdles, the upper limbs, the pelvic girdle and the lower limbs Has two primary functions

17 Functions To make walking, running, and other movement possible
To protect major organs Responsible for digestion, excretion, and reproduction


19 Who has more bones? Actually, BABIES have more bones
At birth, you have about 300 bones As you get older, small bones join with larger bones Adults end up having approx. 206 bones

20 Are bones alive? YES Old bones are dry, dead, and brittle
In the human body, however, bones are very much alive Bones are a mixture of Strength Living cells (aiding in growth and self-repair)

21 What is a bone made of? Outer layer of hard or compact bone
Called Pereosteum (contains blood vessels) Inside is spongy bone (similar to honeycomb, flexible) Some bones have bone marrow in the middle (jelly-like) –location of new cells being produced for the blood Bone cells can stay strong with the help of the vital mineral Calcium

22 Bone marrow There are 2 types of bone marrow:
Your body can actually convert yellow bone marrow into red bone marrow if there is an increased demand for red blood cell production Red- building blocks of blood; where red blood cells are produced Yellow- mostly consists of fat; place to store fatty acids


24 Bone tissue There are 2 types of bone tissue:
Compact bone- dense, smooth, and very strong Cancellous bone- spongy and lightweight Both tissues contain living cells Aids in repair if a bone is injured or broken

25 How do bones break and heal?
A broken bone is referred to as a fracture When a bone is broken, the bone produces new cells to rebuild the bone Cells cover both ends of the broken section of the bone to close up the break

26 Fractures There are 7 main types of fractures of the bone:
Simple-bone doesn’t break skin Compound- broken ends do break skin Complete- 2 parts of bone Partial- broken bone, but not specifically 2 parts Impacted-broken ends are wedged together Comminuted-breaks into fragments Spiral- result of twisting bone; has rough edges

27 How do I keep healthy bones?
Need regular exercise to remain strong Drinking milk and eating other dairy products, which contain calcium, help bones harden

28 Joints (aka “articulations”)
Every bone in the body forms a joint with at least one other bone (only one exception) With fewer joints, we would move like robots There are 2 functions of joints: To hold bones together securely Give rigid skeleton mobility

29 Joints Joints are classified in 2 ways:
Functionally- focused on the amount of movement allowed by the joint Structurally- fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial joints are based on what separates the bony regions at the joints

30 Fibrous joints Bones connected by fibrous tissue
An example of this is the sutures of the skull, where irregular edges of the bones interlock and are bound tightly together by connective tissue fibers This essentially allows no movement Syndesmoses- connecting fibers longer than those of sutures ( joints have more “give”)

31 Cartilaginous joints The bone ends are connected by cartilage
Examples of this are: pubic symphysis of the pelvis invertebral joints of the spinal column (which are connected by pads of fibrocartilage)

32 Synovial joints The articulating bone ends are separated by a joint cavity that contains synovial fluid Synovial joints have the most freedom out of the other two types of joints

33 Joints Skeleton has over 200 joints (when bones come together)
Ligaments are strong inelastic bands of connective tissue that help hold bones together at joints Where the bones come together at joints there is a cushion of cartilage that helps protect the bones Cartilage helps to prevent the bones from rubbing against each other and wearing down the bone

34 It’s Quiz Time!

35 Question #1 What does our Skeleton do for our bodies?
Support Protection Movement All of the above (All of the above is CORRECT)

36 Question #2 What holds bones together? Tendons Ligaments Cartilage
Marrow (Ligaments is CORRECT)

37 Question #3 What attaches your muscles to bones? Ligaments Cartilage
Tendons Cranium (Tendons is CORRECT)

38 Question #4 Why is bone marrow important? Marrow is very hard
Marrow makes oxygen Marrow makes blood cells Marrow cleans your blood (Marrow makes blood cells is CORRECT)

39 What is an X-ray? Image produced when a small amount of radiation passes through  the body and strikes a sheet of sensitive film placed on the opposite side of the body Bones contain calcium, therefore not allowing much radiation through (which causes bones to show up as white images on X-ray film) Radiologists specialize in reading and making sense of X-rays

40 Study of the skeletal system
Orthopedics is the medical specialty responsible for treating entire skeletal system In the US, orthopedic surgeons have typically completed 4 years of undergraduate education and 4 years of medical school Then undergo residency training in orthopedic surgery The American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery oversees the certification process for this specialty Many go on to further specialize in specific areas, such as the spine, hand or sports injuries

41 Diseases of the system Can you guess what it is? Osteoporosis

42 What is it? Osteoporosis is the disease in which the bones become weak and are more likely to break People with osteoporosis most often break bones in the hip, spine, and wrist

43 Who gets it? In the United States, more than 40 million people either already have osteoporosis or are at high risk due to low bone mass Osteoporosis can occur in both men and women and at any age, but it is most common in older women

44 What are the causes? Gender- women get osteoporosis more often than men Age- the older you are, the greater your risk of osteoporosis Body size- small, thin women are at greater risk Ethnicity- white and Asian women are at highest risk; Black and Hispanic women have a lower risk Family history- osteoporosis tends to run in families; If a family member has osteoporosis or breaks a bone, there is a greater chance that you will too

45 Some other causes? Anorexia nervosa- this eating disorder can lead to osteoporosis Calcium and vitamin D intake- a diet low in calcium and vitamin D makes you more prone to bone loss Medication use- certain medicines increase the risk of osteoporosis Activity level- lack of exercise or long-term bed rest can cause weak bones Smoking- cigarettes have proven to be bad for bones (and the heart, and lungs, too) Drinking alcohol- too much alcohol can cause bone loss and broken bones

46 Can it be prevented? There are several ways to avoid osteoporosis:
Eat a diet rich in calcium and vitamin D Exercise Don’t drink or smoke in excess

47 Connection to systems You might be wondering:
“How does the skeletal system relate to all of the other vital systems of the human body?” To answer your question, it’s relationship with each system is unique and important to keep the body healthy

48 Integumentary system Indirect relationship with the “skin”
Vital because the calcium keeps bones hard and strong In the presence of sunlight, a vitamin D precursor is produced in the dermal capillary blood

49 Endocrine system Hormones acting individually and in concert direct skeletal growth during youth, and enhance (or impair) skeletal strength in adults Growth hormone is essential for normal skeletal growth and maintenance throughout life

50 Muscular System If we participate in weight-bearing exercise regularly, our muscles become more efficient and exert more force on our bones As a result, our bones stay healthy and strong and increase their mass to assume the added stress Regular exercise also stretches the connective tissues binding bones to muscles and to other bones, and reinforcing joints


52 Fun fact #1 The hyoid bone (which is in your throat) is the only bone in the body not attached to another bone


54 Fun fact #2 The smallest bones in the body are the three bones in the ear (anvil, stirrup, and hammer)


56 Fun fact #3 The collarbone (scientific name: clavicle) is the most commonly broken bone in the body

57 http://www. thedisabledlist

58 After death, cartilage rots faster than bone
Fun fact #4 After death, cartilage rots faster than bone This is why skulls have no ears or nose

59 Citations Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology by Elaine N. Marieb


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