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 Includes all the bones of the body  Also includes the joints the bones attach to  Without a skeleton, even a simple bump on the head could injure.

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Presentation on theme: " Includes all the bones of the body  Also includes the joints the bones attach to  Without a skeleton, even a simple bump on the head could injure."— Presentation transcript:


2  Includes all the bones of the body  Also includes the joints the bones attach to  Without a skeleton, even a simple bump on the head could injure vital organs  The bones of the skeletal system are stronger than steel

3  The entire skeletal system of an adult weighs…… › Less than 10 kilograms  If you attempted to replace the human skeleton with a steel skeleton that was just as strong, it would weigh…… › About 400 kilograms! › Still not as resilient as bone

4  Harder than reinforced concrete  Lighter than stainless steel  _________ is the near-perfect framework for the human body  The answer? › BONE

5  This system has bones that come in 4 basic shapes: › Long bones (femur) › Short bones (wrist, ankle) › Flat bones (skull, scapula) › Irregular bones (vertebrae)

6  There are 5 ways the skeletal system helps us  These are: › Support › Protection › Movement › Storage › Homeostasis

7  Primary job of the skeleton  Without bones, we would collapse  Skeletons are strong, but must also be lightweight

8  Skeleton protects all internal organs and fragile tissues (brain, eyes, heart, lungs, spinal cord)  Cranium protects the brain and eyes  Ribs protect heart and lungs  Vertebrae protects spinal cord


10  Bones provide structure for muscles to attach (allowing movement)  Tendons are tough inelastic bands that attach muscle to bone

11  Bones have osteocytes  These are cells that are able to store: › Calcium › Phosphorous › Fatty acids

12  Bones regulate the amount of blood calcium in our bodies

13  This system has 2 distinctive parts › Axial skeleton › Appendicular skeleton  Let’s see what they’re all about!

14  Total of 80 bones  Consists of the vertebral column, the rib cage and the skull  Transmits the weight from the head, the trunk and the upper extremities down to the lower extremities at the hip joints  Helps in maintaining upright posture


16  Total of 126 bones  Formed by the pectoral girdles, the upper limbs, the pelvic girdle and the lower limbs  Has two primary functions

17  To make walking, running, and other movement possible  To protect major organs › Responsible for digestion, excretion, and reproduction


19  Actually, BABIES have more bones  At birth, you have about 300 bones  As you get older, small bones join with larger bones  Adults end up having approx. 206 bones

20  YES  Old bones are dry, dead, and brittle  In the human body, however, bones are very much alive  Bones are a mixture of › Strength › Living cells (aiding in growth and self-repair)

21  Outer layer of hard or compact bone › Called Pereosteum (contains blood vessels)  Inside is spongy bone (similar to honeycomb, flexible)  Some bones have bone marrow in the middle (jelly-like) –location of new cells being produced for the blood  Bone cells can stay strong with the help of the vital mineral Calcium

22  There are 2 types of bone marrow:  Your body can actually convert yellow bone marrow into red bone marrow if there is an increased demand for red blood cell production › Red- building blocks of blood; where red blood cells are produced › Yellow- mostly consists of fat; place to store fatty acids


24  There are 2 types of bone tissue: › Compact bone- dense, smooth, and very strong › Cancellous bone- spongy and lightweight  Both tissues contain living cells › Aids in repair if a bone is injured or broken

25  A broken bone is referred to as a fracture  When a bone is broken, the bone produces new cells to rebuild the bone  Cells cover both ends of the broken section of the bone to close up the break

26  There are 7 main types of fractures of the bone: › Simple-bone doesn’t break skin › Compound- broken ends do break skin › Complete- 2 parts of bone › Partial- broken bone, but not specifically 2 parts › Impacted-broken ends are wedged together › Comminuted-breaks into fragments › Spiral- result of twisting bone; has rough edges

27  Need regular exercise to remain strong  Drinking milk and eating other dairy products, which contain calcium, help bones harden

28  Every bone in the body forms a joint with at least one other bone (only one exception)  With fewer joints, we would move like robots  There are 2 functions of joints: › To hold bones together securely › Give rigid skeleton mobility

29  Joints are classified in 2 ways: › Functionally- focused on the amount of movement allowed by the joint › Structurally- fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial joints are based on what separates the bony regions at the joints

30  Bones connected by fibrous tissue  An example of this is the sutures of the skull, where irregular edges of the bones interlock and are bound tightly together by connective tissue fibers  This essentially allows no movement  Syndesmoses - connecting fibers longer than those of sutures ( joints have more “give”)

31  The bone ends are connected by cartilage  Examples of this are: › pubic symphysis of the pelvis › invertebral joints of the spinal column (which are connected by pads of fibrocartilage)

32  The articulating bone ends are separated by a joint cavity that contains synovial fluid  Synovial joints have the most freedom out of the other two types of joints

33  Skeleton has over 200 joints (when bones come together)  Ligaments are strong inelastic bands of connective tissue that help hold bones together at joints  Where the bones come together at joints there is a cushion of cartilage that helps protect the bones  Cartilage helps to prevent the bones from rubbing against each other and wearing down the bone


35  What does our Skeleton do for our bodies? › Support › Protection › Movement › All of the above (All of the above is CORRECT)

36  What holds bones together? › Tendons › Ligaments › Cartilage › Marrow (Ligaments is CORRECT)

37  What attaches your muscles to bones? › Ligaments › Cartilage › Tendons › Cranium (Tendons is CORRECT)

38  Why is bone marrow important? › Marrow is very hard › Marrow makes oxygen › Marrow makes blood cells › Marrow cleans your blood (Marrow makes blood cells is CORRECT)

39  Image produced when a small amount of radiation passes through the body and strikes a sheet of sensitive film placed on the opposite side of the body  Bones contain calcium, therefore not allowing much radiation through (which causes bones to show up as white images on X-ray film)  Radiologists specialize in reading and making sense of X-rays

40  Orthopedics is the medical specialty responsible for treating entire skeletal system  In the US, orthopedic surgeons have typically completed 4 years of undergraduate education and 4 years of medical school  Then undergo residency training in orthopedic surgery  The American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery oversees the certification process for this specialty  Many go on to further specialize in specific areas, such as the spine, hand or sports injuries

41  Can you guess what it is? Osteoporosis

42  Osteoporosis is the disease in which the bones become weak and are more likely to break  People with osteoporosis most often break bones in the hip, spine, and wrist

43  In the United States, more than 40 million people either already have osteoporosis or are at high risk due to low bone mass  Osteoporosis can occur in both men and women and at any age, but it is most common in older women

44  Gender- women get osteoporosis more often than men  Age- the older you are, the greater your risk of osteoporosis  Body size- small, thin women are at greater risk  Ethnicity- white and Asian women are at highest risk; Black and Hispanic women have a lower risk  Family history- osteoporosis tends to run in families; If a family member has osteoporosis or breaks a bone, there is a greater chance that you will too

45  Anorexia nervosa- this eating disorder can lead to osteoporosis  Calcium and vitamin D intake- a diet low in calcium and vitamin D makes you more prone to bone loss  Medication use- certain medicines increase the risk of osteoporosis  Activity level- lack of exercise or long-term bed rest can cause weak bones  Smoking- cigarettes have proven to be bad for bones (and the heart, and lungs, too)  Drinking alcohol- too much alcohol can cause bone loss and broken bones

46  There are several ways to avoid osteoporosis: › Eat a diet rich in calcium and vitamin D › Exercise › Don’t drink or smoke in excess

47  You might be wondering:  “How does the skeletal system relate to all of the other vital systems of the human body?”  To answer your question, it’s relationship with each system is unique and important to keep the body healthy

48  Indirect relationship with the “skin”  Vital because the calcium keeps bones hard and strong  In the presence of sunlight, a vitamin D precursor is produced in the dermal capillary blood

49  Hormones acting individually and in concert direct skeletal growth during youth, and enhance (or impair) skeletal strength in adults  Growth hormone is essential for normal skeletal growth and maintenance throughout life

50  If we participate in weight-bearing exercise regularly, our muscles become more efficient and exert more force on our bones  As a result, our bones stay healthy and strong and increase their mass to assume the added stress  Regular exercise also stretches the connective tissues binding bones to muscles and to other bones, and reinforcing joints


52  The hyoid bone (which is in your throat) is the only bone in the body not attached to another bone


54  The smallest bones in the body are the three bones in the ear (anvil, stirrup, and hammer)


56  The collarbone (scientific name: clavicle) is the most commonly broken bone in the body


58  After death, cartilage rots faster than bone  This is why skulls have no ears or nose

59  Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology by Elaine N. Marieb    ‎  5b0b507b7a5245&t=Skeletal-System 


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