Presentation on theme: "The Axial Skeleton EFE Veterinary Science. Basic Concepts."— Presentation transcript:
The Axial Skeleton EFE Veterinary Science
Types of Bones Long, short, and flat bones. 1, Proximal and distal epiphyses; 1′, epiphysial cartilage; 2, diaphysis of a young dog's radius; 3, carpal bone of a horse; 4, parietal bone from the skull of a dog.
Structure of Bones A, A long bone (bovine humerus) sectioned longitudinally. B, Osteone with central (haversian) canal. 1, Articular cartilage; 2, spongy bone; 2′, epiphysial cartilage; 3, compact bone; 4, periosteum, partly reflected; 5, nutrient foramen; 6, marrow cavity; 7, roughened area for attachment of muscle or ligament; 8, distal extent of medial epicondyle; 9, tendons of origin of carpal and digital flexors.
Blood Supply of a Long Bone The blood supply of a long bone, schematic. The supply of the cortex is shown (enlarged) in the center. 1, Epiphysial arteries; 2, metaphysial arteries; 3, nutrient artery; 4, 4′, artery and vein of the bone marrow; 5, periosteal arteries; 5′, periosteal vein; 6, anastomosis between periosteal and bone marrow arteries; 7, capillaries of the cortex; 8, sinusoids in the bone marrow; 9, growth cartilage; 10, cortex.
Structure of Spongy (Cancellous) Bone Proximal end of the humerus of a cow, sectioned sagittally, as an example of the architecture of spongy bone
Specialized Bones Sesamoid boneSplanchnic BonePneumatic Bone
Fibrous Joints Sutures between the bones of a puppy's skull. 1, Parietal bone; 2, frontal bone; 3, fontanelle (fonticulus); 4, orbit.
Synovial Joints A, A synovial joint in section. 1, Joint cavity; 2, synovial membrane; 3, articular cartilage; 4, fibrous layer of joint capsule; 5, periosteum; 6, compact bone.
Synovial Joints B, Scanning electron micrograph of villi projecting from the synovial membrane of the equine fetlock joint; greatly enlarged.
Synovial Joints The seven types of synovial joints, with examples. A, Plane joint: articular processes of equine cervical vertebrae. B, Hinge joint: equine fetlock (metacarpophalangeal) joint. C, Pivot joint: bovine atlantoaxial joint (cranial view). D, Condylar joint: canine femorotibial joint (stifle). E, Ellipsoidal joint: canine carpus. F, Saddle joint: canine distal interphalangeal joint. G, Spheroidal joint: canine hip joint (caudodorsal view). 1, Proximal sesamoid bone; 2, spine of axis; 3, dorsal arch of atlas; 4, dens of axis; 5, ventral arch of atlas; 6, radius; 7, ulna; 8, proximal row of carpal bones.
Ligaments Cranial view of left stifle joint of the dog, resected to show intracapsular (1, 2) and extracapsular (6, 8) ligaments. 1, Cranial cruciate ligament; 2, caudal cruciate ligament; 3, medial meniscus; 4, lateral meniscus; 5, tendon of origin of long digital extensor; 6, lateral collateral ligament; 7, patellar ligament; 8, medial collateral ligament; 9, medial condyle, partly removed.
Muscles Limb movements illustrated by the femurs of the dog, cranial view. 1, Adduction; 2, abduction; 3, circumduction; 4, inward rotation; 5, outward rotation. Flexion, extension, and overextension illustrated by the distal part of the horse's forelimb. 1, Flexed carpal joint; 2, extended carpal joint; 3, flexed fetlock joint; 4, extended fetlock joint; 5, overextended fetlock joint.
Muscles Skeletal Smooth Cardiac
Tendons Tendons attach muscles to bones.
Protective Structures for Tendons Sections of a synovial bursa (A) and a tendon sheath (B). The bursa permits frictionless movement of a tendon (1) over bone, and the sheath permits movement of a tendon over bone and under a retinaculum. The arrows show that a tendon sheath may be regarded as a large bursa that has wrapped around a tendon. 1, Tendon; 2, bursa; 3, retinaculum; 4, tendon sheath; 5, mesotendon, through which blood vessels reach the tendon; 6, bone.
Cervical Vertebrae Cervical vertebrae of the dog; cranial is to the left. A, Atlas, dorsal view. B, Axis, lateral view. C, Fifth vertebra, lateral view. 1, Wing of atlas; 2, fovea dentis; 3, lateral vertebral foramen; 4, transverse foramen; 5, dens; 6, spinous process; 7, caudal articular process; 8, transverse process; 9, body; 10, cranial articular process; 11, position of vertebral foramen.
Atlantooccipital Joint (Dog) Canine atlantooccipital joint, dorsal view; the dorsal arch of the atlas has been removed. 1, Skull; 2, atlantooccipital joint capsule; 3, wing of atlas; 3′, dorsal arch of atlas, resected; 4, atlantoaxial joint capsule; 5, axis; 5′, spine of axis, its overhanging cranial portion having been removed; 6, dens; 7, transverse ligament of atlas; 8, alar ligaments; 9, apical ligament of dens; 10, dorsal margin of foramen magnum
Intervertebral Disc (Cow) Bovine lumbar intervertebral disk. 1, Spinous process; 2, lamina; 3, synovial intervertebral joint; 4, articular process of adjacent vertebra; 5, vertebral canal with contents (spinal cord and meninges surrounded by epidural fat); 6, nucleus pulposus; 7, anulus fibrosus.
Vertebral Ligaments Ligaments of the vertebral column. Paramedian section of lumbar vertebrae of a dog; viewed from the left. 1, Supraspinous ligament; 2, spinous process; 3, interspinous ligament; 4, arch of vertebra; 5, interarcuate ligament; 6, intervertebral foramen; 7, dorsal longitudinal ligament; 8, ventral longitudinal ligament; 9, intervertebral disk.
Neck and Nuchal Ligament (Dog) Nuchal ligament of the dog. 1, Wing of atlas; 2, spinous process of axis; 3, nuchal ligament; 4, spinous process of first thoracic vertebra; 5, platelike extension of transverse process.
Thoracic Vertebra Thoracic vertebra of the dog; left lateral view. 1, Spinous process; 2, caudal articular process; 3, transverse process with costal fovea; 4, mamillary process; 5, caudal vertebral notch; 6, 7, costal foveae; 8, body.
Form Follows Function Contrast the orientation (arrows) of the articular surfaces of a cervical (left) and a lumbar (right) vertebra of the dog, caudal view.
Lumbar Vertebrae (Dog) Lumbar vertebrae of the dog, left lateral view. 1, Mamillary process; 2, accessory process; 3, spinous process; 4, transverse process; 5, body; 6, intervertebral disk.
Sacrum and Caudal Vertebrae (Dog) Canine sacrum and caudal vertebrae. A, Sacrum, ventral view. B, Sacrum, dorsal view. C, Sacrum, cranial view. D, Caudal vertebra, dorsal view. E, Caudal vertebra, cranial view. 1, Promontory; 2, auricular articular surface; 3, ventral (3′ dorsal) sacral foramina for ventral (3′ dorsal) branches of sacral nerves; 4, spinous process; 5, rudimentary articular process; 6, vertebral canal; 7, body; 8, transverse process; 9, hemal arch, also called chevron; 10, cranial articular process.
Ribs (Dog) Left rib of a dog, caudal view. B, Left rib of a dog articulating with two vertebrae, lateral view. 1, Tubercle; 2, head; 3, neck; 4, angle; 5, body; 6, costochondral junction; 7, costal cartilage; 8, intervertebral disk; 9, vertebra of same number as rib.
Ribcage A, Canine and B, equine sternum and costal cartilages, ventral and left lateral views. 1, Manubrium; 2, first rib; 3, sternebra; 4, costochondral junction; 5, xiphoid cartilage; 6, costal arch; 7, floating rib.
Costovertebral Articulation Costovertebral articulations; transverse section of the vertebral column of the dog (about T8). 1, Lamina of vertebra; 2, intercapital ligament; 3, tubercle of rib; 4, head of rib; 5, intervertebral disk; 6, dorsal longitudinal ligament; 7, costovertebral joint; 8, costotransverse joint covered by costotransverse ligament.
Hips and Pelvis (Dog) Canine hip bones in left lateral (A) and ventral (B) views. Dorsal (C) view of equine pelvis. The broken lines give the approximate extents of ilium, pubis, and ischium. 1, Wing of ilium; 2, ventral iliac spines; 2′, coxal tuber; 3, dorsal iliac spines; 3′, sacral tuber; 4, greater sciatic notch; 5, ischial spine; 6, pubis; 7, obturator foramen; 8, ischium; 9, ischial tuber; 10, lesser sciatic notch; 11, acetabulum; 12, pelvic symphysis; 13, ischial arch; 14, iliopubic eminence; 15, auricular articular surface; 16, sacrum.
The Diaphragm (Dog) A, Cranial view of the canine diaphragm. B, Lateral view of the canine thorax showing ribs and cranial extent of diaphragm in inspiration (broken lines) and expiration (solid lines). 1, Left crus; 2, right crus; 3, aorta; 4, esophagus; 5, attachment of caudal mediastinum to diaphragm; 6, sternal and costal parts of diaphragm; 7, tendinous center; 8, attachment of plica venae cavae; 9, caudal vena cava.
Rectus Abdominus Muscles Rectus sheath of the dog in transverse sections taken cranially (A) and caudal (B) to the umbilicus and near the pubis (C). 1, External abdominal oblique; 2, internal abdominal oblique; 3, transversus abdominis; 4, peritoneum; 5, cranial epigastric vessels; 5′, cranial superficial epigastric vessels; 6, rectus abdominis; 7, fat-filled falciform ligament; 8, linea alba; 9, caudal epigastric vessels; 9′, caudal superficial epigastric vessels; 10, internal lamina of rectus sheath; 11, external lamina of rectus sheath; 12, skin; 13, median ligament of the bladder.
Pelvic Muscles (Dog)
The Skull (Dog) Lateral (A), dorsal (B), and ventral (C) views of the canine skull to show the extents of the cranial bones. 1, Nasal bone; 2, incisive bone; 3, maxilla; 4, lacrimal bone; 5, orbit; 6, frontal bone; 7, parietal bone; 8, occipital bone; 9, temporal bone; 10, zygomatic bone; 11, palatine bone; 12, presphenoid; 12′, wing of presphenoid; 13, pterygoid bone; 14, basisphenoid; 14′, pterygoid process of basisphenoid; 15, vomer.
The Skull (Dog, dorsal view) Dorsal view of canine skull. 1, Nasal aperture; 2, infraorbital foramen; 2′, maxillary foramen; 3, fossa for lacrimal sac; 4, orbit; 4′, zygomatic process of frontal bone; 5, zygomatic arch; 6, external sagittal crest; 7, nuchal crest; 8, external occipital protuberance, 9, cranium
The Skull (Dog, ventral view) Ventral view of canine skull. 1, Palatine fissure; 2, hard palate; 3, choanal region; 4, oval foramen; 5, base of cranium; 6, foramen lacerum; 7, tympanic bulla; 8, jugular foramen; 9, paracondylar process; 10, hypoglossal canal; 11, occipital condyle; 12, foramen magnum
The mandible (Dog, lateral and medial views) Lateral (A) and medial (B) views of the left half of the canine mandible. 1, Coronoid process; 2, vertical part (ramus); 3, condylar process; 4, angular process; 5, horizontal part (body); 6, mental foramina; 7, mandibular foramen; 8, symphysial surface.
Hyoid Apparatus (Dog) Hyoid apparatus and larynx suspended from the temporal region of a canine skull. 1, External acoustic meatus; 2, tympanic bulla; 3, stylohyoid; 4, epihyoid; 5, ceratohyoid; 6, basihyoid; 7, thyrohyoid; 8, epiglottic cartilage; 9, thyroid cartilage; 10, cricoid cartilage