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Presentation on theme: "Www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anthfood/aftexts.html#title."— Presentation transcript:

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4 Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans Through Paleontology Teeth Skulls and Jaws The Postcranial Skeleton What Is Adaptation? Using Chemistry to Infer the Diets of Extinct Hominids Our Place in Nature A Brief Who's Who of the Early Hominids What Did Early Hominids Eat? What Can We Say About the Diets of Fossil Homo? Summary Highlight: Lactose Intolerance Diet and Human Evolution

5 Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans Through Paleontology Teeth Skulls and Jaws The Postcranial Skeleton What Is Adaptation? Using Chemistry to Infer the Diets of Extinct Hominids Our Place in Nature A Brief Who's Who of the Early Hominids What Did Early Hominids Eat? What Can We Say About the Diets of Fossil Homo? Summary Highlight: Lactose Intolerance Diet and Human Evolution paleontologists study fossilized remains of extinct animals and plants paleobotanists specialize in the study of fossilized remains of plants

6 you’ve seen paleontology on the chart earlier...

7 Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans Through Paleontology Teeth Skulls and Jaws The Postcranial Skeleton What Is Adaptation? Using Chemistry to Infer the Diets of Extinct Hominids Our Place in Nature A Brief Who's Who of the Early Hominids What Did Early Hominids Eat? What Can We Say About the Diets of Fossil Homo? Summary Highlight: Lactose Intolerance Diet and Human Evolution

8 The Cultural Feast, 2 nd Ed., p. 17 NOTE: “hominids” are now generally reclassified as “hominins”

9 NOTE: “hominids” “We are what they ate” The Cultural Feast, 2 nd Ed., p. 17 are now generally reclassified as “hominins” --

10 Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans Through Paleontology Teeth Skulls and Jaws The Postcranial Skeleton What Is Adaptation? Using Chemistry to Infer the Diets of Extinct Hominids Our Place in Nature A Brief Who's Who of the Early Hominids What Did Early Hominids Eat? What Can We Say About the Diets of Fossil Homo? Summary Highlight: Lactose Intolerance Diet and Human Evolution Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans Through Paleontology

11 Teeth Skulls and Jaws The Postcranial Skeleton What Is Adaptation? Using Chemistry to Infer the Diets of Extinct Hominids Our Place in Nature A Brief Who's Who of the Early Hominids What Did Early Hominids Eat? What Can We Say About the Diets of Fossil Homo? Summary Highlight: Lactose Intolerance Diet and Human Evolution Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans Through Paleontology paleontology paleobotanists paleontologists primates prosimians

12 REM paleontologists study fossilized remains of extinct animals and plants paleobotanists specialize in the study of fossilized remains of plants

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14 Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans Through Paleontology Teeth Skulls and Jaws The Postcranial Skeleton What Is Adaptation? Using Chemistry to Infer the Diets of Extinct Hominids Our Place in Nature A Brief Who's Who of the Early Hominids What Did Early Hominids Eat? What Can We Say About the Diets of Fossil Homo? Summary Highlight: Lactose Intolerance Diet and Human Evolution Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans Through Paleontology paleontology paleobotanists paleontologists primates prosimians...

15 “Primates” are a biological “Order” comprised of prosimians (“pre-monkeys”) monkeys apes humans

16 hominids are two-legged primates prehistoric and contemporary The Cultural Feast, 2 nd Ed., p. 20 now “hominins”

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19 pre-monkeys (aka “prosimians”)

20 monkeys prosimians

21 apes prosimians monkeys

22 prosimians monkeys apes bipedal apes

23 prosimians monkeys apes bipedal apes apes that walk habitually on two legs, like you do

24 humans prosimians monkeys apes bipedal apes

25 prosimians monkeys apes humans bipedal apes

26 “Anthropoids” = all living and extinct monkeys, apes and humans

27 Anthropoids apes humans monkeys bipedal apes prosimians

28 “Hominoids” = all living and extinct apes and humans aka Hominoidea The Cultural Feast, 2 nd Ed., p. 20

29 Hominoids humans bipedal apes prosimians monkeys

30 gibbons orangutans bonobos chimps gorillas humans Campbell and Loy, Humankind Emerging, 8 th Ed., pp. 138 ff.

31 “Hominids” = modern humans and their nearest predecessors aka Hominidae The Cultural Feast, 2 nd Ed., p. 20

32 Hominids humans bipedal apes prosimians monkeys apes TRADITIONAL CLASSIFICATION

33 Hominids humans bipedal apes prosimians monkeys apes

34 Understanding Humans: Introduction to Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 11 th ed. Barry Lewis, Robert Jurmain, and Lynn Kilgore Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing ©2012 NEW CLASSIFICATION

35 NEW CLASSIFICATION “Hominin” = “colloquial term for members of the tribe Hominini, the evolutionary group that includes modern human and now-extinct bipedal relatives” (like “Lucy”)

36 Hominin humans bipedal apes prosimians monkeys apes

37 Hominins humans prosimians monkeys apes bipedal apes

38 Hominins

39 Lucy and “The First Family” Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th Ed., p. 206 example

40 Lucy and “The First Family” Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9 th Ed., p. 206 example

41 “Lucy" and "The First Family" Hadar, Ethiopia (Site 333 on the Awash River) Australopithecus afarensis mya example

42 useful markers of the earliest hominids / hominins: adaptations for bipedalism... reduced canine length...

43 useful markers of the earliest hominids / hominins: adaptations for bipedalism reduced canine length...

44 useful markers of the earliest hominids / hominins: adaptations for bipedalism reduced canine length … which is walking habitually on two legs, like you do

45 useful markers of the earliest hominids / hominins: adaptations for bipedalism... reduced canine length

46 useful markers of the earliest hominids / hominins: adaptations for bipedalism... reduced canine length and canine length brings us to teeth...

47 Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans Through Paleontology Teeth Skulls and Jaws The Postcranial Skeleton What Is Adaptation? Using Chemistry to Infer the Diets of Extinct Hominids Our Place in Nature A Brief Who's Who of the Early Hominids What Did Early Hominids Eat? What Can We Say About the Diets of Fossil Homo? Summary Highlight: Lactose Intolerance Diet and Human Evolution Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans Through Paleontology Teeth Skulls and Jaws The Postcranial Skeleton

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50 Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans Through Paleontology Teeth Skulls and Jaws The Postcranial Skeleton What Is Adaptation? Using Chemistry to Infer the Diets of Extinct Hominids Our Place in Nature A Brief Who's Who of the Early Hominids What Did Early Hominids Eat? What Can We Say About the Diets of Fossil Homo? Summary Highlight: Lactose Intolerance Diet and Human Evolution

51 Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans Through Paleontology Teeth Skulls and Jaws The Postcranial Skeleton What Is Adaptation? Using Chemistry to Infer the Diets of Extinct Hominids Our Place in Nature A Brief Who's Who of the Early Hominids What Did Early Hominids Eat? What Can We Say About the Diets of Fossil Homo? Summary Highlight: Lactose Intolerance Diet and Human Evolution Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans Through Paleontology Teeth Skulls and Jaws The Postcranial Skeleton

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53 useful markers of the earliest hominids / hominins: adaptations for bipedalism … reduced canine length … and this is though mostly to relate to a change in diet

54 useful markers of the earliest hominids / hominins: adaptations for bipedalism … reduced canine length … and this is though mostly to relate to a change in diet

55 herbivorous (principally plants) insectivorous (principally insects) frugivorous (principally fruits) graminivorous (principally grasses) folivorous (principally leaf eating) proteinivorous (principally protein eating) carnivorous (chiefly meats) omnivorous (“devours” “all”) locavore (principally locally available foods) REM: diet classifications

56 herbivorous (principally plants) insectivorous (principally insects) frugivorous (principally fruits) graminivorous (principally grasses) folivorous (principally leaf eating) proteinivorous (principally protein eating) carnivorous (chiefly meats) omnivorous (“devours” “all”) locavore (principally locally available foods) diet classifications from...

57 apes (and monkeys) still possess conical, daggerish canines which project well beyond the surface of the opposite teeth...

58 Teeth of a male patas monkey Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9 th Ed., p. 205

59 apes (and monkeys) have diastemata, spaces opposite the large canine teeth... (“diastemata” = plural of “diastema”)

60 diastema = a space in the tooth row that accommodates one or more teeth from the opposite jaw

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62 add molars grinding

63 Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans Through Paleontology Teeth Skulls and Jaws The Postcranial Skeleton What Is Adaptation? Using Chemistry to Infer the Diets of Extinct Hominids Our Place in Nature A Brief Who's Who of the Early Hominids What Did Early Hominids Eat? What Can We Say About the Diets of Fossil Homo? Summary Highlight: Lactose Intolerance Diet and Human Evolution Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans Through Paleontology Teeth Skulls and Jaws The Postcranial Skeleton

64 Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans Through Paleontology Teeth Skulls and Jaws The Postcranial Skeleton What Is Adaptation? Using Chemistry to Infer the Diets of Extinct Hominids Our Place in Nature A Brief Who's Who of the Early Hominids What Did Early Hominids Eat? What Can We Say About the Diets of Fossil Homo? Summary Highlight: Lactose Intolerance Diet and Human Evolution Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans Through Paleontology Teeth Skulls and Jaws The Postcranial Skeleton

65 Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans Through Paleontology Teeth Skulls and Jaws The Postcranial Skeleton What Is Adaptation? Using Chemistry to Infer the Diets of Extinct Hominids Our Place in Nature A Brief Who's Who of the Early Hominids What Did Early Hominids Eat? What Can We Say About the Diets of Fossil Homo? Summary Highlight: Lactose Intolerance Diet and Human Evolution Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans Through Paleontology Teeth Skull and Jaws The Postcranial Skeleton = cranium

66 Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9 th Ed., p. 432 Modern human cranium

67 Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans Through Paleontology Teeth Skulls and Jaws The Postcranial Skeleton What Is Adaptation? Using Chemistry to Infer the Diets of Extinct Hominids Our Place in Nature A Brief Who's Who of the Early Hominids What Did Early Hominids Eat? What Can We Say About the Diets of Fossil Homo? Summary Highlight: Lactose Intolerance Diet and Human Evolution Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans Through Paleontology Teeth Skulls and Jaws The Postcranial Skeleton

68 the lower jaw = mandible and the little bony ridge inside running alongside the tongue is a “mandibular torus”

69 Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9 th Ed., p. 432 Modern human cranium

70 in apes mandibles slant outward and downward, without a chin (“prognathism”)

71 Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8 th Ed., p. 245 Pongid Prognathism (Line of greatest muscle force is shown in red)

72 Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8 th Ed., p. 245 Pongid Prognathism (Line of greatest muscle force is shown in red)

73 apes have a “simian shelf” rather than a chin

74 in humans lower jaw is comparatively small, but always has a distinct chin

75 Modern human cranium Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9 th Ed., p. 432

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77 Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans Through Paleontology Teeth Skulls and Jaws The Postcranial Skeleton What Is Adaptation? Using Chemistry to Infer the Diets of Extinct Hominids Our Place in Nature A Brief Who's Who of the Early Hominids What Did Early Hominids Eat? What Can We Say About the Diets of Fossil Homo? Summary Highlight: Lactose Intolerance Diet and Human Evolution Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans Through Paleontology Teeth Skulls and Jaws saggital crest The Postcranial Skeleton

78 Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8 th Ed., p. 245 Pongid Prognathism (Line of greatest muscle force is shown in red)

79 Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8 th Ed., p. 245 Satittal crests and temporal muscle orientations Hominid compared to pongid (Line of greatest muscle force is shown in red)

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82 Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans Through Paleontology Teeth Skulls and Jaws The Postcranial Skeleton What Is Adaptation? Using Chemistry to Infer the Diets of Extinct Hominids Our Place in Nature A Brief Who's Who of the Early Hominids What Did Early Hominids Eat? What Can We Say About the Diets of Fossil Homo? Summary Highlight: Lactose Intolerance Diet and Human Evolution Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans Through Paleontology Teeth Skulls and Jaws The Postcranial Skeleton

83 Postcranial = below the head (with bipeds) behind the head (with quadrupeds)

84 Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8 th Ed., pp. 223, 128 Modern human Postcrania New World monkey

85 Sivapithecus Homo erectus Australopithecus Homo habilis Homo sapiens Paranthropus dates are approximate and follow Understanding Humans mya–25,000 ybp mya mya mya 15-7 mya Moderns (Cro-magnon …) Premoderns (Neandertal …) 500,000-28,000 ybp 165,000 ybp-present

86 Siva pithecus Homo erectus Australopithecus Homo habilis Homo sapiens Paranthropus dates are approximate and follow Understanding Humans mya–25,000 ybp mya mya mya 15-7 mya Moderns (Cro-magnon …) Premoderns (Neandertal …) 500,000-28,000 ybp 165,000 ybp-present

87 Siva pithecus Homo erectus Australopithecus Homo habilis Homo sapiens Paranthropus dates are approximate and follow Understanding Humans mya–25,000 ybp mya mya mya 15-7 mya Moderns (Cro-magnon …) Premoderns (Neandertal …) 500,000-28,000 ybp 165,000 ybp-present anything called pithecus is an ape

88 Spring 2003

89 Siva pithecus Homo erectus Australopithecus Homo habilis Homo sapiens Paranthropus dates are approximate and follow Understanding Humans mya–25,000 ybp mya mya mya 15-7 mya Moderns (Cro-magnon …) Premoderns (Neandertal …) 500,000-28,000 ybp 165,000 ybp-present apes are not bipeds they’re brachiators (p. 23)

90 Why bipedalism? there are a lot of theories … several of them related to food procurement and use …

91 Why bipedalism? there are a lot of theories... several of them related to food procurement and use...

92 Why bipedalism? Owen Lovejoy for example, thinks it’s ALL about food...

93 Why bipedalism? Owen Lovejoy for example, thinks it’s ALL about food... “provisioning hypothesis”

94 bipedalism relates to long-distance walking... including carrying food

95 Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8 th Ed., p. 217 Possible Factors Influencing the Initial Evolution of Bipedal Locomotion in Hominids

96 Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8 th Ed., p. 217 Possible Factors Influencing the Initial Evolution of Bipedal Locomotion in Hominids

97 ... and even non-bipeds carry food...

98 Chimpanzee The Primates, Time-Life (1974) p. 71

99 Lovejoy’s ideas on bipedalism specifically relate to male help in carrying food back to the “home base”... known as “provisioning”

100 Lovejoy’s ideas on bipedalism specifically relate to male help in carrying food back to the “home base”... this is known as “provisioning”

101 ... note male help in “provisioning”

102 ... note male help in “provisioning” in Owen Lovejoy’s “provisioning hypothesis”

103 Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8 th Ed., p. 217 Possible Factors Influencing the Initial Evolution of Bipedal Locomotion in Hominids

104 bipedalism is also related to tool use... including such simple tools as a digging stick (dibble / coa)

105 bipedalism is also related to tool use... including such simple tools as a digging stick (dibble / coa)

106 Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8 th Ed., p. 217 Possible Factors Influencing the Initial Evolution of Bipedal Locomotion in Hominids

107 bipedalism is related to hunting

108 Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8 th Ed., p. 217 Possible Factors Influencing the Initial Evolution of Bipedal Locomotion in Hominids

109 Hunting / Gathering / Collecting (foraging)

110 bipedalism is related to seed and nut gathering and feeding from bushes

111 Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8 th Ed., p. 217 Possible Factors Influencing the Initial Evolution of Bipedal Locomotion in Hominids

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113 The Emergence of Humankind 4 th Ed., p. 105

114 New York University Press 2005

115 another consequence of our primate heritage and enlarged brain is that we are blessed and cursed with an insensate craving for sweets and fats we seem especially fond of sweet- sour foods in nature, ripe fruits and berries we love animal fats and vegetable fats equally nuts, seeds, oily fruits Everyone Eats pp

116 these are high-calorie, easily digestible foods that are most easily found in a rich patch following a burn Everyone Eats pp

117 “So the human tendency to crave certain foods is biologically grounded” Everyone Eats pp

118 bipedalism and vision (visual surveillance)

119 Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8 th Ed., p. 217 Possible Factors Influencing the Initial Evolution of Bipedal Locomotion in Hominids

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122 Humankind Emerging, 7th Ed., p. 114 Eye Level and Sight

123 Humankind Emerging, 7th Ed., p. 114 Eye Level and Sight and if you are a hunter, this difference makes a great difference in your hunting success rate... and maybe even your own survival rate

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125 Bipedalism and body heat regulation

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