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Anatomy & Physiology I Lecture 6 Chapter 7: The Skeleton.

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1 Anatomy & Physiology I Lecture 6 Chapter 7: The Skeleton

2 The Skeletal System Two major parts: Axial – 80 bones of the skull, vertebral columan and thoracic cage Appendicular – bones of the limbs and their girdles

3 Axial Skeleton Forms the longitudinal axis of the body Supports the head, neck and tunk Protects the brain, spinal cord, and organs of the thorax

4 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.1a The human skeleton. Anterior view Radius Rib Skull Thoracic cage (ribs and sternum) Vertebral column Sacrum Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges Ulna Vertebra Humerus Sternum Scapula Clavicle Facial bones Cranium Fibula Tibia Patella Femur Metacarpals Phalanges Carpals

5 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Metacarpals Radius Rib Posterior view Fibula Tibia Femur Phalanges Carpals Ulna Vertebra Humerus Sternum Scapula Clavicle Cranium Bones of pectoral girdle Upper limb Bones of pelvic girdle Lower limb Figure 7.1b The human skeleton.

6 The Skull Formed by two sets of bones – 22 bones total Cranium bones – Enclose the brain in the cranial cavity – Provide sites of attachment for head and neck muscles Facial bones – Framework of face – Sites of attachment for teeth and muscles of facial expression

7 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.2a The skull: Cranial and facial divisions and fossae. Bones of cranium Coronal suture Squamous suture Lambdoid suture Facial bones Cranial and facial divisions of the skull

8 The Eight Cranial Bones Frontal bone Parietal bones (2) Occipital bone Temporal bones (2) Sphenoid bone Ethmoid bone Funny POETS PEST OF 6 (6 different bones)

9 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Parietal bone Squamous part of frontal bone Nasal bone Sphenoid bone (greater wing) Temporal bone Ethmoid bone Lacrimal bone Zygomatic bone Infraorbital foramen Maxilla Mandible Mental foramen Frontal bone Glabella Frontonasal suture Supraorbital foramen (notch) Supraorbital margin Superior orbital fissure Optic canal Inferior orbital fissure Middle nasal concha Perpendicular plate Ethmoid bone Inferior nasal concha Vomer Sutural bone Sagittal suture Parietal bone Mandibular symphysis Lambdoid suture Occipital bone Superior nuchal line External occipital protuberance Occipitomastoid suture External occipital crest Occipital condyle Mastoid process of temporal bone Inferior nuchal line Anterior view Posterior view Figure 7.4 Anatomy of the anterior and posterior aspects of the skull.

10 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.5a Bones of the lateral aspect of the skull, external and internal views. Coronal suture Parietal bone Temporal bone Lambdoid suture Squamous suture Zygomatic process Occipital bone Occipitomastoid suture External acoustic meatus Mastoid process Styloid process Condylar process Mandibular notch Mandibular ramus Frontal bone Sphenoid bone (greater wing) Ethmoid bone Lacrimal bone Lacrimal fossa Nasal bone Zygomatic bone Maxilla Alveolar processes Mandible Mental foramen Coronoid process Mandibular angle External anatomy of the right side of the skull

11 Parietal Bones and Major Associated Sutures Four sutures mark articulations of parietal bones with frontal, occipital, and temporal bones: – Coronal suture—between parietal bones and frontal bone – Sagittal suture—between right and left parietal bones – Lambdoid suture—between parietal bones and occipital bone – Squamous (squamosal) sutures—between parietal and temporal bones on each side of skull

12 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.5a Bones of the lateral aspect of the skull, external and internal views. Coronal suture Parietal bone Temporal bone Lambdoid suture Squamous suture Zygomatic process Occipital bone Occipitomastoid suture External acoustic meatus Mastoid process Styloid process Condylar process Mandibular notch Mandibular ramus Frontal bone Sphenoid bone (greater wing) Ethmoid bone Lacrimal bone Lacrimal fossa Nasal bone Zygomatic bone Maxilla Alveolar processes Mandible Mental foramen Coronoid process Mandibular angle External anatomy of the right side of the skull //

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14 Temporal Bones Inferolateral (below and to the side) aspects of skull and parts of cranial base Contains the zygomatic process that meets the zygomatic bone of the face

15 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.8 The temporal bone. External acoustic meatus Squamous part Petrous part Mastoid process Styloid process Zygomatic process Mandibular fossa Tympanic part

16 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.5a Bones of the lateral aspect of the skull, external and internal views. Coronal suture Parietal bone Temporal bone Lambdoid suture Squamous suture Zygomatic process Occipital bone Occipitomastoid suture External acoustic meatus Mastoid process Styloid process Condylar process Mandibular notch Mandibular ramus Frontal bone Sphenoid bone (greater wing) Ethmoid bone Lacrimal bone Lacrimal fossa Nasal bone Zygomatic bone Maxilla Alveolar processes Mandible Mental foramen Coronoid process Mandibular angle External anatomy of the right side of the skull

17 Sphenoid Bone Complex, bat-shaped bone Keystone bone Articulates with all other cranial bones

18 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.9a The sphenoid bone. Optic canal Lesser wing Superior orbital fissure Foramen rotundum Foramen ovale Foramen spinosum Body of sphenoid Greater wing Hypophyseal fossa of sella turcica Superior view

19 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.9b The sphenoid bone. Lesser wing Superior orbital fissure Pterygoid process Body of sphenoid Greater wing Posterior view

20 Ethmoid Bone Deepest skull bone Superior part of nasal septum, roof of nasal cavities Contributes to medial wall of orbits

21 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.10 The ethmoid bone. Crista galli Cribriform plate with cribriform foramina Left lateral mass Orbital plate Ethmoidal air cells Perpendicular plate Middle nasal concha

22 Fourteen Facial Bones 8 bones, 14 toal – Mandible – Maxillary (maxillae) (2) – Zygomatic (2) – Nasal (2) – Lacrimal (2) – Palatine (2) – Vomer – Inferior nasal conchae (2) Virgil Can Not Make My Pet Zebra Laugh.

23 Mandible Lower jaw Largest, strongest bone of face Temporomandibular joint – Only freely movable joint in skull

24 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.11a Detailed anatomy of the mandible and the maxilla. Temporomandibular joint Mandibular fossa of temporal bone Coronoid process Condylar process Mandibular notch Mandibular foramen Alveolar process Mental foramen Ramus of mandible Mandibular angle Body of mandible Mandible, right lateral view

25 Maxillary Bones (2) Medially fused to form upper jaw and central portion of facial skeleton Keystone bones – Articulate with all other facial bones except mandible

26 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.11b Detailed anatomy of the mandible and the maxilla. Articulates withfrontal bone Frontal process Infraorbital foramen Anterior nasal spine Alveolar process Orbital surface Zygomatic process (cut) Maxilla, right lateral view

27 Zygomatic Bones Cheekbones Inferolateral margins of orbits

28 Nasal and Lacrimal Bones Nasal bones – Form bridge of nose Lacrimal bones – In medial walls of orbits

29 Palatine and Vomer Bones Palatine bones – Posterior one-third of hard palate – Posterolateral walls of the nasal cavity – Small part of the orbits Vomer – Plow shaped – Inferior part of nasal septum

30 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.4a Anatomy of the anterior and posterior aspects of the skull. Parietal bone Squamous part of frontal bone Nasal bone Sphenoid bone (greater wing) Temporal bone Ethmoid bone Lacrimal bone Zygomatic bone Infraorbital foramen Maxilla Mandible Mental foramen Frontal bone Glabella Frontonasal suture Supraorbital foramen (notch) Supraorbital margin Superior orbital fissure Optic canal Inferior orbital fissure Middle nasal concha Perpendicular plate Inferior nasal concha Vomer Ethmoid bone Anterior view Mandibular symphysis

31 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.6a Inferior aspect of the skull, mandible removed. Hard palate Maxilla (palatine process) Palatine bone (horizontal plate) Zygomatic bone Temporal bone (zygomatic process) Vomer Mandibular fossa Styloid process Mastoid process Temporal bone (petrous part) Basilar part of the occipital bone Parietal bone External occipital crest External occipital protuberance Inferior view of the skull (mandible removed) Incisive fossa Intermaxillary suture Median palatine suture Infraorbital foramen Maxilla Sphenoid bone (greater wing) Foramen ovale Foramen spinosum Foramen lacerum Carotid canal External acoustic meatus Stylomastoid foramen Jugular foramen Occipital condyle Inferior nuchal line Superior nuchal line Occipital bone Foramen magnum

32 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.5a Bones of the lateral aspect of the skull, external and internal views. Coronal suture Parietal bone Temporal bone Lambdoid suture Squamous suture Zygomatic process Occipital bone Occipitomastoid suture External acoustic meatus Mastoid process Styloid process Condylar process Mandibular notch Mandibular ramus Frontal bone Sphenoid bone (greater wing) Ethmoid bone Lacrimal bone Lacrimal fossa Nasal bone Zygomatic bone Maxilla Alveolar processes Mandible Mental foramen Coronoid process Mandibular angle External anatomy of the right side of the skull

33 Orbits Cavities that encase eyes and lacrimal glands Sites of attachment for eye muscles Formed by parts of seven bones – Frontal, sphenoid, zygomatic, maxilla, palatine, lacrimal, and ethmoid

34 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.12a Bones that form the orbits. Photograph, right orbit

35 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.12b Bones that form the orbits. Roof of orbit Supraorbital notch Superior orbital fissure Optic canal Lesser wing of sphenoid bone Orbital plate of frontal bone Medial wall Lateral wall of orbit Zygomatic process of frontal bone Greater wing of sphenoid bone Orbital surface of zygomatic bone Inferior orbital fissure Zygomatic bone Sphenoid body Orbital plate of ethmoid bone Frontal process of maxilla Lacrimal bone Nasal bone Floor of orbit Orbital process of palatine bone Orbital surface of maxillary bone Zygomatic bone Contribution of each of the seven bones forming the right orbit Infraorbital groove Infraorbital foramen

36 Paranasal Sinuses Mucosa-lined, air-filled spaces Lighten skull Enhance resonance of voice Openings connect sinuses to the nasal cavity – Warm and humidify air Found in frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary bones

37 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.14a Paranasal sinuses. Frontal sinus Ethmoidal air cells (sinus) Sphenoidal sinus Maxillary sinus Anterior aspect

38 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Frontal sinus Ethmoidal air cells Sphenoidal sinus Maxillary sinus Medial aspect Figure 7.14b Paranasal sinuses.

39 The Hyoid Bone Not bone of skull Does not articulate directly with another bone Movable base for tongue Site of attachment for muscles of swallowing and speech

40 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Greater horn Lesser horn Body Figure 7.15 The hyoid bone, anterior view.

41 Need a Summary? Refer to Table 7.1 Markings on the bone are not necessary at this time – Sites for nerve, muscle, artery and veins, ligament attachments and/or entry points

42 The Vertebral Column Transmits weight of trunk to lower limbs Surrounds and protects spinal cord Flexible curved structure containing 26 irregular bones (vertebrae) in five major regions

43 Five Regions of the Vertebrae Cervical vertebrae (7)—vertebrae of neck Thoracic vertebrae (12)—vertebrae of thoracic cage Lumbar vertebrae (5)—vertebrae of lower back Sacrum—bone inferior to lumbar vertebrae Coccyx—terminus of vertebral column

44 Vertebrae Curvatures Increase resilience and flexibility of spine Cervical and lumbar curvatures – Concave posteriorly Thoracic and sacral curvatures – Convex posteriorly

45 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.16 The vertebral column. Cervical curvature (concave) 7 vertebrae, C 1 – C 7 Spinous process Transverse processes Thoracic curvature (convex) 12 vertebrae, T 1 – T 12 Intervertebral discs Intervertebral foramen Lumbar curvature (concave) 5 vertebrae, L 1 – L 5 Sacral curvature (convex) 5 fused vertebrae sacrum Coccyx 4 fused vertebrae Anterior viewRight lateral view C1C T1T L1L

46 General Structure of Vertebrae Body or centrum – Anterior weight-bearing region Vertebral arch – Composed of pedicles and laminae that, along with centrum, enclose vertebral foramen Vertebral foramina – Make up vertebral canal for spinal cord

47 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Posterior Vertebral arch Lamina Pedicle Anterior Spinous process Transverse process Superior articular facet and process Vertebral foramen Body (centrum) Figure 7.19 Typical vertebral structures.

48 Cervical Vertebrae C1 to C7: smallest, lightest vertebrae C3 to C7 share following features – Oval body – Spinous processes are bifid (except C7) – Large, triangular vertebral foramen – Transverse foramen in each transverse process C7 is called the vertebra prominens – landmark for counting vertebrae

49 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 7.2 Regional Characteristics of Cervical

50 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.21a Posterolateral views of articulated vertebrae. Dens of axis Transverse ligament of atlas C 1 (atlas) Inferior articular process Bifid spinous process Transverse processes C 7 (vertebra prominens) Cervical vertebrae C 2 (axis) C3C3

51 C1 and C2 vertebrae C1 (atlas) and C2 (axis) have unique features Atlas (C1) – No body or spinous process – Lateral masses articulate with occipital bones of skull – carry the skull Movement for "Yes"

52 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Anterior arch Anterior tubercle Superior articular facet Transverse foramen Posterior arch Posterior tubercle C1C1 Posterior Lateral masses Superior view of atlas (C 1 ) Facet for dens Inferior view of atlas (C 1 ) Lateral masses Inferior articular facet Anterior arch Anterior tubercle Posterior arch Transverse process Transverse foramen Posterior tubercle Figure 7.20a–b The first and second cervical vertebrae.

53 C1 and C2 vertebrae Axis (C2) – Is "missing" body of atlas (C1) Dens is a pivot for rotation of atlas (C1) Movement for "No"

54 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.20c The first and second cervical vertebrae. Posterior Inferior articular process Transverse process Dens Spinous process Lamina Pedicle Superior articular facet Superior view of axis (C 2 ) Body C2C2

55 Thoracic Vertebrae T1 to T12 All articulate with ribs Long, spinous process that points inferiorly Circular vertebral foramen Structure allows rotation of this area of spine – restriction by ribs

56 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 7.2 Regional Characteristics of Thoracic

57 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Transverse process Spinous process Superior articular process Transverse costal facet (for tubercle of rib) Intervertebral disc Body Inferior costal facet (for head of rib) Inferior articular process Thoracic vertebrae Figure 7.21b Posterolateral views of articulated vertebrae.

58 Lumbar Vertebrae L1 to L5 Receives most stress Short, thick pedicles and laminae Flat hatchet-shaped spinous processes point posteriorly Vertebral foramen triangular Structure locks vertebrae together to prevent rotation

59 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 7.2 Regional Characteristics of Vertebrae

60 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.21c Posterolateral views of articulated vertebrae. Superior articular process Transverse process Spinous process Body Intervertebral disc Inferior articular process Lumbar vertebrae

61 Sacrum and Coccyx Sacrum – 5 fused vertebrae (S1– S5) – Forms posterior wall of pelvis – Articulates with L5 superiorly, and with auricular surfaces of hip bones, forming sacroiliac joints Coccyx – Tailbone – 3–5 fused vertebrae – Articulates superiorly with sacrum

62 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.22a The sacrum and coccyx. Sacral promontory Ala Apex Coccyx Anterior sacral foramina Transverse ridges (sites of vertebral fusion) Body of first sacral vertebra Anterior view

63 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.22b The sacrum and coccyx. Ala Sacral canal Body Facet of superior articular process Auricular surface Lateral sacral crest Sacral hiatus Posterior view Coccyx Posterior sacral foramina Median sacral crest

64 Ligaments Vertebrae must be held in place by elaborate system of ligament supports Major supporting ligaments: – Anterior – Posterior Run as continous band down the front and back of vertebrae from neck to sacrum

65 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.18b Ligaments and fibrocartilage discs uniting the vertebrae. Posterior longitudinal ligament Anterior longitudinal ligament Body of a vertebra Intervertebral disc Anterior view of part of the spinal column, showing the anterior longitudinal ligament

66 Intervertebral Discs Cushionlike pad composed of two parts Nucleus pulposus – Inner gelatinous nucleus – Gives disc its elasticity and compressibility Anulus fibrosus – Outer collar composed of collagen and fibrocartilage

67 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.18c Ligaments and fibrocartilage discs uniting the vertebrae. Vertebral spinous process (posterior aspect of vertebra) Spinal nerve root Transverse process Herniated portion of disc Anulus fibrosus of disc Superior view of a herniated intervertebral disc Spinal cord Nucleus pulposus of disc

68 Thoracic Cage Composed of – Thoracic vertebrae posteriorly – Sternum and costal cartilages anteriorly – Ribs laterally Functions – Protects vital organs of thoracic cavity – Supports shoulder girdles and upper limbs – Provides attachment sites for muscles of neck, back, chest, and shoulders

69 Sternum (Breastbone) Three fused bones Manubrium – Superior portion – Articulates with clavicles and ribs 1 and 2 Body (midportion) – Articulates with costal cartilages of ribs 2 through 7 Xiphoid process – Inferior end – Site of muscle attachment – Not ossified until ~age 40

70 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.23a The thoracic cage. Jugular notch Clavicular notch Manubrium Sternal angle Body Xiphisternal joint Xiphoid process Intercostal spaces Costal cartilage Costal margin Floating ribs (11, 12) L 1 Vertebra True ribs (1–7) False ribs (8–12) Skeleton of the thoracic cage, anterior view Sternum

71 Classification of Ribs True ribs – two attachment points: vertebrae and sternum False ribs – Either attach indirectly to sternum or lack a sternal attachment Floating ribs – Have no anterior attachments – Costal cartilage is embedded in muscles

72 Rib Structure Head (posterior end) – Articulates on bodies of two adjacent vertebrae Neck (constricted portion beyond head) Tubercle (lateral to neck) – Articulates posteriorly with transverse costal facet of same-numbered thoracic vertebra Shaft – Most of rib

73 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.24a Ribs. Superior costal facet (for head of rib) Body of vertebra Intervertebral disc Sternum Transverse costal facet (for tubercle of rib) Tubercle of rib Costal groove Costal cartilage Angle of rib Vertebral and sternal articulations of a typical true rib Shaft Neck of rib Head of rib Cross- section of rib

74 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.24b Ribs. Head of rib Neck of rib Shaft Articular facet on tubercle of rib Spinous process Transverse costal facet (for tubercle of rib) Body of thoracic vertebra Superior costal facet (for head of rib) Ligaments Superior view of the articulation between a rib and a thoracic vertebra

75 Appendicular Skeleton Bones of limbs and their girdles Pectoral girdle – Attaches upper limbs to body trunk Pelvic girdle – Attaches lower limbs to body trunk

76 Pectoral Girdle (Shoulder Girdle) Clavicles (collarbone) and scapulae (shoulder blade) – Attach upper limbs to axial skeleton – Provide attachment sites for muscles that move upper limbs Scapulae on dorsal surface of rib cage, between ribs 2 and 7

77 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.25a The pectoral girdle and clavicle. Acromio- clavicular joint Clavicle Scapula Articulated pectoral girdle

78 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.25b The pectoral girdle and clavicle. Sternal (medial) end Posterior Anterior Acromial (lateral) end Right clavicle, superior view

79 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.26a The scapula. Acromion Suprascapular notch Superior border Superior angle Subscapular fossa Medial border Glenoid cavity Coracoid process Lateral border Inferior angle Right scapula, anterior aspect

80 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.26c The scapula. Supraspinous fossa Infraspinous fossa Posterior Anterior Subscapular fossa Acromion Supraspinous fossa Supraglenoid tubercle Coracoid process Glenoid cavity Spine Infraspinous fossa Infraglenoid tubercle Subscapular fossa Inferior angle Right scapula, lateral aspect

81 The Upper Arm 30 bones form skeletal framework of each upper limb Arm – Humerus Forearm – Radius and ulna Hand – 8 carpal bones in the wrist – 5 metacarpal bones in the palm – 14 phalanges in the fingers

82 Humerus Largest, longest bone of upper limb Articulates superiorly with glenoid cavity of scapula Articulates inferiorly with radius and ulna

83 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.27 The humerus of the right arm and detailed views of articulation at the elbow. Greater tubercle Lesser tubercle Deltoid tuberosity Lateral supracondylar ridge Inter- tubercular sulcus Radial fossa Capitulum Head of humerus Anatomical neck Radial groove Medial supracondylar ridge Coronoid fossa Olecranon fossa Medial epicondyle Trochlea Greater tubercle Surgical neck Deltoid tuberosity Lateral epicondyle Anterior viewPosterior view

84 Radius and Ulna Ulna – Medial bone in forearm – Forms major portion of elbow joint with humerus Radius – Lateral bone in forearm – Head articulates with capitulum of humerus and radial notch of ulna – Interosseous membrane connects radius and ulna along their entire length

85 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Radial notch of the ulna Head Neck Radial tuberosity Olecranon Trochlear notch Coronoid process Proximal radioulnar joint Interosseous membrane Ulna Radius Ulnar notch of the radius Head of ulna Ulnar styloid process Distal radioulnar joint Radial styloid process Anterior view Posterior view Radial styloid process Radius Neck of radius Head of radius Figure 7.28a–b Radius and ulna of the right forearm.

86 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Humerus Capitulum Head of radius Radial tuberosity Radius Coronoid fossa Medial epicondyle Trochlea Coronoid process of ulna Radial notch Ulna Humerus Olecranon Medial epicondyle Ulna Olecranon fossa Lateral epicondyle Head Neck Radius Posterior view of extended elbow Anterior view at the elbow region Figure 7.27c–d The humerus of the right arm and detailed views of articulation at the elbow.

87 The Hand: The Carpus Carpus (Wrist) – Eight bones in two rows Proximal row—lateral to medial – Scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, and pisiform Distal row—lateral to medial – Trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate She Looks Too Pretty; Try To Catch Her

88 The Hand: Metacarpals and Phalanges Metacarpus (Palm) – Five metacarpal bones (I to V from thumb to little finger) form the palm Phalanges (Fingers) – Fingers numbered I to V starting at thumb (pollex) – Digit I (Pollex) has 2 bones - no middle phalanx – Digits II to V have 3 bones—distal, middle, and proximal phalanx

89 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.29 Bones of the right hand. Phalanges Distal Middle Proximal Carpals Hamate Capitate Pisiform Triquetrum Carpals Lunate Ulna Sesamoid bones Trapezium Trapezoid Scaphoid Radius Metacarpals Head Shaft Base Carpals Hamate Capitate Triquetrum Lunate Ulna Anterior view of right handPosterior view of right hand V IV III II V IV IIIII I I

90 Need a Summary? Refer to Table 7.3

91 Pelvic (Hip) Girdle Two hip bones (coxal bones or os coxae) and sacrum Three fused bones form coxal bone – Ilium, ischium, and pubis Attach lower limbs to axial skeleton with strong ligaments – Transmit weight of upper body to lower limbs – Support pelvic organs Less mobility but more stable than shoulder joint

92 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.30 Pelvis.

93 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 7.4 Comparison of the Male and Female Pelves (1 of 3)

94 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 7.4 Comparison of the Male and Female Pelves (3 of 3)

95 The Lower Limb Carries entire weight of erect body Subjected to exceptional forces if jump or run Three segments of lower limb – Thigh – Leg – Foot

96 Bones of the Thigh Femur – Largest and strongest bone in the body – Length ~ ¼ of person's height – Articulates proximally with acetabulum of hip and distally with tibia and patella Patella – Sesamoid bone in quadriceps tendon

97 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.32a–b Bones of the right knee and thigh. Neck Apex Anterior Facet for lateral condyle of femur Facet for medial condyle of femur Surface for patellar ligament Posterior Patella (kneecap) Lateral epicondyle Patellar surface Anterior view Fovea capitis Head Lesser trochanter Intertrochanteric line Gluteal tuberosity Linea aspera Medial and lateral supra- condylar lines Popliteal surface Intercondylar fossa Medial condyle Adductor tubercle Medial epicondyle Greater trochanter Inter- trochanteric crest Lateral condyle Lateral epicondyle Posterior view Femur (thigh bone)

98 Bones of the Leg Tibia – Medial leg bone – Receives weight of body from femur; transmits to foot Fibula – Not weight bearing; no articulation with femur – Several muscles originate from fibula – Articulates proximally and distally with tibia Tibia and fibula connected by interosseous membrane

99 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.33a The tibia and fibula of the right leg. Interosseous membrane Intercondylar eminence Lateral condyle Head Superior tibiofibular joint Fibula Inferior tibiofibular joint Lateral malleolus Anterior view Medial malleolus Inferior articular surface Tibia Anterior border Tibial tuberosity Medial condyle

100 The Foot: Tarsus Seven tarsal bones form posterior half of foot – talus, calcaneus, navicular, medial, intermediate, lateral cuneiform, and cuboid Body weight carried primarily by talus and calcaneus The Circus Needs More Interesting Little Clowns

101 The Foot: Metatarsals and Phalanges Metatarsals: – Five metatarsal bones (I to V from hallux to little toe) – Enlarged head of metatarsal I forms "ball of the foot" Phalanges – 14 bones of toes – Digit I (Hallux) has 2 bones - no middle phalanx – Digits II to V have 3 bones—distal, middle, and proximal phalanx

102 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.34a Bones of the right foot. Medial cuneiform Intermediate cuneiform Navicular Trochlea of talus Calcaneus Cuboid Lateral cuneiform Proximal Distal Middle Phalanges Metatarsals Tarsals Superior view I II III IV V Talus

103 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.34b Bones of the right foot. Intermediate cuneiform Navicular Talus Medial malleolar facet Sustentac- ulum tali (talar shelf) Calcaneus Medial cuneiform Calcaneal tuberosity Medial view First metatarsal

104 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.34c Bones of the right foot. Lateral view Lateral malleolar facet Navicular Intermediate cuneiform Lateral cuneiform Fifth metatarsal CuboidCalcaneus Talus

105 Arches of the Foot Maintained by interlocking foot bones, ligaments, and tendons Allow foot to bear weight – distributes ½ weight to heel bones and ½ weight to heads of metatarsals. Three arches – Lateral longitudinal – Medial longitudinal – Transverse

106 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.35a Arches of the foot. Medial longitudinal arch Transverse arch Lateral longitudinal arch Lateral aspect of right foot

107 Need a Summary? Refer to Table 7.5

108 Lab Exercises Exercise 10: Axial Skeleton – examine cranial and facial bones – compare vertebrae bones of cervical, thoracic and lumbar regions – Identify regions that connect ribs to vertebrae and cartalage/sternum Exercise 11: Appendicular Skeleton – Examine bones – Can you rebuild these regions? – Fill out diagram on pg 163


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