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 Forms the longitudinal axis of the body  Divided into three parts ◦ Skull- protects the brain ◦ Vertebral column – protects the spinal column ◦ Bony.

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Presentation on theme: " Forms the longitudinal axis of the body  Divided into three parts ◦ Skull- protects the brain ◦ Vertebral column – protects the spinal column ◦ Bony."— Presentation transcript:

1  Forms the longitudinal axis of the body  Divided into three parts ◦ Skull- protects the brain ◦ Vertebral column – protects the spinal column ◦ Bony thorax-protects thoracic cavity (heart & lungs)

2 Figure 5.6a

3 Figure 5.6b

4  Two sets of bones ◦ Cranium ◦ Facial bones  Bones are joined by sutures- interlocking joints; immovable joints that connec bones of skull  Only the mandible is attached by a freely movable joint

5 SutureBones they connect Sagittal2 parietal bones CoronalParietals meet frontal bone SquamousTemporal meets parietal LamboidOccipital meets parietal

6 1. Frontal 2. Sphenoid 3. Ethmoid 4. Right Parietal 5. Left Parietal 6. Right Temporal 7. Left Temporal 8. Occipital

7 1. Maxillae 2. Palantine 3. Zygomatic 4. Lacrimal 5. Nasal 6. Vomer 7. Inferior Nasal Conchae 8. Mandible

8 Figure 5.7 Bone forming anterior cranium Has greater and lesser wings Superior and inferior nasal conchae are part of this bone Its “holey plate allows olfactory fibers to pass Allows tear ducts to pass Cheek bone Forms most of hard palate Upper jaw Boney skeleton of the nose Site of external auditory meatus Bone pair united by sagittal suture

9 Figure 5.8 ** forms a plateau across the width of the skull Has greater and lesser wings Contains a “saddle” that houses the pituitary gland

10 Figure 5.9 Site of jugular foramen and carotid canal Its oval-shaped protrusions articulate with the atlas Spinal cord passes through opening Posterior roof of mouth Inferior part of nasal septum Forms most of hard palate

11 Figure 5.11 Contain alveoli bearing teeth Facial bone that contains a sinus Forms the chin Contain alveoli bearing teeth Contains a paranasal sinus Inferior part of nasal septum Sagittal suture (Greater wing) Squamous sutrue

12  Hollow portions of bones surrounding the nasal cavity  Functions of paranasal sinuses 1.Lighten the skull 2.Give resonance and amplification to voice

13 Figure 5.10a

14 Figure 5.10b

15  Seven skull bones form the orbit: frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, lacrimal, maxilla, palatine, and zygomatic

16  The middle ear contains three tiny bones known as the ossicles: malleus, incus, and stapes. The ossicles were given their Latin names for their distinctive shapes; they are also referred to as the hammer, anvil, and stirrup, respectively. The ossicles directly couple sound energy from the ear drum to the oval window of the cochlea. While the stapes is present in all tetrapods, the malleus and incus evolved from lower and upper jaw bones present in reptiles.

17  The only bone that does not articulate with another bone  Serves as a moveable base for the tongue  Aids in swallowing and speech * not really a skull bone

18 Figure 5.12

19  The fetal skull is large compared to the infant’s total body length ◦ Fetal skull is 1/4 th total body length ◦ Adult skull is only 1/8 th total body length Adolescence Epiphyseal plates become ossified and long bone growth ends

20 Figure 5.13a

21 Figure 5.13b Face is smaller in proportion to cranium Growth (ossification) center: conical projection on some cranial bones

22  Fontanels—fibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones ◦ Allows skull to be compressed during birth and allows for brain growth during late fetal life  At birth, the skull bones are incomplete  Bones are joined by fibrous membranes called fontanels  Fontanels are completely replaced with bone within two years after birth

23  Fetus ◦ Long bones are formed of hyaline cartilage ◦ Flat bones begin as fibrous membranes ◦ Flat and long bone models are converted to bone  Birth ◦ Fontanels remain until around age 2 Ossification Centers in a 12-week-old Fetus

24  Size of cranium in relationship to body ◦ 2 years old—skull is larger in proportion to the body compared to that of an adult ◦ 8 or 9 years old—skull is near adult size and proportion ◦ Between ages 6 and 11, the face grows out from the skull

25 Figure 5.33a Between ages 6 and 11, the face grows out from the skull

26  Each vertebrae is given a name according to its location ◦ There are 24 single vertebral bones separated by intervertebral discs - made up of fibrocartilage  Seven cervical vertebrae are in the neck  Twelve thoracic vertebrae are in the chest region  Five lumbar vertebrae are associated with the lower back  Herniated disc= a slipped disc; protruding cartilage from vertebra. Causes pain and numbness

27  Nine vertebrae fuse to form two composite bones ◦ Sacrum- five components; fused ◦ Coccyx- tail bone

28 Figure 5.14

29  The spine has a normal curvature ◦ Primary curvatures are the spinal curvatures of the thoracic and sacral regions…like a c  Present from birth ◦ Secondary curvatures are the spinal curvatures of the cervical and lumbar regions…like an s  Develop after birth

30 Figure 5.15

31 Figure 5.16

32 Figure 5.17

33 Figure 5.18a Atlas lacks a body Pivots with C 2 Axis articulates with the occipital condyles

34 Figure 5.18b Forked spinous process

35 Figure 5.18c Bear facets for articulation with ribs; form part of the bony thoracic cage

36 Figure 5.18d Vertebrae with blocklike body and short stout spinous process

37  Sacrum ◦ Formed by the fusion of five vertebrae ◦ Forms a joint with the hip bone  Coccyx ◦ Formed from the fusion of three to five vertebrae ◦ “Tailbone,” or remnant of a tail that other vertebrates have

38 Figure 5.19

39  Forms a cage to protect major organs-cone shaped  Consists of three parts ◦ Sternum ◦ Ribs  True ribs (pairs 1–7)  False ribs (pairs 8–12)  Floating ribs (pairs 11–12) ◦ Thoracic vertebrae

40 Figure 5.20a

41

42

43  Lordosis is a condition that causes the spine to curve towards the body at an exaggerated rate. This curvature makes the individual appear to have a swayback.  Signs of lordosis include a prominent protrusion of the buttocks. An inflexible spine in the affected area signals a severe case of lordosis. Individuals with lordosis and a flexible spine may require no treatment beyond physical therapy. Treatment for lordosis with an inflexible spine includes using a brace and possible surgery.


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