Presentation on theme: "Forensic Anthropology A forensic anthropologist can assist in the identification of deceased individuals whose remains are decomposed, burned, mutilated,"— Presentation transcript:
Forensic Anthropology A forensic anthropologist can assist in the identification of deceased individuals whose remains are decomposed, burned, mutilated, or otherwise unrecognizable.
Forensic Anthropology Application of anthropology and human osteology in a legal setting. Commonly in criminal cases where the victim's remains are in the advanced stages of decomposition.
Applications The analysis of skeletal, badly decomposed, or otherwise unidentified human remains is important in both legal and humanitarian contexts. In addition to assisting in locating and recovering human skeletal remains, forensic anthropologists work to assess the following features from a skeleton. – the age, sex, ancestry, stature, and other unique characteristics.
The Bones Know Bones offer amazing clues to the trained eye. A trained forensic anthropologist can identify illness, pregnancy, and possible careers of the deceased. Uses techniques preferred by archaeologists It is also possible to determine other activities the deceased individual was involved with in life.
The Bones Know Craniosacral measurements have been established for all ages and race groups – Used for comparative assessments Unique racial identifiers include – length of jaw – distance between eye sockets.
The Bones Know Bones also hold clues to the type work a person has done. Bony ridges form where muscles attach and have pulled over the years. What might a bony ridge on the wrist indicate about an individual?
DETERMINING GENDER and SEX Humans are divided into three major subgroups. Based upon phenotypic characteristics such as cranial and skeletal morphology. I. CAUCASOID – EUROPE and NORTH AFRICA (Egypt, Libya, Sudan, and Western Sahara), and IRANO-AFGHAN II. NEGROID – AFRICA (excluding North Africa), Pacific Islands, and Australia III. MONGOLOID – North America (Native American and Eskimo), South America, Asia (Northern Mongolia, China, Japan, Korea)
Caucasoid SKULLS European Male Skull Little or no prognathism exhibited with minimal protrusion of the lower face. Retreating Zygomatic Bones (cheekbones) make the face look more "pointed". Narrow nasal aperture with a tear-shaped nasal cavity European Female Skull
Prognathism The positional relationship of the mandible and maxilla to the skeletal base where either of the jaws protrudes beyond a predetermined imaginary line in the skull.
Mongoloid SKULLS Asian Male Skull Projecting zygomatic bones Small brow ridge Small nasal apertures Asian Female Skull
Negroid SKULLS African Male Skull Short skull compared to its width Receded zygomatic bones Wide nasal apertures. African Female Skull
Determination of Age https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c8IHPq9V gWI https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c8IHPq9V gWI
Cephalic Index Cephalic index or Cranial index is the ratio of the maximum width of the head multiplied by 100 divided by its maximum length (horizontal plane, or front to back).
The Pelvic Bone is best for determining the Sex of an Individual PUBIC ARCH A female will have a larger sub- pubic angle to that of a man. – 50 to 60 degrees avg in males – Greater than 80 - 90 degrees in women – Indicative of child bearing requirements Noticeable differences in all species where child birth is from the womb.
DO NOW NOV 3 A partial skull has been uncovered by a local landscaping crew. Cold Case File – Missing 30 y.o. Caucasian female You have only been able to determine the following….. Width of Skull – 19 cm Length of Skull – 18 cm Average Cephalic Index of a Caucasian Female is 77 Is this the woman from the Cold Case?
DO NOW ANSWER No, this skull is not representative of an adult Caucasian female. The Cephalic Index of the skull is 106. What is the likely subgroup this skull belongs to?
DO NOW ANSWER Negroid Skull WHY? A skull belonging to the Caucasoid subgroup has a greater length compared to its width – Equals a smaller Cephalic Index Negroid skulls are short compared to their length. – Equals a greater Cephalic Index
Learn the bones in RED (1) sacrum, (2) ilium, (3) ischium, (4) pubis, (5) pubic symphisis, (6) acetabulum, (7) obturator foramen, (8) coccyx
Determination of Sex Pelvic inlet is larger in females Width increases following child birth It will contract but not back to its original size.
Determination of Sex Sciatic Notch In females – wide and circular In males – narrow and oval shaped
Determination of Sex Acetabulum - the socket in the pelvis secures the head of the femur In females – Greater Acetabular depth with a smaller femoral head. WHY?
Determination of Age Pubic Symphysis is the area where the left and right pubis meet. In females, – This area is bumpy through the teen years – Smoothed out in 20-30 year olds – Erodes and becomes spongy/porous in women over age 40.
Determination of Age Bone Caps – unfused in younger individuals – Allows for lengthening of bones – Caps will fuse upon full development Time frame varies depending on the bone – Clavicle is last bone to fuse at 28 to 30 years
Skeletal Comparisons Head of Humerus Males: Greater than 47 mm Females: Less than 43 mm Ashes of a Male: 7.6 lbs Ashes of a Female: 6.1 lbs