Presentation on theme: "Senior Biology The Skeleton and Muscles. Musculoskeletal System The skeletal and muscular systems which work together and are controlled by the nervous."— Presentation transcript:
Senior Biology The Skeleton and Muscles
Musculoskeletal System The skeletal and muscular systems which work together and are controlled by the nervous systemEndoskeleton A skeleton system that is located internally, common with vertebrate animals.Exoskeleton External skeleton on the outside of organisms such as crustaceans and insects.
Functions of the Skeleton Support Shape Protection Movement Manufacture of Blood Components - Provides a Rigid Framework that holds the body upright - Determines the shape of the body to a large extent - ‘Skull’ protects brain, ‘Vertebrae’ protects the nerves of the spinal cord, the ‘Ribs’ protect the heart and lungs - Rigid levers against which muscles can pull. Rigid bones are essential for movement - Bone Marrow produce red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.
The Axial Skeleton Skull Spine Sternum Rib cage The Appendicular Skeleton Pectoral Girdle Pelvic Girdle Pentadactyl Limbs The Human Skeleton Contains 206 Bones
Parts of the Axial Skeleton The Skull Side View Front View cranialfacial The adult human skull consists of 22 bones and is divided into two regions, the cranial and the facial. The cranial region is the portion of the skull that protects the brain. The facial region includes all the other bones of the skull
Parts of the Axial Skeleton The Spine vertebrae Made up of 33 bones called vertebrae These are arranged into five regions: Cervical Vertebrae [sir vi kal] (7 vertebrae) Thoracic Vertebrae [thaw rassik] (12 vertebrae) Lumbar Vertebrae [Lumber] (5 vertebrae) Sacrum [say krem] Coccyx [kok siks] ligaments The top 24 vertebrae (Cervical, Thoracic and Lumber) are held together by ligaments They can move slightly relative to one another.
Parts of the Axial Skeleton The Spine continued They are separated by (intervertebral) discs of cartilage These discs have a hard outer layer and a soft, jelly- like centre Their function is to act as shock absorbers and thus protect the vertebrae The last 9 immovable vertebrae (Sacrum & Coccyx) are fused and there are no discs between them What is a ‘Slipped Disc’? Occurs when the soft jelly like centre bulges out and compresses some spinal nerves, resulting in pain.