30 LeukemiaRed marrow - makes red blood cells (hematopoiesis), white blood cells, and platelets.When white blood cells can’t fight off infection, leukemia develops.Treatment for leukemia - injecting new bone marrow into the patient.
32 *Bone cells There are three types of bone cells. 1Osteoblasts - come from embryonic cells and found on surface of bone tissue.They lay bone down around themselves - become surrounded by bone matrix.Then they are called 2osteocytes.
34 3Osteoclasts are found in the bone tissue and are involved with secretion of a substance that breaks down the bones.Osteoclasts help to break down the bone so that osteoblasts can lay new bone.This is how a bone grows.
43 In endochondral bone (most other bones) - masses of cartilage have same basic shape as future bones. The cartilage cells die - osteoblasts replace them.Happens in two stages - primary and secondary ossification centers.
44 When bone nears end of early development, a narrow band of cartilage remains between epiphyses and the diaphysis (epiphyseal plate)These are growth plates - located at each end of the bone.Determines how long your bones will be.
47 Growth plate injuries can happen. This is when the growth plate area is broken.In severe cases (only in children), it can stunt growth of the bone.When these growth plates close, you are done growing.
61 Bones of the skullThe cranium encloses and protects the brain. It is made of 8 bones.1Frontal bone – large bone that forms the anterior part of the skull above the eyes. Contains the eye sockets (orbits).
69 3Occipital bone - forms the posterior wall of the cranium. Meets the parietal bones at the lambdoidal suture.Foramen magnum - large opening that allows spinal cord to pass between the cranium and the spinal cavity.
71 4Temporal bones (2) - on either side of the cranium (think temples!!) External auditory meatus located here and is the opening to the inner ear.Zygomatic arch (your cheekbone) joins the temporal bone to the zygomatic bone.
79 5Sphenoid bone- wedged between other bones in the skull. Home of the optic foramen, where the optic nerve passes to go to the brain.Pituitary gland is housed in the sella turcica in the sphenoid bone.Sphenoidal sinuses here.
86 *BFacial bones - 13 immovable bones in the face and a movable lower jaw.Support the face and provide attachments for the muscles that control facial expressions.
87 1Maxillary bones - two bones located on side of the face that form the upper jaw. Maxillary sinuses (the largest ones) are located here.The roof of the mouth (including both palates) are formed by these bones.
105 CVertebral column - support for the trunk of the body. It runs from the skull to the pelvis.The bones that make up this column are known as vertebrae and are separated from each other by intervertebral discs.
111 A vertebrae made up mostly of the body. Middle - vertebral foramen that the spinal cord passes through.Spiny part of the vertebrae called the spinous process.Connected to the body by pedicle.Transverse process are lateral projections.
113 The cervical vertebrae have two unique members. The atlas is the first vertebrae and it articulates with the skull.The second vertebrae is the axis and allows the nodding of the head by articulating with the atlas.
118 DThoracic cage - formed from the sternum and ribs. Sternum is the breastbone and located in the middle of the chest.It is made of three parts; the superior manubrium, the body, and the inferior xiphoid process.
120 Ribs (12 pairs) attaches to individual thoracic vertebra sternum (by costal cartilage) First seven pairs of ribs are true ribs - attached at both points.Five pairs are false ribs have very little connection.Last two - floating ribs (no cartilage)
122 Appendicular Skeleton AThe Pectoral Girdle - shoulder girdle is made up of two clavicles (collarbones) and two scapulae (shoulder blades)Scapulae have two processes (the coracoid process and the acromion process) allows for attachment of muscles.
125 * BThe upper limb - humerus extends from scapula to elbow. The head of the humerus fits into the glenoid cavity of the scapula.The two tubercles (the greater and lesser) provide attachments for muscles.
129 Radius - bone located on thumb side of forearm; extends from elbow to wrist. Head of radius articulates with humerus and a notch of the ulna.Radial tuberosity allows for muscle attachment and styloid process allows for wrist ligament attachment.
131 Ulna is longer than radius and overlaps the end of the humerus. Proximal end - the ulna has a trochlear notch that articulates with the humerus.Two processes on either end of the notch; the olecranon process and the coronoid process.
133 Distal end of ulna is the head that articulates with the radius. Ulna also has a styloid process that allows for attachment of the wrist ligaments.
134 Hand is composed of wrist, palm, and five fingers. Wrist is made up of eight carpal bones.The eight bones of the wrist are the lunate, hamate, triquetrum, pisiform, scaphoid, capitate, trapezoid, and trapezium.
138 CPelvic girdle - 2 coxal bones that articulate with each other anteriorly and the sacrum posteriorly.Sacrum, coccyx, and pelvic girdle together form pelvis.Pelvis supports trunk of the body, provides attachments for lower limbs, and protects organs located in that area.
140 * Coxal bone has three parts. Ilium is part of the bone that you think of as the hip. Flares outward and forms the bony prominence of the hip.Top of this is called the iliac crest.Ilium joins the sacrum at the sacroiliac joint and has anterior superior iliac spine which provides attachments for muscles.
142 Ischium forms the lowest portion of the coxal bone. Ischial tuberosity points posteriorly and downward and provides attachment for muscles and ligaments.Where the ilium meets the ischium is a projection called the ischial spine.
144 Pubis is anterior part of the coxal bone. 2 pubic bones join at midline, forming a joint called the symphysis pubis.Angle of these bones below the symphysis pubis is called pubic arch.Obturator foramen is found in pelvic girdle and is the largest in the body.
146 DLower limbs form thigh, leg, and foot. Femur is longest bone in the body and extends from hip to the knee.Head of the femur fits in the acetabulum of the coxal bone.On head is fovea capitis which allows attachment of a ligament.
148 Below the head – 2 processes; the greater trochanter and the lesser trochanter. Distal end of femur - 2 condyles (lateral and medial) that articulate with tibia of the leg.Patella (kneecap) articulates with femur at distal end.
150 Tibia – shinbone; larger of two lower leg bones (located medially). Proximal end has medial and lateral condyles that articulate with the condyles of the femur.Below condyles is tibial tuberosity.Distal end - medial malleolus.
154 Foot - 7 tarsal bones (calcaneous, talus, navicular, cuboid, lateral cuneiform, intermediate cuneiform, and the medial cuneiform)Talus moves freely where it meets the fibula and tibia.Calcaneous - largest (heel bone)