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Presentation on theme: "THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7"— Presentation transcript:


2 The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system
Bones (skeleton) Joints Cartilages Ligaments Divided into two divisions Axial skeleton Appendicular skeleton

3 Bones of the Human Body The adult skeleton has 206 bones
Two basic types of bone tissue Compact bone Homogeneous Spongy bone Small needle-like pieces of bone Many open spaces Figure 5.2b

4 Acro- -clast Lambd- -physis Arthro- Chondr- Lumb- Semi- Cap- Costa- Meta- Sterno- -blast Crist- Os-, Osteo- Sym- Cervic- Ethm- Peri- Synovi(o)-

5 Functions of Bones Support of the body Protection of soft organs
Movement due to attached skeletal muscles Storage of minerals Blood cell formation Storage of fats

6 Classification of Bones on the Basis of Shape – pg 70 SG
Figure 5.1

7 Classification of Bones
Long bones Typically longer than wide Have a shaft with heads at both ends Contain mostly compact bone Examples: Femur, Humerus

8 Classification of Bones
Short bones Generally cube-shape Contain mostly spongy bone Examples: Carpals, tarsals

9 Classification of Bones
Flat bones Thin and flattened Usually curved Thin layers of compact bone around a layer of spongy bone Examples: Skull, ribs, sternum

10 Classification of Bones
Irregular bones Irregular shape Do not fit into other bone classification categories Example: Vertebrae and hip

11 Gross Anatomy of the typical long bone – pg 72 of SG
Epiphysis Diaphysis Articular cartilage Epiphyseal line Spongy bone Compact bone Medullary cavity Periosteum

12 Components Mature bone cells are Osteocytes

13 Microscopic Structure of Bone
Haversian canal Lacunae Osteocytes Lamellae Canaliculi Volkmann’s canals Matrix Pg. text, 176 #A5 SG




17 Bone Markings Surface features of bones
Sites of attachments for muscles, tendons, and ligaments Passages for nerves and blood vessels Categories of bone markings Projections and processes – grow out from the bone surface Depressions or cavities – indentations

18 Bone Markings Projections/sites of muscle and ligament attachment
Projections/sites that form joints Tuberosity Crest Trochanter Line Tubercle Epicondyle Spine Process Head Facet Condyle Ramus

19 More Bone Markings Cavities Depressions/Openings
allow blood vessels and nerves to pass Sinus Meatus Fossa Groove Fissure Foramen

20 Table 7.2 pg 198 Head – rounded articular process at the proximal end of a bone Condyle – rounded articular process at the distal end of a bone Epicondyle – a small raised area above a condyle for joint capsule attachment Foramen – a short passageway through bone for vessels and nerves Meatus – a long canal like passageway

21 Fossa – a depression in bone
 Sinus – a cavity in bone lined by a mucous membrane Trochanter – very large projection  Tuberosity – a large rounded projection for muscle attachment Tubercle – a small rounded projection Fissure – a slit like opening through bone Facet – smooth flat articular surface

22 Crest – prominent ridge or elongated projection
Sulcus – furrow along a bone surface where a blood vessel, nerve or tendon is located Spine – sharp, slender often pointed projection Using an Anatomy Atlas, see if you can identify bone surface markings on the skeleton and unarticulated bones at the front of the room

23 Axial skeleton Appendicular skeleton

24 Pg 73 SG Color Axial Skeleton Appendicular Skeleton With a key


26 Forms the longitudinal part of the body Divided into three parts
The Axial Skeleton Forms the longitudinal part of the body Divided into three parts Skull Vertebral column Bony thorax

27 The Skull Text pg. 199 – 204 Color each of the bones of the skull

28 Bones are joined by sutures
The Skull Two sets of bones Cranium Facial bones Bones are joined by sutures Only the mandible is attached by a freely movable joint





33 Paranasal sinuses Paranasal sinuses Text pg. 211


35 The Vertebral Column Text pg. 213

36 Each vertebrae is given a name according to its location

37 Spinal abnormalities Lordosis Kyphosis Scoliosis Text pg. 226

38 Function determines Stucture

39 Structure of a Typical Vertebrae
Figure 5.16

40 Regional Characteristics
Figure 5.17a–b

41 Regional Characteristics
Figure 5.17c–d

42 The Vertebrae Text pg. 217

43 text pg.219

44 Bony thorax Rib cage Text pg. 223

45 Forms a cage to protect organs

46 Made up of 3 parts Sternum Ribs Thoracic vertebrae


48 The Appendicular Skeleton
Pectoral girdle Text pg. 232

49 Clavicle and Scapula

50 The Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle Composed of two bones
Clavicle – collarbone Scapula – shoulder blade These bones allow the upper limb to have exceptionally free movement

51 Bones of the Shoulder Girdle
Figure 5.20c–d

52 Upper limb Text Pg235

53 Wrist and hand Text pg 239

54 Bones of the Pelvic Girdle
Hip bones Composed of three pair of fused bones Ilium Ischium Pubic bone The total weight of the upper body rests on the pelvis Protects several organs Reproductive organs Urinary bladder Part of the large intestine

55 Pelvic girdle Text pg 240

56 Gender Differences Figure 5.23c

57 Lower limb Text pg 245

58 Bones of the feet Text pg 250, 251

59 Fractures text pg. 185

60 Bone Fractures A break in a bone Types of bone fractures
Closed (simple) fracture – break that does not penetrate the skin Open (compound) fracture – broken bone penetrates through the skin Bone fractures are treated by reduction and immobilization Realignment of the bone

61 Common Types of Fractures

62 Compound fracture

63 Repair of Bone Fractures
Hematoma (blood-filled swelling) is formed Break is splinted by fibrocartilage to form a callus Fibrocartilage callus is replaced by a bony callus Bony callus is remodeled to form a permanent patch

64 Stages in the Healing of a Bone Fracture
Figure 5.5

65 Diseases of the Skeletal System

66 Changes at around 60 years of age
Bones become porous Haversian canals and canaliculi become plugged Osteons Incompletely mineralized Hypermineralized Hypomineralized Number of empty lacunae increases Blood vessels inside bones are sclerotic Microinfractions in areas of strain or over-use Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts no longer in balance

67 Diseases/Disorders Osteoporosis Osteogenic sarcoma Osteomalacia
Osteomyelitis Osteopenia

68 Osteoporosis Decreased bone mass Increased fractures
Loss of Estrogen decreased Osteoblasts

69 Osteomalacia Osteogenic sarcoma
“soft” bones due to inadequate calcification Osteogenic sarcoma Malignant bone tumor

70 Osteopenia Decreased bone mass Osteomyelitis Bone infection


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