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Chapter 8 Lecture Outline

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1 Chapter 8 Lecture Outline
See PowerPoint Image Slides for all figures and tables pre-inserted into PowerPoint without notes. Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

2 The Skeletal System Overview of the skeleton The skull
The vertebral column and thoracic cage The pectoral girdle and upper limb The pelvic girdle and lower limb

3 Overview of the Skeleton
Regions of the skeleton axial skeleton = central axis skull, vertebral column, ribs, sternum and sacrum appendicular skeleton = limbs and girdles Number of bones 206 in typical adult skeleton varies with development of sesamoid bones (patella) start at 270 at birth, decreases with fusion Surface markings defined in Table 8.2

4 Surface Features of Bones

5 Axial and Appendicular Skeleton
Axial skeleton in tan skull, vertebrae, sternum, ribs, sacrum and hyoid Appendicular skeleton in green pectoral girdle upper extremity pelvic girdle lower extremity

6 Major Skull Cavities

7 The Skull 22 bones joined together by sutures
Cranial bones surround cranial cavity 8 bones in contact with meninges frontal, parietal, calvaria (skullcap) forms roof and walls Facial bones support teeth and form nasal cavity and orbit 14 bones with no direct contact with brain or meninges attachment of facial and jaw muscles

8 Cranial Fossa 3 basins that comprise the cranial floor or base
anterior fossa holds the frontal lobe of the brain middle fossa holds the temporal lobes of the brain posterior fossa contains the cerebellum Swelling of the brain may force tissue through foramen magnum resulting in death

9 Frontal Bone Forms forehead and part of the roof of the cranium
Forms roof of the orbit Contains frontal sinus

10 Parietal Bone Cranial roof and part of its lateral walls
Bordered by 4 sutures coronal, sagittal, lambdoid and squamous Temporal lines of temporalis muscle Temporal lines

11 Temporal Bone Lateral wall and part of floor of cranial cavity
squamous part zygomatic process mandibular fossa and TMJ tympanic part external auditory meatus styloid process mastoid part mastoid process mastoiditis from ear infection mastoid notch digastric muscle

12 Petrous Portion of Temporal Bone
Part of cranial floor separates middle from posterior cranial fossa Houses middle and inner ear cavities receptors for hearing and sense of balance internal auditory meatus = opening for CN VII (vestibulocochlear nerve)

13 Right Temporal Bone

14 Openings in Temporal Bone
Carotid canal passage for internal carotid artery supplying the brain Jugular foramen irregular opening between temporal and occipital bones passageway for drainage of blood from brain to internal jugular vein

15 Occipital Bone Rear and base of skull Foramen magnum holds spinal cord
Skull rests on atlas at occipital condyles Hypoglossal canal transmits hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) supplying tongue muscles External occipital protuberance for nuchal ligament Nuchal lines mark neck muscles

16 Sphenoid Bone Lesser wing Greater wing Body of sphenoid
Medial and lateral pterygoid processes

17 Sphenoid Bone Body of the sphenoid Lesser wing Greater wing
sella turcica contains hypophyseal fossa houses pituitary gland Lesser wing optic foramen Greater wing foramen rotundum and ovale for brs. trigeminal nerve foramen spinosum for meningeal artery

18 Sphenoid Bone Sphenoid sinus

19 Ethmoid Bone Between the orbital cavities
Lateral walls and roof nasal cavity Cribriform plate and crista galli Ethmoid air cells form ethmoid sinus Perpendicular plate forms part of nasal septum Concha (turbinates) on lateral wall

20 Ethmoid Bone Superior and middle concha
Perpendicular plate of nasal septum

21 Maxillary Bones Forms upper jaw Forms inferomedial wall of orbit
alveolar processes are bony points between teeth alveolar sockets hold teeth Forms inferomedial wall of orbit infraorbital foramen Forms anterior 2/3’s of hard palate incisive foramen cleft palate

22 Locations of Paranasal Sinuses
Maxillary sinus fills maxillae bone Other bones containing sinuses are frontal, ethmoid and sphenoid.

23 Palatine Bones L-shaped bone Posterior 1/3 of the hard palate
Part of lateral nasal wall Part of the orbital floor

24 Zygomatic Bones Forms angles of the cheekbones and part of lateral orbital wall Zygomatic arch is formed from temporal process of zygomatic bone and zygomatic process of temporal bone

25 Lacrimal Bones Form part of medial wall of each orbit
Lacrimal fossa houses lacrimal sac in life tears collect in lacrimal sac and drain into nasal cavity

26 Nasal Bones Forms bridge of nose and supports cartilages of nose
Often fractured by blow to the nose

27 Inferior Nasal Conchae
A separate bone Not part of ethmoid like the superior and middle concha or turbinates

28 Vomer Inferior half of the nasal septum
Supports cartilage of nasal septum

29 Mandible Only movable bone Holds the lower teeth
jaw joint between mandibular fossa and condyloid process Holds the lower teeth Attachment of muscles of mastication temporalis muscle onto coronoid process masseter muscle onto angle of mandible Mandibular foramen Mental foramen

30 Ramus, Angle and Body of Mandible

31 Bones Associated With Skull
Auditory ossicles malleus, incus, and stapes Hyoid bone suspended from styloid process of skull by muscle and ligament greater and lesser cornua

32 Skull in Infancy and Childhood
Spaces between unfused bones called fontanels filled with fibrous membrane allow shifting of bones during birth and growth of brain 2 frontal bones fuse by age six (metopic suture) Skull reaches adult size by 8 or 9

33 The Vertebral Column 33 vertebrae and intervertebral discs of fibrocartilage Five vertebral groups 7 cervical in the neck 12 thoracic in the chest 5 lumbar in lower back 5 fused sacral 4 fused coccygeal Variations in number of lumbar and sacral vertebrae

34 Newborn Spinal Curvature
Spine exhibits one continuous C-shaped curve Known as primary curvature

35 Adult Spinal Curvatures
S-shaped vertebral column with 4 curvatures Secondary curvatures develop after birth lifting head as it begins to crawl develops cervical curvature walking upright develops lumbar curvature

36 Abnormal Spinal Curvatures
From disease, posture, paralysis or congenital defect Scoliosis from lack of proper development of one vertebrae Kyphosis is from osteoporosis Lordosis is from weak abdominal muscles

37 General Structure of Vertebra
Body Vertebral foramen form vertebral canal Neural arch 2 lamina 2 pedicles Processes spinous, transverse and articular

38 Intervertebral Foramen and Discs
Notches between adjacent vertebrae passageway for nerves Intervertebral discs bind vertebrae together absorb shock gelatinous nucleus pulposus surrounded by anulus fibrosus (ring of fibrocartilage) herniated disc pressures spinal nerve or cord

39 Typical Cervical Vertebrae
Small body and larger vertebral foramen Transverse process short with transverse foramen for protection of vertebral arteries Bifid or forked spinous process in C2 to C6 C7 vertebra prominens

40 The Unique Atlas and Axis
Atlas (C1) supports the skull concave superior articular facet nod your head in “yes” movement ring surrounding large vertebral foramen anterior and posterior arch no vertebral body Axis (C2) dens or odontoid process is held in place inside the vertebral foramen of the atlas by ligaments allows rotation of head -- “no”

41 Atlas and Axis Articulation

42 Typical Thoracic Vertebrae
Larger body than cervical but smaller than lumbar Spinous processes pointed and angled downward Superior articular facets face posteriorly permitting some rotation between adjacent vertebrae Rib attachment costal facets on vertebral body and at ends of transverse processes for articulation of ribs

43 Lumbar Vertebrae Thick, stout body and blunt, squarish spinous process
Superior articular processes face medially lumbar region resistant to twisting movements

44 Sacrum (Anterior View)
5 sacral vertebrae fuse by age 26 Anterior surface smooth and concave sacral foramina were intervertebral foramen nerves and blood vessels 4 transverse lines indicate line of fusion of vertebrae

45 Sacrum (Posterior View)
Median sacral crest Lateral sacral crest Posterior sacral foramina Sacral canal ends as sacral hiatus Auricular surface is part of sacroiliac joint

46 Coccyx Single, small bone Attachment site for muscles of pelvic floor
4 vertebrae fused by 30 Co1 to Co4 Attachment site for muscles of pelvic floor Cornua hornlike projections on Co1 for ligaments attach coccyx to sacrum Fractured by fall or during childbirth

47 Thoracic Cage Consists of thoracic vertebrae, sternum and ribs
Attachment site for pectoral girdle and many limb muscles Protects many organs Rhythmically expanded by respiratory muscles to draw air into the lungs

48 Rib Structure Flat blade called a shaft
Tubercle Head Flat blade called a shaft inferior margin has costal groove for nerves and vessels Proximal head and tubercle are connected by neck Articulation head with body of vertebrae tubercle with transverse process

49 Numbered Rib Articulations

50 True and False Ribs True ribs (1 to 7) attach to sternum with hyaline cartilage False ribs (8-12) 11-12 are floating and not attached to sternum 12 pairs of ribs in both sexes

51 Pectoral Girdle Attaches upper extremity to the body
Scapula and clavicle Clavicle attaches medially to the sternum and laterally to the scapula sternoclavicular joint acromioclavicular joint Scapula articulates with the humerus humeroscapular or shoulder joint easily dislocated due to loose attachment

52 Clavicle S-shaped bone, flattened dorsoventrally
Inferior - marked by muscle and ligament Sternal end rounded -- acromial end flattened

53 Scapula Triangular plate overlies ribs 2 to 7
Spine ends as acromion process Coracoid process = muscle attachment Subscapular, infraspinous and supraspinous fossa Glenoid fossa = socket for head of humerus

54 Scapular Features

55 Upper Limb 30 bones per limb Brachium (arm) = humerus
Antebrachium (forearm) = radius and ulna (radius on thumb side) Carpus (wrist) = 8 small bones(2 rows) Manus (hand) = 19 bones(2 groups) 5 metacarpals in palm 14 phalanges in fingers

56 Humerus Hemispherical head Anatomical neck
Greater and lesser tubercles and deltoid tuberosity Intertubercular groove holds biceps tendon Rounded capitulum articulates with radius Trochlea articulates with ulna Olecranon fossa holds olecranon process of ulna Forearm muscles attach to medial and lateral epicondyles

57 Ulna and Radius Radius Ulna Interosseous membrane
head = disc rotates during pronation and supination articulates with capitulum radial tuberosity for biceps muscle Ulna olecranon and trochlear notch radial notch holds ulna Interosseous membrane ligament attaches radius to ulna along interosseous margin of each bone

58 Carpal Bones Form wrist 2 rows (4 bones each)
flexion, extension, abduction and adduction 2 rows (4 bones each) proximal row = scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum and pisiform distal row = trapezium, trapezoid, capitate and hamate

59 Metacarpals and Phalanges
Phalanges are bones of the fingers thumb or pollex has proximal and distal phalanx fingers have proximal, middle and distal phalanx Metacarpals are bones of the palm base, shaft and head

60 Sesamoid Bone

61 Pelvic Girdle Girdle = 2 hip bones Pelvis = girdle and sacrum
Supports trunk on the legs and protects viscera Each os coxae is joined to the vertebral column at the sacroiliac joint Anteriorly, pubic bones are joined by pad of fibrocartilage to form pubic symphysis

62 Pelvic Inlet and Outlet
False and true pelvis separated at pelvic brim Infant’s head passes through pelvic inlet and outlet

63 Os Coxae (Hip Bone) Acetabulum is hip joint socket Ilium Pubis Ischium
iliac crest and iliac fossa greater sciatic notch contains sciatic nerve Pubis body, superior and inferior ramus Ischium ischial tuberosity bears body weight ischial spine lesser sciatic notch between ischial spine and tuberosity ischial ramus joins inferior pubic ramus

64 Comparison of Male and Female
Female lighter, shallower pubic arch( >100 degrees), and pubic inlet round or oval Male heavier, upper pelvis nearly vertical, coccyx more vertical, and pelvic inlet heart-shaped

65 Femur and Patella (Kneecap)
Nearly spherical head and constricted neck ligament to fovea capitis Greater and lesser trochanters for muscle attachment Posterior ridge called linea aspera Medial and lateral condyles and epicondyles found distally Patella = triangular sesamoid

66 Tibia Tibia is thick, weight-bearing bone (medial)
Broad superior head with 2 flat articular surfaces medial and lateral condyles roughened anterior surface palpated below patella (tibial tuberosity) distal expansion = medial malleolus

67 Fibula Slender lateral strut stabilizes ankle
Does not bear any body weight spare bone tissue Head = proximal end Lateral malleolus = distal expansion Joined to tibia by interosseous membrane

68 The Ankle and Foot Tarsal bones are shaped and arranged differently from carpal bones due to load-bearing role of the ankle Talus is most superior tarsal bone forms ankle joint with tibia and fibula sits upon calcaneus and articulates with navicular Calcaneus forms heel (achilles tendon) Distal row of tarsal bones cuboid, medial, intermediate and lateral cuneiforms

69 The Foot Remaining bones of foot are similar in name and arrangement to the hand Metatarsal I is proximal to the great toe (hallux) base, shaft and head Phalanges 2 in great toe proximal and distal 3 in all other toes proximal, middle and distal

70 Embryonic Limb Rotation
Rotation of upper and lower limbs in opposite directions largest digit medial in foot and lateral in hand Elbow flexes posteriorly and knee flexes anteriorly

71 Foot Arches Sole of foot not flat on ground
3 springy arches absorb stress medial longitudinal arch from heel to hallux lateral longitudinal arch from heel to little toe transverse arch across middle of foot Arches held together by short, strong ligaments pes planis (flat feet)

72 Bipedalism and Limb Adaptations

73 Bipedalism and Upright Stance

74 Bipedalism and Head Position

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