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Vertebrates. The Origin of Tetrapods  The first vertebrates on land were amphibians in the Devonian (400 mya)  May have arose from the rhipidistian.

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Presentation on theme: "Vertebrates. The Origin of Tetrapods  The first vertebrates on land were amphibians in the Devonian (400 mya)  May have arose from the rhipidistian."— Presentation transcript:

1 Vertebrates

2 The Origin of Tetrapods  The first vertebrates on land were amphibians in the Devonian (400 mya)  May have arose from the rhipidistian (features).  Arose in coastal or brackish marine environment

3 Origin of Tetrapods

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5 Tetrapods Advantages of Terrestriality An increase in metabolism and development due to higher body temperature. An increase in metabolism and development due to higher body temperature. Energy – An increase of 10 degrees Celsius (from 20 degrees (water temp) to 30 degrees (air temp) would allow for a doubling of their metabolic rates Energy – An increase of 10 degrees Celsius (from 20 degrees (water temp) to 30 degrees (air temp) would allow for a doubling of their metabolic rates

6 Tetrapods Lungs – To breath air, it required an increased vascularization of the air-filled cavity (a pouch from the posterior pharynx similar to the swim bladder), with a rich capillary network to form a lung.

7 Tetrapods Double circulatory system Fish have a single circuit system – low blood pressure Fish have a single circuit system – low blood pressure The double circulation system allows for higher pressure with one circuit going to the lungs and another going to the body. The double circulation system allows for higher pressure with one circuit going to the lungs and another going to the body.

8 Tetrapods Nasal Openings Bony fish have 4 external nares (2 on each side) which allows water to run across the olfactory tissue. Bony fish have 4 external nares (2 on each side) which allows water to run across the olfactory tissue. Tetrapods have two external and two internal nares in the palate. This allows air to be drawn in through the nose. Tetrapods have two external and two internal nares in the palate. This allows air to be drawn in through the nose.

9 Tetrapods – General Characteristics Body Density - Limbs Air is 1000 times less buoyant then water counter the effects of gravity homologous structures (bones – humerus, ulna and radius).

10 Tetrapods – General Characteristics Body Density - Girdles – In fish, the pectoral girdle is attached to the skull. In fish, the pectoral girdle is attached to the skull. Early tetrapods developed a stronger shoulder girdle, bulky limb bones and well developed muscles. Early tetrapods developed a stronger shoulder girdle, bulky limb bones and well developed muscles. The pelvic girdle is fused to the backbone to increase the force that can be generated by the hind legs. The pelvic girdle is fused to the backbone to increase the force that can be generated by the hind legs.

11 Tetrapods – General Characteristics Body Density - Vertebrae and Ribs – Vertebrae have developed zygapophyses. Vertebrae have developed zygapophyses. The development of ribs can also protect the lungs. The development of ribs can also protect the lungs.

12 Tetrapods – General Characteristics Body Density - Skull and Neck The skull has been shortened and the snout elongated. The skull has been shortened and the snout elongated. The head becomes separated from the body by a neck (a cervical vertebrae) that allows the head to be lifted. The head becomes separated from the body by a neck (a cervical vertebrae) that allows the head to be lifted. A second vertebrae was then added to allow for a side to side movement. A second vertebrae was then added to allow for a side to side movement.

13 Tetrapods – Evolutionary History 1. Fish

14 Tetrapods – Evolutionary History  “Fishapod” – Tiktaalik (375 mya)  A fish with tetrapod features, this animal probably could not walk on land but could lift itself out of the water. 1. Fish Characteristics –Scales –Fins –Gills and lungs 2. Tetrapod Characteristics –Neck –Ribs –Fin skeleton –Flat skull –Eyes on top of skull

15 Classification  Phylum: Chordata  Subphylum: Vertebrata  Superclass: Gnathostomata  Class: Amphibia –Order: Urodela (Salamanders) –Order: Anurans (Frogs and Toads) –Order: Apodans (Caecilians)

16 Class: Amphibia  Two lives –refers to metamorphosis of many frogs  Skin smooth, moist (cutaneous respiration), and glandular (toxins)  Three chambered heart with a double circulation system  Mesolecithal eggs with jelly-like membrane

17 Order: Urodela  400 species  Salamanders  Retain their tail as adults  Limbs are at right angles to the body  Carnivorous

18 Order: Anurans  3500 species  Frogs and Toads  Lose their tail as adults  Hind limbs are adapted for jumping  Tongue connected to front of mouth  Secrete mucus

19 Order: Apodans  150 species  Caecilians  Legless and blind

20 Evolution of the Amniotic Egg  Allows animals to complete their entire life cycle on land  Has shell that retains water (or is lost when kept inside mammals)  Specialized extraembryonic membranes (not part of the animal)

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22 Evolution of the Amniotic Egg  Amnion - Protects from dehydration and mechanical shock  Yolk Sac - Nutrient storage  Albumin - Nutrient storage  Allantois - stores waste, gas exchange  Chorion - gas exchange

23 Amniotes

24 Amniotes

25 How Reptiles differ from Amphibians  Tough, dry skin  Amniotic egg  Crushing or gripping jaws  Copulatory organs  More efficient circulatory system with a higher blood pressure  More developed lungs (thoracic breathing)  Better water conservation  Better body support and limbs  Better nervous system

26 Classification  Phylum: Chordata  Subphylum: Vertebrata  Superclass: Gnathostomata  Class: Reptilia (not real) –Class: Testudines (Turtles and Tortoises) –Class: Spenodontia (Tuataras) –Class: Squamata (Lizards and Snakes) –Class: Crocodilia (Crocodiles and Alligators)

27 Reptile Radiation  Synapsids (therapsids) - led to mammals  Sauropsids –Anapsids??? (turtles) –Diapsids (all others)

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29 Class: Testudines (Chelonia)  Evolved on land and returned to water (lay eggs on land)  Protective Shell –Carapace –Plastron

30 Class: Sphenodontia  Tuataras –Two living species (New Zealand) –Not a True Lizard (no external ears) –Very Primitive (similar to mesozoic reptiles –Well developed eye below skin?

31 Class: Squamata  Lizards –geckos, iguanas, skinks, chameleons  terrestrial, burrowing, aquatic, arboreal  moveable eyelids  Paired copulatory organs  Lower jaw not attached to skull

32 Class: Squamata

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36  Snakes  Lack limbs  Lack moveable eyelids  Jacobson’s organ  Pit Vipers (heat)  Venom –neurotoxins –hemolytic enzymes

37 Class: Squamata

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41 Feeding Adaptations  Teeth curved and pointed inward  Hinged Quadrate bone  Bones of jaw are attached by muscles and ligaments  Moveable palate  Elastic skin  No sternum

42 Class: Crocodilia  Largest living reptiles  Most closely related to dinosaurs  Complete secondary palate  Four chambered heart  Nest temperature

43 Dinosaurs and Pterosaurs  Dinosaurs –Ornithischian –Saurischian (closely related to birds)  Pterosaurs –flying reptiles

44 Class: Aves

45  Feathers  Hollow Bones  Wings  Endotherm  Organs reduced  Beak without teeth  No bladder

46 Class: Aves  Wishbone – Called a Furcula made up of the fused clavicles.

47 Class: Aves  Muscles – –Pectoralis muscle pulls wing down –Supracoracoideus raises wing

48 The Origin of Birds  Feathers  Beak with teeth  Long Tail  Wing with claw

49 The Origin of Birds  Sinoauropteryx - protofeathers?  Caudipteryx - true feathers

50 Bird Classification  8600 species of bird (28 orders) –60% are passeriformes (perching birds)  Two major Types –Ratites  Ostriches, Emus –Carinates  Song birds

51 Class: Mammalia  Hair  Endothermic  Mammary glands  Live birth (2 exceptions)  Teeth differentiation  Jaw modified to incorporate bones into inner ear

52 The Evolution of the Mammal  Reptile’s lower jaw made up of several bones  Reptile’s middle ear made up of one bone  Mammal’s lower jaw made up of one bone  Mammal’s jaw joint has shifted  Mammal’s middle ear made up of three bones

53 Mammal Classification  Monotremes –lay eggs –no nipples

54 Monotreme

55 Mammal Classification  Marsupials –born early –develops in pouch

56 Marsupials

57 Marsupials

58 Mammal Classification  Placentals –Eutherian mammals –development in uterus joined by placenta

59 Proboscidea

60 Sirenia

61 Edentata

62 Rodentia

63 Lagomorpha

64 Carnivora

65 Artiodactyla

66 Cetacea

67 Perissodactyla

68 Chiroptera

69 Insectivora

70 Primate Evolution  Ancestral primate (arboreal) (65 mya) –binocular vision –opposable thumb  Prosimians –lemurs, tarsiers pottos

71 Primate Evolution  Ancestral primate (arboreal) (47 mya) –binocular vision –opposable thumb  “Ida” – Missing Link –No claws –Lack a tooth comb –Short limbs –Short face –Talus – corner of leg/foot

72 Primate Evolution  Anthropoids (50 mya) –Monkeys  Old World –External nares close together –Opposable thumbs –Calloused ischial tuberosities

73 Primate Evolution  Anthropoids (50 mya) –Monkeys  New World –Broad flat nasal septum –Nonopposable thumb –Prehensile tail

74 Primate Evolution  Hominoids (30 mya) –apes

75 Human Evolution  Brain Size  Jaw Size  Bipedalism  Reduced Size difference in sexes  Family Structure

76 Human Evolution  Sahelanthropus  (6.5 million years ago)

77 Human Evolution  Laetoli Footprints  (3.5 million years ago)

78 Human Evolution  Australopithecus  (3.24 million years ago)

79 Primate Evolution  Homo genus ( mya) –Homo sapiens (200,000 years ago)

80 Primate Evolution  Neanderthals (40,000 years old)

81 Human Evolution  Turkana Boy (Homo ergaster)  (1.7 million years ago)  Between H. habilis and H. erectus

82 Origin of Modern Humans  Out of Africa (monogeneus) –all races of humans evolved from an ancestor in Africa  Multiregional –Each race evolved from regional populations of Homo erectus


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