Presentation on theme: "Guo Ling,PhD,MD Department of Anatomy. Introduction Human Anatomy is the science which deals with the gross morphology and spatial interrelations of the."— Presentation transcript:
Guo Ling,PhD,MD Department of Anatomy
Introduction Human Anatomy is the science which deals with the gross morphology and spatial interrelations of the structures in the human body.
Owing to different methods and purposes of study, human anatomy is generally classified into : Gross anatomy Developmental Anatomy Radiographic Anatomy Clinical Anatomy Systematic Anatomy Regional Anatomy Microscopic Anatomy Histology Embryology Cytology
I. The General Structures of Human Body CellsTissuesOrgans and StructuresSystemsBody There are nine systems in the human body: 1.Locomotor System 2.Alimentary System 3.Respiratory System 4.Urinary System 5.Reproductive (Genital) System 6.Endocrine System 7.Circulatory System (Angiology) 8.Nervous System 9.Sense Organs
II. Basic concepts of anatomy I). The anatomical position and regions of the body The anatomical position is a standard position used in anatomy and clinical medicine to allow medical doctors and researchers to accurately describe a specific part of human body in relative to another.
The body is upright; the legs are put together, and the face, toes directed forwards. The palms are turned forward, with the thumbs laterally Anatomical Position
Regions of Body Anterior viewPosterior view Head Face Neck Thorax Abdomen Back Upper limb Lower limb
II). Planes and Sections Sagittal planes Coronal planes Horizontal or transverse planes A sagittal plane is the vertical plane passing through the body from front to back, and it divides the body into left and right portions. A median sagittal plane passes through the midline of the body and it equally divides the body into left and right portions. A coronal planes is vertical plane passing through the body at a right angle to sagittal plane and it divides the body into anterior and posterior parts Horizontal or transverse plane lies at a right angle to both sagittal and coronal planes, and it divides the body into superior and inferior parts.
III). The terms of direction Anterior in front of another structure Posterior Behind another structure Superior (Cranial) Above another structure Inferior (Caudal) Below another structure Medial Closer to the median plane Lateral Further away from the median plane
Internal Nearer to the center of a hollow organ or body cavity External Further away from the center of a hollow organ or body cavity Superficial Nearer to the surface of the body or organs Deep Further away from the surface of the body or organs Proximal Closer to the trunk or origin Distal Further away from the trunk or origin
PART I. THE LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM The locomotor system includes bones, joints and muscles.
Chapter1. Osteology (The Bone System) The adult skeleton consists of 206 individual bones arranged to form a strong, flexible body framework. The bones of the skeleton perform the mechanical functions of support and leverage for body movement. The bones can be divided into the skull, the bones of the trunk and the appendicular bones.
I. The Shape and Classification of Bones The long bones The short bones The flat bones The irregular bones
II. The Structure of Bones Living bones include the following components: bony substance Periosteum bone marrow Blood and nerve supply compact bone spongy bone fibrous membrane vascular membrane red marrow yellow marrow
III. The Chemical Composition and Physical Properties of Bone Living bones are plastic organs with organic and inorganic components. The organic material gives the bones resilience and toughness; the inorganic salts give them hardness and rigidity. The physical properties of the bones depend upon the chemical components which change with age.
Section 2 The Bones of Trunk The bones of trunk include the vertebrae, the sternum, and the ribs, which provide framework for the vertebral column, the thoracic cage and pelvis. The vertebrae The ribs The sternum
The vertebrae Cervical vertebrae (7) Thoracic vertebrae (12) Lumbar vertebrae (5) Sacrum (1) Coccyx (1) I). The general features of the vertebrae
Rib I Rib II Tuberosity for serratus ant. Sulcus for subclavian v. Sulcus for subclavian a.
Superior facet Inferior facet Articular facet of tubercle
The sternum Xiphoid process Body of sterum Costal notches Costal notch for 1 st rib Clavicular notch Jugular notch sternalangle Manubrium of sternum
Section 3 The Bones of Limbs I. The bones of upper limb Shoulder girdle The bones of free upper limb The clavicle The scapula The humerus The radius and ulna Carpal bones Metacarpal bones phalanges
II. The bones of lower limb The pelvic girdle The bones of free lower limb The femur The patella The tibia and fibula The tarsal bones The metatarsal bones The phalanges of foot
Section 4 The Skull The skull is composed of 23 separate bones joined at sutures. The bones of the skull may be divided into: The facial cranium (15 in number) The cerebral cranium (8 in number)
I. The cerebral cranium includes: One frontal bone Two parietal bones Two temporal bones One occipital bone One sphenoid bone One ethmoid bone
II. The facial cranium The facial bones are fifteen in number. The paired facial bones The un paired facial bones The palatine bones The maxillae bones The zygomatic bones The nasal bones The lacrimal bones The inferior nasal conchae The vomer bone The mandile bone The hyoid bone
III. The Skull as a Whole I) The superior aspect of the skull II) The posterior aspect of the skull III) The internal surface of the calvaria IV) Internal surface of the base of skull Ant. cranial fossa Mid. cranial fossa Post. cranial fossa
V) The external surface of the base of skull VI) The lateral view of skull VII) The front view of skull orbits bony nasal cavity paranasal sinuses frontal sinus ethmoidal sinus sphenoidal sinus maxillary sinus
IV. The Skull at Birth Superior view Occipital bone Frontal bone Frontal suture Coronal suture Anterior fontanelle Parietal bone Sagittal suture Posterior fontanelle Lambdoid suture
Lateral view Occipital bone Frontal bone Anterior fontanelle Parietal bone Posterolateral (Mastoid) fontanelle Temporal bone Anterolateral (Sphenoidal) fontanelle Sphenoid bone