Presentation on theme: "HUMAN ANATOMY Guo Ling,PhD,MD Department of Anatomy."— Presentation transcript:
1HUMAN ANATOMYGuo Ling,PhD,MDDepartment of Anatomy
2IntroductionHuman Anatomy is the science which deals with the gross morphology and spatial interrelations of the structures in the human body.
3Owing to different methods and purposes of study, human anatomy is generally classified into : Systematic AnatomyRegional AnatomyGross anatomyHistologyEmbryologyCytologyMicroscopic AnatomyDevelopmental AnatomyRadiographic AnatomyClinical Anatomy
4I. The General Structures of Human Body CellsTissuesOrgans and StructuresSystemsBodyThere are nine systems in the human body:Locomotor SystemAlimentary SystemRespiratory SystemUrinary SystemReproductive (Genital) SystemEndocrine SystemCirculatory System (Angiology)Nervous SystemSense Organs
5II. Basic concepts of anatomy I). The anatomical position and regions of the bodyThe anatomical position is a standard position used in anatomy and clinical medicine to allow medical doctors and researchers to accurately describe a specific part of human body in relative to another.
6Anatomical PositionThe body is upright; the legs are put together, and the face, toes directed forwards. The palms are turned forward, with the thumbs laterally
7Anterior viewPosterior viewRegions of BodyHeadFaceNeckThoraxAbdomenBackUpper limbLower limb
8II). Planes and Sections A coronal planes is vertical plane passing through the body at a right angle to sagittal plane and it divides the body into anterior and posterior partsSagittal planesCoronal planesHorizontal or transverse planesA sagittal plane is the vertical plane passing through the bodyfrom front to back, and it divides the body into left and right portions. A median sagittal plane passes through the midline of the body and it equally divides the body into left and right portions.Horizontal or transverse plane lies at a right angle to both sagittal and coronal planes, and it divides the body into superior and inferior parts .
9III). The terms of direction Anteriorin front of another structurePosteriorBehind another structureSuperior (Cranial)Above another structureInferior (Caudal)Below another structureMedialCloser to the median planeLateralFurther away from the median plane
10Internal External Superficial Deep Proximal Distal Nearer to the center of a holloworgan or body cavityExternalFurther away from the centerof a hollow organ or body cavitySuperficialNearer to the surface ofthe body or organsDeepFurther away from the surfaceof the body or organsProximalCloser to the trunk or originDistalFurther away from the trunk or origin
11PART I. THE LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM The locomotor system includes bones, joints and muscles.
12Chapter1. Osteology (The Bone System) The adult skeleton consists of 206 individual bones arranged to form a strong, flexible body framework. The bones of the skeleton perform the mechanical functions of support and leverage for body movement.The bones can be divided into the skull, the bones of the trunk and the appendicular bones.
13I. The Shape and Classification of Bones The long bonesThe short bonesThe flat bonesThe irregular bones
14II. The Structure of Bones Living bones include the following components:bony substancePeriosteumbone marrowBlood and nerve supplycompact bonespongy bonefibrous membranevascular membranered marrowyellow marrow
15III. The Chemical Composition and Physical Properties of Bone Living bones are plastic organs with organic and inorganic components. The organic material gives the bones resilience and toughness; the inorganic salts give them hardness and rigidity.The physical properties of the bones depend upon the chemical components which change with age.
16Section 2 The Bones of Trunk The bones of trunk include the vertebrae, the sternum, and the ribs, which provide framework for the vertebral column, the thoracic cage and pelvis.The vertebraeThe ribsThe sternum
17The vertebrae I). The general features of the vertebrae Cervical vertebrae (7)Thoracic vertebrae (12)Lumbar vertebrae (5)Sacrum (1)Coccyx (1)
22The sternum Jugular notch Clavicular notch Manubrium Costal notch of sternumCostal notchfor 1st ribsternalangleCostal notchesBody of sterumXiphoid process
23Section 3 The Bones of Limbs I. The bones of upper limbThe clavicleThe scapulaShoulder girdleThe humerusThe radius and ulnaCarpal bonesMetacarpal bonesphalangesThe bones offree upper limb
24The pelvic girdle The bones of free lower limb II. The bones of lower limbThe pelvic girdleThe femurThe patellaThe tibia and fibulaThe tarsal bonesThe metatarsal bonesThe phalanges of footThe bones offree lower limb
25Section The SkullThe skull is composed of 23 separate bones joined at sutures. The bones of the skull may be divided into:The cerebral cranium(8 in number)The facial cranium(15 in number)
26I. The cerebral cranium includes: One frontal boneTwo parietal bonesTwo temporal bonesOne occipital boneOne sphenoid boneOne ethmoid bone
27II. The facial cranium The facial bones are fifteen in number. The palatine bonesThe maxillae bonesThe zygomatic bonesThe nasal bonesThe lacrimal bonesThe inferiornasal conchaeThe pairedfacial bonesThe vomer boneThe mandile boneThe hyoid boneThe unpairedfacial bones
28III. The Skull as a WholeI) The superior aspect of the skullII) The posterior aspect of the skullIII) The internal surface of the calvariaIV) Internal surface of the base of skullAnt. cranial fossaMid. cranial fossaPost. cranial fossa
29V) The external surface of the base of skull VI) The lateral view of skullVII) The front view of skullorbitsbony nasal cavityfrontal sinusethmoidal sinusparanasal sinusessphenoidal sinusmaxillary sinus
30IV. The Skull at Birth Superior view Frontal bone Frontal suture Occipital boneFrontal boneFrontal sutureCoronal sutureAnterior fontanelleParietal boneSagittal suturePosterior fontanelleLambdoid sutureSuperior view
31Lateral view Parietal bone Anterior fontanelle Frontal bone Occipital boneFrontal boneAnterior fontanelleParietal bonePosterolateral(Mastoid)fontanelleTemporal boneAnterolateral(Sphenoidal)Sphenoid boneLateral view