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HUMAN ANATOMY Guo Ling,PhD,MD Department of Anatomy.

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Presentation on theme: "HUMAN ANATOMY Guo Ling,PhD,MD Department of Anatomy."— Presentation transcript:

1 HUMAN ANATOMY Guo Ling,PhD,MD Department of Anatomy

2 Introduction Human Anatomy is the science which deals with the gross morphology and spatial interrelations of the structures in the human body.

3 Owing to different methods and purposes of study, human anatomy is generally classified into :
Systematic Anatomy Regional Anatomy Gross anatomy Histology Embryology Cytology Microscopic Anatomy Developmental Anatomy Radiographic Anatomy Clinical Anatomy

4 I. The General Structures of Human Body
Cells Tissues Organs and Structures Systems Body There are nine systems in the human body: Locomotor System Alimentary System Respiratory System Urinary System Reproductive (Genital) System Endocrine System Circulatory System (Angiology) Nervous System Sense Organs

5 II. Basic concepts of anatomy
I). The anatomical position and regions of the body The anatomical position is a standard position used in anatomy and clinical medicine to allow medical doctors and researchers to accurately describe a specific part of human body in relative to another.

6 Anatomical Position The body is upright; the legs are put together, and the face, toes directed forwards. The palms are turned forward, with the thumbs laterally

7 Anterior view Posterior view Regions of Body Head Face Neck Thorax Abdomen Back Upper limb Lower limb

8 II). Planes and Sections
A coronal planes is vertical plane passing through the body at a right angle to sagittal plane and it divides the body into anterior and posterior parts Sagittal planes Coronal planes Horizontal or transverse planes A sagittal plane is the vertical plane passing through the body from front to back, and it divides the body into left and right portions. A median sagittal plane passes through the midline of the body and it equally divides the body into left and right portions. Horizontal or transverse plane lies at a right angle to both sagittal and coronal planes, and it divides the body into superior and inferior parts .

9 III). The terms of direction
Anterior in front of another structure Posterior Behind another structure Superior (Cranial) Above another structure Inferior (Caudal) Below another structure Medial Closer to the median plane Lateral Further away from the median plane

10 Internal External Superficial Deep Proximal Distal
Nearer to the center of a hollow organ or body cavity External Further away from the center of a hollow organ or body cavity Superficial Nearer to the surface of the body or organs Deep Further away from the surface of the body or organs Proximal Closer to the trunk or origin Distal Further away from the trunk or origin

11 PART I. THE LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM
The locomotor system includes bones, joints and muscles.

12 Chapter1. Osteology (The Bone System)
The adult skeleton consists of 206 individual bones arranged to form a strong, flexible body framework. The bones of the skeleton perform the mechanical functions of support and leverage for body movement. The bones can be divided into the skull, the bones of the trunk and the appendicular bones.

13 I. The Shape and Classification of Bones
The long bones The short bones The flat bones The irregular bones

14 II. The Structure of Bones
Living bones include the following components: bony substance Periosteum bone marrow Blood and nerve supply compact bone spongy bone fibrous membrane vascular membrane red marrow yellow marrow

15 III. The Chemical Composition and Physical Properties of Bone
Living bones are plastic organs with organic and inorganic components. The organic material gives the bones resilience and toughness; the inorganic salts give them hardness and rigidity. The physical properties of the bones depend upon the chemical components which change with age.

16 Section 2 The Bones of Trunk
The bones of trunk include the vertebrae, the sternum, and the ribs, which provide framework for the vertebral column, the thoracic cage and pelvis. The vertebrae The ribs The sternum

17 The vertebrae I). The general features of the vertebrae
Cervical vertebrae (7) Thoracic vertebrae (12) Lumbar vertebrae (5) Sacrum (1) Coccyx (1)

18 The Ribs (Costae) True ribs false ribs Costal arch Floating ribs

19 True ribs false ribs Floating ribs

20 Rib I Rib II Tuberosity for serratus ant. Sulcus for subclavian v.
Sulcus for subclavian a. Rib I Tuberosity for serratus ant. Rib II

21 Superior facet Inferior facet Articular facet of tubercle

22 The sternum Jugular notch Clavicular notch Manubrium Costal notch
of sternum Costal notch for 1st rib sternalangle Costal notches Body of sterum Xiphoid process

23 Section 3 The Bones of Limbs
I. The bones of upper limb The clavicle The scapula Shoulder girdle The humerus The radius and ulna Carpal bones Metacarpal bones phalanges The bones of free upper limb

24 The pelvic girdle The bones of free lower limb
II. The bones of lower limb The pelvic girdle The femur The patella The tibia and fibula The tarsal bones The metatarsal bones The phalanges of foot The bones of free lower limb

25 Section The Skull The skull is composed of 23 separate bones joined at sutures. The bones of the skull may be divided into: The cerebral cranium (8 in number) The facial cranium (15 in number)

26 I. The cerebral cranium includes:
One frontal bone Two parietal bones Two temporal bones One occipital bone One sphenoid bone One ethmoid bone

27 II. The facial cranium The facial bones are fifteen in number.
The palatine bones The maxillae bones The zygomatic bones The nasal bones The lacrimal bones The inferior nasal conchae The paired facial bones The vomer bone The mandile bone The hyoid bone The unpaired facial bones

28 III. The Skull as a Whole I) The superior aspect of the skull II) The posterior aspect of the skull III) The internal surface of the calvaria IV) Internal surface of the base of skull Ant. cranial fossa Mid. cranial fossa Post. cranial fossa

29 V) The external surface of the base of skull
VI) The lateral view of skull VII) The front view of skull orbits bony nasal cavity frontal sinus ethmoidal sinus paranasal sinuses sphenoidal sinus maxillary sinus

30 IV. The Skull at Birth Superior view Frontal bone Frontal suture
Occipital bone Frontal bone Frontal suture Coronal suture Anterior fontanelle Parietal bone Sagittal suture Posterior fontanelle Lambdoid suture Superior view

31 Lateral view Parietal bone Anterior fontanelle Frontal bone
Occipital bone Frontal bone Anterior fontanelle Parietal bone Posterolateral (Mastoid) fontanelle Temporal bone Anterolateral (Sphenoidal) Sphenoid bone Lateral view

32

33 The End


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