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Skeleton, Skin and Scales
Skull Evolutionary tendency Fusion of skull bones evolutionary time High # bones Low # bones
Skull Neurocranium (brain case) Branchiocranium (endoskeletal arches, original gill arch supports) –Chondrocranium (original cartilagenous braincase) –Dermatocranium (dermal bones attached to skull) -Arches: -Mandibular -Palatine -Hyoid -Opercular -Branchial
Mandibular Arch (cartil. & dermal origin) –Sharks Palatoquadrate Cartilage (top jaw) Meckel´s Cartilage (bottom jaw) –Bony Fishes Premaxillae, Maxillae, Supramaxillae (top jaw) Dentary, Angular (bottom jaw) Palatine Arch (cartil. origin)
Branchiocranium Hyoid Arch or Supensorium (cartil. Orig.) –Provides support and attachment to skull. lower jaw (Quadrate) opercular apparatus Opercular Arch (dermal origin) –Protects gills (Opercule)
Branchiocranium Branchial Arches (cartil. origin) –Support gills (Ceratobranchial & Epibranchial) –Help chewing (Pharingeal bones)
Jaw evolution hypothesis
Protrusible mouth (ascending process on premaxilla that slides along front of skull). premaxilla maxilla mandible
Jaw Suspension Evolution AMPHISTYLIC HYOSTYLICAUTOSTYLIC
Vertebral Column PrecaudalCaudal
Fins Pectoral Girdle –Not attached to vertebral column –Attached to Skull Pelvic Girdle –Not attached to vertebral column Caudal Fin –Protocercal, heterocercal, homocercal
Fins Median Fins –Sharks Ceratotrichia (dermal) Radials (cartil.)
Fins Median Fins –Bony Fishes Ceratotrichia (in larval stages) Lepidotrichia (dermal) Pterygiophores (cartil.)
Soft raysTrue Spines soft segmented branched bilateral hard and pointed unsegmented unbranched solid
Scale Types Placoid –Sharks, rays and chimaeras –dermal and epidermal origin –Irrigated pulp cavity + dentine + vitrodentine –homologous to vertebrate teeth Cosmoid –Lungfishes –originated by fusion of placoid scales –Two bone layers + cosmine + vitrodentine
Scales Ganoid –Sturgeons, paddlefish and gars –modified cosmoid scale –Two bone layers + dentine + ganoine Cycloid and Ctenoid –Bony fishes –evolved from ganoid scale (loss of ganoine) –Almost all dermal –Overlapping (shingle-like)
A General Look External Anatomy There are about 25,000 different species of fishes. This is more than any other vertebrate group.
MAIN IDEA: What are the main external and internal anatomical features of fish ?
Pennsylvania Fish Species 160 Native to PA Study of fish biology: Ichthyology.
1. Chordate Characteristics Characteristics of Chordates A chordate is an animal that in some stage of development has: 1. Notochord- dorsal rod of specialized.
Vertebrates Mr. Skirbst Life Science Topic 17. Phylum Chordata.
Chapter 18- Fish 2743A2DA19DC&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US#
Means fish with bony skeletons There are over 20,000 species of bony fish.
PHYLUM CHORDATA Dorsal Notochord-long rod that supports the body- becomes the vertebrae in most. Dorsal Nerve cord-becomes the central nervous system.
EVERYTHING YOU ALWAYS WANTED TO KNOW ABOUT:. WHAT MAIN CHARACTERISTIC IS SHARED BY ALL VERTEBRATES?
What is a Fish? Characteristics, features, examples of the animals with fins, gills, and scales assets/Fish.jpg.
FISH HOLT CH. 30 PG CHARACTERISTICS OF FISH ENDOSKELETON.
Chordata (Fish) Myxini(Hagfish) Cephalaspidomorphi(Lampreys) Chondrichthyes(Sharks, Rays) Actinopterygii(ray-finned fish) Actinistia(Coelacanths) Dipnoi(Lungfish)
The Nature of Skeletal Growth Mohammad Almohaimeed BDS, SSC(Ortho)
1 Axial (the center or axis) Appendicular (legs and arms) Skeletal Organization Skeleton is divided into two divisions!
Fish. What are Fish? Fish are aquatic vertebrates (animals with backbones) with fins for appendages. They "breathe" by means of gills. Fish make up the.
Biology 210 Chapter 8: Skeletal Tissues Supplement 1 By John McGill Material contributed by Beth Wyatt & Jack Bagwell.
Fish The most diverse and successful vertebrates.
Diversity of Modern Life Kingdom Monera (Monerans) Smallest and simplest lifeforms Unicellular (one-celled) no nucleus Bacteria and cyanobacteria.
Dorsal Fin Caudal Fin Anal Fin Pelvic Fin Pectoral Fin Operculum.
Skates & Rays Skates and rays are both cartilaginous fishes that are related to the sharks.
ANATOMY AND FRACTURES OF THE MANDIBLE ANATOMY Mandible interfaces with skull base via the TMJ and is held in position by the muscles of mastication.
Chapter 26 Introduction to Animals. Characteristics of Animals There are 3 general features of animals which all animals share: All animals are multicellular.
Chapter 2 Locomotion and Support. 2.1 SUPPORT AND LOCOMOTION IN HUMANS AND ANIMALS.
Classification is the act of distributing things into classes or categories of the same type.
Clues About Evolution Chapter 6, Section 2. Support for Evolution Fossils –Remains or traces of organisms found in sedimentary rock. –Provide an incomplete.
Jeopardy Bone Structure Axial Skeleton Appendicular Skeleton Joints Potpourri Q $100 Q $200 Q $300 Q $400 Q $500 Q $100 Q $200 Q $300 Q $400 Q $500 Final.
Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies The Animal Body and How It Moves Chapter 22 Copyright © McGraw-Hill Companies.
Vertebrate Classes All in Chordate Phylum 1. All vertebrates have… Bilateral symmetry Bilateral symmetry Fully developed coelom with organs Fully developed.
Vertebrates. Characteristics of Vertebrates Vertebrates have a vertebral column and specialized cells that develop from the nerve cord. The vertebral.
VERTEBRATES. YOU MUST KNOW… THE FOUR CHORDATE CHARACTERISTICS TRAITS WHICH DISTINGUISH EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GROUPS: CHONDRICHTHYES, OSTEICHTHYES, AMPHIBIA,
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