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IDENTIFICATION Dr. AJEE KURUVILLA. IDENTIFICATION Identification in the living Identification in the living Identification of the dead Identification.

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Presentation on theme: "IDENTIFICATION Dr. AJEE KURUVILLA. IDENTIFICATION Identification in the living Identification in the living Identification of the dead Identification."— Presentation transcript:

1 IDENTIFICATION Dr. AJEE KURUVILLA

2 IDENTIFICATION Identification in the living Identification in the living Identification of the dead Identification of the dead

3 Civil cases Pension Pension Insurance Insurance Inheritance Inheritance Marriage Marriage Disputed sex Disputed sex Employment Employment Voting Voting Missing persons Missing persons

4 Criminal cases Absconding soldiers Absconding soldiers Absconding criminal Absconding criminal Person accused of rape, murder, assault Person accused of rape, murder, assault Intentional interchange of babies Intentional interchange of babies Theft Theft

5 Corpus delicti body of offence- essence of crime

6 Complete identification Complete identification Partial identification Partial identification

7 Points to be considered for establishment of identity Race Race Religion Religion Sex Sex Age Age Congenital features Congenital features Acquired peculiarity Acquired peculiarity Miscellaneous Miscellaneous

8 Race A biological grouping within the human species distinguished or classified according to genetically transmitted differences. Clothes, complexion, hair, eyes, lips Caucasoid, Negroid, Mongoloids

9 Caucasoid Europeans Europeans Semitic (Arabs & Jews) Semitic (Arabs & Jews) Indo- Aryan Indo- Aryan Skin colour- very fair to brown Skin colour- very fair to brown Hair- straight, wavy, blonde, brown, black Hair- straight, wavy, blonde, brown, black Nose-generally long & narrow Nose-generally long & narrow Face- narrow- medium broad Face- narrow- medium broad

10 Negroid Africa to the south of Sahara Africa to the south of Sahara Negrito people of India & S.E. Asia Negrito people of India & S.E. Asia Skin colour- black- brownish- yellowish Skin colour- black- brownish- yellowish Hair- crinkly / frizzy, woolly, coarse Hair- crinkly / frizzy, woolly, coarse Noses- broad, flat Noses- broad, flat Face- narrow- medium broad Face- narrow- medium broad Stature- varies Stature- varies

11 Mongoloids Chinese, Japanese, Burmese, Thias, Vietnamese, Malays, Eskimos, Red Indians, American Indians of South America Chinese, Japanese, Burmese, Thias, Vietnamese, Malays, Eskimos, Red Indians, American Indians of South America Eyes- characteristic fold of skin Eyes- characteristic fold of skin Hair- lank & straight Hair- lank & straight Stature- short to medium Stature- short to medium

12 Indices Cephalic index = Max. transverse breadth of skull _____ x 100 Max. antero- posterior length of skull 70 – 75: Dolicocephalic / long head (Negroes, Pure Aryans) 75 – 80: Mesaticephalic / medium head (Europeans, Chinese) 80 – 85: Brachycephalic / short head (Mongolians)

13 Religion

14 Stature 2 x (length of upper limb) cms 2 x (length of upper limb) cms 2 x (length from vertex to symphysis pubis) 2 x (length from vertex to symphysis pubis) 2 x (length from symphysis pubis to either heel) 2 x (length from symphysis pubis to either heel) 3.3 x (length from sternal notch to symphysis pubis) 3.3 x (length from sternal notch to symphysis pubis) 7 x (height of head) 7 x (height of head) 8 x (length of skull) 8 x (length of skull) 19/ 5 x (length of forearm) 19/ 5 x (length of forearm)

15 Stature From skeletal remains, with the help of regression formula using long bones From skeletal remains, with the help of regression formula using long bones From fragmented bones- Steele From fragmented bones- Steele

16 Hair Is it hair or not? Is it hair or not? Human hair / animal hair ? Human hair / animal hair ? If human- If human- 1. sex ? 2. Age ? 3. From which part of the body? 4. Individualisation- DNA typing, ABO, trace elements, disease, dyes, henna Medico Legal Importance Medico Legal Importance Resists putrefaction for long

17 1. One of the following indices is helpful in determining the race of an unidentified skull. a) Cephalic index. b) Cranial index. c) Cerebral index. d) Cortical index.

18 2.One of the following is useful in determining the stature from fragmented long bones. a) Karl Pearson’s formula b) Trotter and Gleser’s formula c) Dupertuis and Hadden’s formula d) Steele’s formula

19 3. Cephalic index is derived by using one of the following formula. a) Length of skull / Breadth of skull x 100 b) Breadth of skull / Length of skull x 100 c) Height of skull / Length of skull x 100 d) Length of skull/ Height of skull x 100

20 4. The “medullary index” of human hair is a) Less than 0.3. b) More than 0.3. c) Less than 0.5. d) More than 0.5.

21 5. The “medullary index” of animal hair is a) Less than 0.3. b) More than 0.3. c) Less than 0.5. d) More than 0.5.

22 7. Identification of a living person may arise in : a) Civil cases. b) Criminal cases c) Both A & B

23 Tattoo mark s Tattoo marks are designs made by multiple small puncture wounds made through the skin with needles or similar penetrating tools dipped in colouring agents ( dye ) Derived from Polynesian “Ta Tau” = to mark

24 Commonly used dyes: indigo, cobalt, finely divided carbon, china ink, cinnabar, vermillion, prussian blue, etc. Commonly used dyes: indigo, cobalt, finely divided carbon, china ink, cinnabar, vermillion, prussian blue, etc. Optimum depth of penetration: superficial layers of dermis. Optimum depth of penetration: superficial layers of dermis. Permanency of tattoo marks: depends on type of dye used, its depth of penetration & part of body tattooed. Permanency of tattoo marks: depends on type of dye used, its depth of penetration & part of body tattooed.

25 Latent tattoo marks: Latent tattoo marks: Visible by using UV light, by rubbing the part, by examining with magnifying glass in strong light Natural disappearance of tattoo marks: Natural disappearance of tattoo marks: Vermillion, cinnabar – disappear after min of 10 years. Vermillion, cinnabar – disappear after min of 10 years. Black pigments ( Indian ink ) – permanent Black pigments ( Indian ink ) – permanent Artificial removal of tattoo marks: Artificial removal of tattoo marks: Surgical removal & skin grafting, electrolysis; applying Carbon dioxide snow; dermal abrasion; laser; caustic substances

26 Forensic importance of tattoo marks Identity: Identity: Race, religion, nationality, occupation, name of person or his beloved ones, date of birth / marriage, etc. Mental make up / desire: obscene figures Mental make up / desire: obscene figures Infection & keloid formation. Infection & keloid formation. Drug addicts (concealing site) Drug addicts (concealing site) Homosexuals (blue bird on back or web of thumb) Homosexuals (blue bird on back or web of thumb)

27 Photo & Video Superimposition

28 Photo superimposition Photographs of the skull are taken. Photographs of the skull are taken. Transparencies of skull photograph & that of life-time photograph are focused on the same sensitive printing paper. Transparencies of skull photograph & that of life-time photograph are focused on the same sensitive printing paper. After maximum alignment, a positive print will be taken. After maximum alignment, a positive print will be taken. Attempt is made to study the matching / non-matching of major anatomical landmarks. Attempt is made to study the matching / non-matching of major anatomical landmarks.

29 Video superimposition 2 video images (one of photograph & other of skull) are mixed on one video display unit. 2 video images (one of photograph & other of skull) are mixed on one video display unit. Negative matching – Skull is not that of the person in the photograph Positive matching – Skull could be that of the person in the photograph

30 Facial reconstruction using clay

31 These methods use modeling clay or plasticine to build up the depth of tissue on the skull to that of a living individual. These methods use modeling clay or plasticine to build up the depth of tissue on the skull to that of a living individual. Shape of the eyes, nose and mouth cannot be confidently predicted and are largely guesswork. Shape of the eyes, nose and mouth cannot be confidently predicted and are largely guesswork.

32 Tissue depth markers

33 Anatomical structures, which define the outer surface of the face are pasted onto the skull Temporalis, zygomaticus & masseter muscles, orbicularis oris, parotid gland, buccal fatty pad, fat pad of chin.

34 Adding clay using the tissue depth marker guidelines

35 Finishing touches are applied and tissue depth markers are covered

36 Painting, replacing polyfiber scalp hair & eyebrows

37 TERIMA KASIH


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