Presentation on theme: "What Can a Skeleton Tell You –Aging –Sexing –Population Affinity –Diet –Pathology –Trauma."— Presentation transcript:
What Can a Skeleton Tell You –Aging –Sexing –Population Affinity –Diet –Pathology –Trauma
Determining Age of Infant Prior to Birth Click HERE for the full size image Click HERE for the full size image Original image from Used with permission.http://www.boneclones.com
Try it Out Aged 31 weeks, 32 weeks, and 40 weeks (full term)
What about this one?
Bear Claw vs. Human Hand
Like Fingerprints… just can’t be seen until antemortem
When you don’t floss
Aging Peruvian Female, 100 BCE Original image from Used with permissionhttp://www.boneclones.com
Arthritis Arthritic on the Left, and Normal on the Right Original image from Used with permission.http://www.boneclones.com
Arthritis Top Normal Bottom
Which One Has Arthritis
Osteoarthritis Top: a vertebra fused with the sacrum Bottom: the manubrium (top of the sternum) fused with the clavicle (shown cut here) Original image from Used with permission.
Healing After Brain Surgery? Bolivian Female, Brain Surgery Survivor, 800 AD Peruvian Male, Bound Skull & Brain Surgery Survivor, 7000 BCE
Trephination Cont Inca skull after Trephination. The lack of bone growth after the surgery indicates that the treatment was likely worse than the disease View of wound in skull after trephination and removal of shattered bone, shown at bottom left. From Charles Bell, The Great Operations of Surgery, London, Etching by Thomas Landseer, after Bell.
Defects as Indicators Sternal Defect Scoliosis
Cradleboarding A prematurely fused sagittal suture, forcing the skull to elongate to allow for the expanding brain during growth
Perimortem Note the sharp edges of the cuts above.
Machete Wounds, African Male
Broad Axe Trauma, Male Spanish Conquistador, 1680 AD Original image from Used with permission.http://www.boneclones.com
Male Roman Gladiator, with Blunt Force Trauma NOTE: Above eyes and on either side of the nose. Original image from
Large Caliber GSW
Rib started to grow around the.22 caliber bullet. That's antemoretem
Racial Characteristics – Sex Set 1
QUESTIONS: 1. What are two ways, other than size, to determine whether a skeleton is from a teenager or an adult? 2. How can you tell whether an injury occurred perimortem (around the time of death) or antemortem (well before the time of death)? 3. What are 5 things that you can determine about an individual adult from that person's intact skull?
RACE The arch of the maxilla can be found in three basic shapes: hyperbolic, parabolic, and rounded. Each of the the following three races have their own shape: (1) African = hyperbolic, (2) European = parabolic, and (3) Asian = rounded.
-These two categories are: (1) shovel-shaped, and (2) spatulate, or spatula-shaped. -As there is more than one race with spatulate incisors, other indicators are necessary to positively identify race, although this single feature can be used to eliminate one of the possibilities. -Each of the the following three races have their own shape: (1)African = spatulate (2)European = spatulate (3)Asian = shovel-shaped.
Circle the Appropriate Answer Arch Shape Hyperbola, Parabola, or Rounded Incisor Spatulate or Shovel-shaped RACE African Asian Caucasian
African ancestry, the nasal opening is more flared. Another example is that of the zygomatic arch (or cheek bone), which is angled more forward in people of Asian ancestry, thus giving the person a slightly more flattened face..
Try it out Angle > 90 degrees or < 90 degrees Sacrum Forward or Backward Pelvic Outlet Small or Large Ilia Close or Spread Female or Male
Skull LandmarksFemaleMale ChinRoundedSquare Mastoid Process (Behind Ear) SmallLarge External Occipital Protuberance (Back of Skull) Small (Not Prominent) Large (Prominent) General AnatomyGracile (i.e., Graceful) Robust ForeheadVertical Receding (Careful with the comments...) Brow Ridges (Location of Eyebrows) Slightly DevelopedProminent Muscle LinesSlightly DevelopedProminent Orbital Margins (Edge of Eye Socket) SharpRounded Angle of Ascending Ramus (Back Corner of the Jaw) ObtuseClose to 90 degrees
Circle the Appropriate Answer Chin Rounded or Square Mastoid Process Small or Large Occipital Protuberance Small or Large General Anatomy Gracile or Robust Forehead Vertical or Receding Brow Ridges Slight or Prominent Muscle Lines Slight or Prominent Orbital Margins Sharp or Rounded Angle of Ramus 90 degrees or Obtuse Gender Female or MaleGender Female or Mal
Adult skull has no remaining suture (called the frontal suture) in the middle of the Frontal bone. Remember, also, that all the sutures ultimately become more filled-in ("closed") as we age. Circle the Appropriate Answer Frontal Suture Present or Absent Other Sutures "Open" or "Closed" Adolescent or Adult
An x-ray image (radiograph) of a child will reveal a dark area where the growth plates are still made of cartilage (more x-rays can pass through cartilage, which is less dense, thus making a dark area); these areas are the epiphyseal plates. An x-ray radiograph of an adult will reveal a white area where the growth plates have been turned into bone (fewer x-rays can pass through bone, which is more dense, thus making a white line); these areas are the epiphyseal lines.
Circle the Appropriate Answer Epiphyseal Plate or Line Adult or Child
QUESTIONS: What is the easiest way to determine the gender (using the skeleton) of an individual, and why? What is the easiest way to tell (using the skeleton) whether a teenager is lying about her/his age, and why? Why can determining gender from a skull be difficult? Why should a forensic anthropologist use more than one bone (if possible) to determine the height of an individual? What other issue is important to question four, especially if there is only one bone from which to work?