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1 Training for First Flight 12 Nov 09 Air Force Flight Test Center Mr David Vanhoy Mr Karl Major USAF Test Pilot School (661) 277-3000 I n t e g r i t.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Training for First Flight 12 Nov 09 Air Force Flight Test Center Mr David Vanhoy Mr Karl Major USAF Test Pilot School (661) 277-3000 I n t e g r i t."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Training for First Flight 12 Nov 09 Air Force Flight Test Center Mr David Vanhoy Mr Karl Major USAF Test Pilot School (661) 277-3000 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. AFFTC-PA No.: 09462 War-Winning Capabilities … On Time, On Cost Scientia est Virtus

2 2 Roadmap USAF TPS Course Overview 1 st Flt Course Objectives –PA HQ –Model Validation –ASE 1 st Flight Checkride –Purpose / Scenario –Planning Elements –Key Questions Summary


4 Motivation!!!!

5 Who wants to be this guy???? 5

6 Or this guy???? 6 Video courtesy of Gary Aldrich

7 7 Objectives 1.List the 3 kinds of FQ testing that should be conducted during the First Flight of an airplane 2.Describe the types of powered approach Handling Qualities testing that should be conducted on a First Flight 3.Describe the flight conditions at which First Flight powered approach HQ testing should be conducted 4.Name the 3 test methods that can be used to evaluate the Aero-Servo-Elastic stability of the landing configuration 5.State the fundamental principle of test point selection for First Flight Aero-Servo-Elastic testing

8 8 Risks & Risk Reduction Ground Testing –Verified and Validated FCS –Nearly Validated Structure Uncertainty in Predicted Aero –Unavoidable –Design for Robustness Uncertainty in Predicted Handling Qualities –Simulator: Lack of Fidelity –Incomplete Evaluations –Biased Evaluations GVT SCT Load Proof & Cal FMET Design Principles Piloted Sim

9 9 Block Diagram of Simple Pitch Axis Control System GVT Structural Coupling Coupling HIL Gnd Test Design &Sim Sensitivity Studies Structural Coupling Coupling HIL Gnd Test UNKNOWN

10 Primary Objective: LAND SAFELY!! Secondary Obj: Don’t hit chase plane and get cool pics 10

11 Primary Objective: LAND SAFELY!! Secondary Obj: GET AWAY FROM THE GROUND and Sample PA HQ 11

12 12 3 Kinds of FQ Testing for 1 st Flights 1.Handling Qualities –Primarily in PA Config 2. Aero Model Validation 3. ASE OBJ 1 Predict – Test – Validate and use the Build-up Approach

13 13 1.Handling Qualities Powered Approach Photo from

14 14 1 st Flt Handling Qualities Tests Open Loop and Semi-Closed Loop FTTs Closed Loop Elevated Gain FTTs Closed Loop Ops Representative OBJ 2 Photo from

15 15 1 st Flt Handling Qualities Tests Static Stability  Trim Shot Time Delay and ASE  Raps Dynamic Stability  3 Axis Doublets Initial Response and Steady State Resp  Small Steps Directional Stability and  R Control Power  Sideslips Lateral Stability &  a Control Power  Stabilized Turns & Bank-to-bank Rolls “Elevated” g  Stabilized Turns Predictability  Attitude Captures Higher Gain PA HQ & Throttle Response  Simulated App & Go-Arounds Open Loop and Semi-closed Loop FTTs LIMIT AMPLITUDE of PILOT INPUTS OBJ 2

16 16 Workload Build-up –Increase aggressiveness to something greater than anticipated for landing –Tracking a Target (real or simulated) Longitudinal and Lateral/Directional Axis –Tracking pitch attitude or flight path angle or AOA Closed Loop Elevated Gain FTTS OBJ 2 1 st Flt Handling Qualities Tests

17 17 There generally aren’t any Exceptions could be for modified a/c versus actual 1 st flights of new a/c Closed Loop Ops Representative Tasks Do NOT make 1 st landing a Closed Loop Ops Representative task!!!!!! 1 st Flt Handling Qualities Tests

18 18 2. Aero Model Validation

19 19 Types of Tests Trim Shot Raps 3-axis Doublets Small Steps Sideslips Bank-to-bank Rolls Open Loop FTTs PTI for Individual Surfaces if required

20 20 Types of Tests Trim Shot Raps 3-axis Doublets Small Steps Sideslips Bank-to-bank Rolls PTI for Individual Surfaces if required Open Loop FTTs These are the same maneuvers previously shown for open loop HQ

21 21 Elasticity Aero Servo Structural Coupling Rigid Body Limit Cycle Flutter 3. ASE

22 22 Identify the points where the stability margins are the smallest –If there is a chance you may reach one of these points during approach, you need to test this at altitude first –If you will not get anywhere near your lowest stability margin points on first flight, then STAY AWAY from them –Use Raps as appropriate to verify ASE stability OBJ 5 Test Pt Selection for ASE Testing

23 Course Evaluation C-12 First Flight 23

24 Purpose Level of LearningObjective Application- Appropriate execution of Flying/Handling Qualities Test Techniques - Appropriate management of Chase Analysis- Discern effectiveness of mission conduct Synthesis- Develop appropriate plan for first flight Evaluation- Assess test results in-flight and post-flight Develop and Execute a 1 st Flt Profile with Emphasis on FQ 24

25 Scenario C-90 King Air Make suitable for Special Ops mission 25

26 C-12 Special Ops Prototype The Answer? Scenario 26

27 Assumptions Ground Tests and Taxi Tests –Successfully completed Same engines as C-90 King Air Same system components, but application new –fuel lines different, tanks different, pump locations different, etc Performance model: Flight manual Initial starting envelope given 27

28 Goal Effectively determine ability to land safely –Via long, low gain straight-in approach & landing 28

29 Planning Elements How best to get away from ground? Basic instruments confidence How to expand the envelope? Test point selection –Flying / Handling Qualities –Aero Model Validation –Aeroelastic considerations Test point prioritization System operations 29

30 Mission Variables Potential System Failures –Mock aircraft write-ups –Airspeed, pressurization, flaps, DAS, etc. MIL-STD 1797, Flying Qualities of Piloted Vehicles –Team Unique Compliance Checks –Program office special interest item 30

31 Key Questions First flight objectives and priorities? Test point purpose? Best envelope expansion approach? –How slow, what increment? –How much sideslip, roll rate? Minimum maneuvers to attempt landing? What if something goes wrong? How do mitigate first landing risks? –Configuration changes How much should you elevate the pilot’s gains? –Cooper-Harper ratings 31

32 First Flight Summary 32 Do Your Homework –Simulation –Thorough Ground Test –Team Practice Predict, Test, Validate Method + Build-up Approach PA Handling Qualities, Aero Model Validation, ASE Reduce Unknowns: Start test at Ideal Conditions Contingency Plans for Undesirable HQ or Failures Get Away from the Gnd Eval PA HQ & Land Safely

33 First Flight Testing 33


35 It’s Just a Minor Mod…… V∞V∞ 35

36 Starting Envelope 140-160 KCAS 15,000 ft PA ½ Maximum Aileron Input 0.8G to 1.5G Load Factor 5° Sideslip Flight Manual Limits for A/C Systems Takeoff designed for 40% flaps Heart of the Envelope, then where? OBJ 3 36

37 Brief Items Objectives Priorities A/C Status / Mods / SI Go / No-Go Safe Envelope Envelope Expansion Plan Predictions Time / Fuel Line Wx Area Considerations Safety Brief Limits Terminology Com Plan Duties Contingency Plans

38 Test Limits 60° Max Bank Angle 0.5G to 2.0G Load Factor Recover from stall at first indication of BUFFET All minimum speed maneuvers (VMCA) will be terminated not later than first indication of stall (horn or buffet, whichever occurs first) Maximum pressure altitude of 17,000 ft PA No High Gain Aggressive tracking in wingtip formation Flight Manual Limits –Engine Parameters, pressurization, yaw damper, etc It’s the crew’s responsibility to keep the aircraft within the test limits the aircraft within the test limits

39 Questions You Should Ask What can go wrong? –engines, fuel, configuration, etc. How are you going to minimize risk? What are the contingency plans? –Include those plans (or the philosophy) in the brief & be able to apply to your cards How far do you go looking for PIO?? How do you accomplish higher gain PA tasks?

40 Questions You Should Ask How Slow should you go? –Vapp??? –Stall Warning?? –Stall?? How much Sideslip should you generate? How far should you expand roll rate? –How do you expand roll rate? Do you Evaluate Engine Out? –Power settings / Airspeeds / Maneuvers?

41 Questions You Should Ask Do you raise the gear?? – ALL Config Changes should be dedicated events What tasks are best to simulate landing? What axis is the most critical? What do you track? What are the desired and adequate criteria? How important are Cooper-Harper Ratings? – Don’t make the landing a C-H Task!!!

42 It was Built to Specs…… 42

43 43 CourseAcademic TopicsLabs, Sims & ChecksReports FQ 600 Unaugmented Airplane Motion Equations of Motion Trim & Stability Parameter Estimation C-12 Long-Stat & Lat-Dir LJ-24 Long-Stat & Lat-Dir T-38 Long-Stat & Lat-Dir T-38 Dynamics T-38 Long-Stat 5314 T-38 Long-Stat TR T-38 Lat-Dir 5314 T-38 Lat-Dir TR FQ 700 Flight Control System Testing Intro to FCS Analog & Digital FCS Aero-Servo-Elasticity Criteria for FCS Design Freq Content, Aliasing, Filters Freq Response Estimation Redundancy Mgmt Systems FCS Ground Testing Flight Test Simulators FQ & HQ Simulators VISTA HQ Demo LJ-24 FCS Project VISTA HQ 5314 FQ 800 Stall, Departure, Spin, & Failure State Testing Stall-Departure-Spin Testing Failure State Testing Glider Spin T-38 Stall & HQ C-12 & KC-135 Eng-Out F-16 Departure T-38 HQ/Stall 5314 T-38 HQ/Stall Oral PRR Eng-Out Expanded 5314 F-16 Departure Oral PRR FQ 900 Handling Qualities (HQ) & Envelope Expansion FQ Testing Config & Overview Taxi testing First-Flight FQ Testing Handling Qualities Evaluation One-Flight FQ Evaluation Stores Certification Structures F-16 limit Cycle Oscillation KC-135 & Glider FQ C-12 First-Flight Check F-16 HQ F-15 CFP & Asymmetric Stores AT-38 FQ Check F-16 Structural Loads Check Flying Qualities Phase

44 Risks & Risk Reduction Prepare the Aircraft Prepare the Pilot Plan the Envelope Expansion Profile Plan for Emergencies 44

45 45 First Flight: Short and Cautious Riskiest parts –Take-off Close to Ground No Build-up –Landing Risk Reduction –Low Bandwidth Take-off and Landing –Good Weather –Long, Smooth Runway –Controlled Airspace –Crash and Rescue

46 46 Test Conditions 2 1 3 4 OBJ 3 Heart of the Envelope, Approach Speeds

47 47 Generic Profile GET AWAY FROM THE GROUND Heart-of-the-envelope Trim Shot Air Data Checks ASE if required Open Loop PA HQ - compare to predictions Closed Loop PA HQ - compare to predictions Engine Checks System Checks Expand envelope to meet primary objective: LAND SAFELY Long Straight-in approach /low gain landing

48 48 Trim Shot (Accel into to eval Static Stability) Raps (Time Delay and ASE) 3-axis Doublets (Dynamic Stability) Small Steps (Initial Response and Steady State Resp) Sideslips (Directional Stability and  R Control Power) Bank-to-bank Rolls (Roll mode time constant &  a Control Power) Stabilized Turns (Spiral Stability and “elevated” g) Attitude Captures (Predictability) Simulated App & Go-Arounds (Higher Gain PA HQ & Throttle Response) LIMIT AMPLITUDE of PILOT INPUTS Open Loop and Semi-closed Loop FTTs OBJ 2 1 st Flt Handling Qualities Tests

49 CASE STUDY: ADAM AIRCRAFT M309 CASE STUDIES Adam Aircraft Industries Photo

50 50

51 51

52 Recap Photo from

53 53 Figure 28-37

54 54 C m  e C N 0  C N  e C m 0  C m  e Analytical Determination of Trim  trim = mg q S  C m 0  C m   e trim = C m  e  trim C N  e C m   C m  e C N 

55 55 Pitch Doublet Time History Figure 28-16  act = 11.3  pred = 14.1  e act = -13.5  e pred = -10.6 = Aero Parameter Identification

56 56 Flight Test Estimated vs Predicted Stability Derivatives Figure 28-17

57 57 Figure 28-27 Flight Test vs Updated Simulator Comparison

58 58 Structural Coupling Ground Test Results Figure 28-39 Min Damping for Flt Test

59 59 3 Methods to Evaluate ASE Pulse and Go (= Stick / Pedal RAP or PTI) Increasing Loop Gain –If stability margin will get small near approach speed, then need to verify margin at a higher speed (model validation approach) Frequency Response (= Freq Sweep) OBJ 4

60 60 Increasing Loop-Gain Method 1) Begin at Nominal Gain 2) Small, Sharp Input 3) Observe Control Surface: Stop or go to 4 4) Large, Sharp Input 5) Observe Control Surface: Stop or Increase Gain

61 61 Time Histories of Elevator Input Figure 28-40

62 62 Flight Test vs Predicted Damping Figure 28-41

63 63 Taiwanese Indigenous Defense Fighter (IDF) Photo from

64 Mission Objective R1. Increase size of cargo bay to accommodate required payload. R2. Correct Roll PIO problem found during high gain Special Ops tasks. R3. Improve directional stability margin to allow for safe recovery following battle damage. R4. Redesign tail to prevent parachute/static line entanglement during low altitude jumps. R5. Improve formation flying qualities, specifically concerning Dutch-roll damping. R6. Reduce rudder force required during rapid speed changes.

65 General Information C-12 Test Aircraft –Pilot/Engineer Test Teams Assigned in Advance –Each team given a SPO MIL-STD-of-Interest Chase Aircraft (C-12 or other low speed aircraft) –Random Crews Assigned by Scheduling Data –Hand Held and DAS as available –Test Day Only (No Standardization)

66 Mission Profile Designed by the FTE/Test Team The Following Profile OPTIONS are just SUGGESTIONS –Not a minimum list or an all inclusive list of FTTs YOU find a BALANCE between safety, envelope expansion, and program requirements

67 Mission Profile Options Ground Block Flying Qualities TakeoffCheck Dash-1 normal procedures Airborne pick-up /w photo ClimbPitch captures Longitudinal stability Flight Manual Schedule Power effects Air Data “Cruise” DataTrim Air Data Long and Lat/Dir flying qualities Configuration changes Handling Qualities (PA and UA) Model Validation ASE

68 Mission Profile Options (cont’d) “Cruise” Data Approach to stall cont.Simulated single engine Simulated go-around Mil-Std Compliance Maneuvers as required Descent Flight Path Stability Fight Manual Schedule Power effects Landing Stick forces Configuration changes Ground Block Flying Qualities

69 Instrumentation Handheld data Production gauges Whatever you want to bring –g-meter –Voice recorder –Tape Measure –Markers Simulated DAS

70 Test Conduct Data from all phases of flight –Don’t focus so much on gathering handheld data that you neglect other test conductor duties Use the chase/target as required Use the chase/target as required –Don’t forget potential photo uses Cautious, but accomplish something Cautious, but accomplish something –Controlled, intentional build-up Safe Envelope Definition Safe Envelope Definition Landing Option BreakpointsLanding Option Breakpoints – Land Now or Accomplish a Test Pt First?

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