Presentation on theme: "INSTRUCTOR CERTIFICATION COURSE"— Presentation transcript:
1INSTRUCTOR CERTIFICATION COURSE This slide show provides information to agency trainers about PepperBall™ technology. It outlines basic concepts needed to instruct users about PepperBall™ products. We encourage the instructor to read, watch and use all the materials provided in their training package. This will give the instructor a better understanding of how to safely deploy PepperBall in the field and in training classes. Each trainer should develop operator training presentations designed for the agency’s deployment and force policies.Technical Note:This Instructor Certification PowerPoint presentation uses linked video (.wmv) files to illustrate learning points. In order for the videos to play properly, it is important to that the PowerPoint file knows where the video file is located. You should always keep the video files in the same folder as the PowerPoint presentation.The CD has a directory called PTI PowerPoint. The best way to ensure that your PowerPoint presentations work correctly is to copy the entire PTI PowerPoint directory from the CD onto a folder or subdirectory on your computer’s hard drive. You can also copy all the files on the CD to a USB mini-drive and the presentations should work correctly. Because of the relatively slow speed of a CD-ROM drive, it is not recommended that you play the PowerPoint presentations from the CD. The video will appear to be out of synch with the audio, and it will be hard to follow the video clips.
2Chemical Agents Overview PepperBall Overview Projectiles COURSE MODULESIntroductionChemical Agents OverviewPepperBall OverviewProjectilesAir Fill ProceduresLauncher OperationUse of ForceTargeting/TacticsDecontaminationMaintenanceRecommendationsThe PepperBall Instructor Certification course is divided into eleven training modules that provide important information in small, easy-to-assimilate blocks of instruction.
3PepperBall Case Study: An Alternative to Lethal Force WHY PEPPERBALL? VIDEOVideoPepperBall Case Study: An Alternative to Lethal ForceThis video shows an incident that occurred in Peoria, Arizona. A male juvenile had been drinking and threatened to commit suicide with a knife or kill anyone trying to stop him.The officers on the scene sum up this scenario best when they say that without PepperBall, this situation may have been resolved using deadly force. And that is exactly why the PepperBall line of products was invented.
4Introduce instructor/students Complete course paperwork MODULE 1 – INTRODUCTIONModule ObjectivesIntroduce instructor/studentsComplete course paperworkIdentify 6 safety guidelinesIdentify 3 student responsibilitiesList 3 evaluation measuresEach of the modules begins with the learning objectives to be accomplished by the end of each instructional module. At the end of each module a ‘Quick Quiz” is designed to ensure that the material was covered and that the students have received the correct information.As part of the introduction, conduct a short needs assessment with the students to determine the type of information that they need today to be successful instructors back at their respective agencies.
5SAFETY/DEPLOYMENT GUIDELINES Treat all launchers as if loaded.Keep finger outside trigger guard until on target and ready to fire.Be sure of target and what is beyond and around the target area.Point muzzle in a safe direction at all times. Remember the Laser Rule.Do not shoot at the head, neck or spine (unless within department policy). As with other less-lethal projectiles, head shots could result in unintentional, severe, and permanent injury or death.Wear safety glasses or turn head to side when filling HPA bottles.NO Firearms in ClassDirect student attention to the Safety Guidelines.Review the Safety Guidelines with students and answer questions if any.Have students sign and date the Safety GuidelinesSafety is the primary consideration with any PepperBall system training. Make sure volunteers have adequate eye, throat, and groin protection in place prior to being shot with PepperBall projectiles. Agree in advance with volunteers about how many rounds they are going to get shot with and whether or not you are going to use live or inert rounds.Tell the students that it is not mandatory to be impacted with projectiles during the class. It is totally voluntary.
6STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY All students are empowered as safety officers during classroom and range training.If a safety violation is observed, shout "Cease Fire" repeatedly until all shooters safe their weapon.If any injuries occur, report them immediately to the instructor.Students in the class are expected to monitor all activities during the training and inform the instructor if any unsafe situations exist. Empower the students to help you conduct safe training.
7COURSE OBJECTIVESTo develop student skills in the operation, deployment, application, and maintenance of the PepperBall® Launching System.To give students the tools and knowledge to design and instruct courses for their agency in the safe and effective use of the PepperBall® System.The evaluation form in the slide is for demonstration purposes only and reinforces the point that the students will get a chance at the end of the class to let us know if we met the course objectives and what they thought of the training. Review the purpose of the course. Reinforce that it will be necessary for the students to study the instructor manual after the class.
8You will be evaluated by: Shooting a Qualifying Course of Fire EVALUATION MEASURESYou will be evaluated by:Shooting a Qualifying Course of FireParticipating in Practical Application ScenariosCompleting a Written Test with a 90% Passing ScoreThe written test form example reinforces the fact that the students are going to be tested on the materials given in class. Encourage them to take notes and ask questions today, because the next time they use this presentation, they may be giving the training at their own agency.
9Name the 6 safety guidelines. What are the 3 student responsibilities? MODULE 1 REVIEWQuick QuizName the 6 safety guidelines.What are the 3 student responsibilities?Review Module 1 and solicit questions from the students.
10MODULE 2 – CHEMICAL AGENTS OVERVIEW Module ObjectivesList 2 basic elements for chemical agents effectivenessList 3 chemical agent effectsUnderstanding the basics of chemical agent history and deployment gives students a perspective on PepperBall products that gives them a better understanding of how it may be effectively used.
11CHEMICAL AGENT EFFECTS - Physiological Two elements must occur for any chemical agent to work:1. Physiological (physical response)Burning sensation/inflammation of skinInvoluntary closure of eyesProfuse tearingPainTightness of the chestSensation of impaired breathingSecretion of excessive mucousInvoluntary extension of hands to faceWarning: Anaphylactic reaction/ shock (.005%)When deploying any chemical agent, two elements must be present for it to have the desired effect. PepperBall launchers/projectiles have a history of imparting these two elements in a dramatic fashion.The physiological effects, or how our body responds to chemical agent exposure are beyond a person’s ability to control. Regardless of your training or mind set, the physical effects of chemical agents are going to occur in different degrees of intensity depending on your body type and genetic make-up. For example, fair-skinned persons will typically have a greater sensation of burning to exposed skin.A very small percentage of persons exposed to chemical agents can have an allergic reaction that may include anaphylatic shock symptoms.
12CHEMICAL AGENT EFFECTS - Psychological 2. Psychological (mental response)Panic, mental composure alteredFear/Anxiety/ NervousnessPanic may also occur with persons who have never been exposed to chemical agentsPsychological effects can be very difficult to predict when people are exposed to chemical agents. Many factors are related to an individual’s mindset when feeling the physical effects of chemical agents. Be aware that some persons with numerous exposures, intensive training, or strong emotions can overcome the psychological effects of chemical agents. Also, some persons with impaired mental capacity may not experience or display any apparent psychological effects from chemical agents.The bottom line is be prepared for the unexpected when deploying any chemical agents.
13Which category best describes PepperBall? METHODS of DELIVERYFour ways to disperse chemical agents:BURN – Pyrotechnic, Continuous DischargeBLAST – Expulsion, Instantaneous DischargeFOG – Mechanically Generated Smoke & AgentLIQUID – AerosolsVideoPepperBall projectiles are delivered via the blast method.Which category best describes PepperBall?
14What are the 2 basic elements needed for chemical agent effectiveness? MODULE 2 REVIEWQuick QuizWhat are the 2 basic elements needed for chemical agent effectiveness?Name 3 chemical agent effects.Review Module 2 and solicit questions from the students.
15MODULE 3 – PEPPERBALL OVERVIEW Module ObjectivesList the 2 primary PepperBall effectsDefine PAVAIdentify maximum distance for area saturationList 5 applications for the PepperBall systemIdentify 3 advantages and 2 limitations of the PepperBall systemReview the module objectives with the students.
16Combines chemical agent exposure with kinetic impact and pain. PEPPERBALL DEFINEDWhat is PepperBall?NON-LETHAL chemical agent delivery system that uses HIGH-PRESSURE AIR, CO2, and ELECTRONIC LAUNCHERS to deliver PAVA powder PROJECTILES from a distance.Combines chemical agent exposure with kinetic impact and pain.Effective on individuals as well as large groups of people for riot and crowd control.Now is a good time to hand out some inert, purple projectiles to the students to get a hands-on feel for the difference between PepperBall and paintballs. Make a statement about the difference in construction, focusing on the durability of PepperBall projectiles. Let the students try to break one of the PepperBall projectiles using only two fingers. Most people will be unable to break the projectiles. Prior to letting them attempt to break one of the rounds, ensure that they have only a purple, inert round and that they are aware that the round contains powder which may spill on their clothes if it breaks. It is best to have them attempt this outdoors or over a trash container.Ask students who are familiar with paintball to describe how easily a paintball will break compared to one of the PepperBall projectiles.History and DevelopmentPepperBall was invented in 1995 by a scientist at Jaycor. It was designed by combining conventional paintball technology with law enforcement chemical agents. This resulted in a product which provided an officer the ability to deliver non-lethal kinetic impact along with an incapacitating agent.The combination of the kinetic impact and PAVA powder allows officers to gain compliance in multiple ways.PepperBall projectiles are designed to be non-lethal, even at point blank range.
17PepperBall® products contain only purified non-oil based PAVA. PAVA DEFINEDPAVA, or Capsaicin II, is one of six Capsaicinoids found in pepper plants.Current OC products use a combination of Capsaicinoids to deliver heat levels.PepperBall® products contain only purified non-oil based PAVA.Results in consistent effectiveness.PAVA is also used in Tabasco sauce, spice packs and cooking oils.PepperBall uses PAVA in the red rounds. PAVA, also known as Capsaicin II, VN or Nonivamide, is a naturally occurring compound found in pepper plants. It is the hottest of the capsaicinoid family. The other five capsaicinoids are:CapsaicinDihydrocapsaicinHomocapsaicinNordihydrocapsaicinHomodihydrocapsaicinOC, or Oleo Resin Capsicum, may have different levels of consistency based on the crop of pepper plants that is used to make the formula. PepperBall projectiles, and spray, have a consistent level of effectiveness, or heat, since only a purified form of PAVA is used.
18PepperBall Technologies, Inc. uses two PAVA formulations: 0.5% (or ½ of 1%) PAVA by weight used in RED PepperBall projectiles.5% PAVA by weight used in 10X projectiles, HotShot, and SA-4 .There are two PAVA formulations used by PTI.½ of 1% or .5% by weight. This means that there is ½ pound of pure PAVA in a 100 pound mixture of formula.5% by weight. There would be 5 pounds of pure PAVA in a 100 pound mix.The name 10X comes from the fact that it would take ten regular red PAVA projectiles to equal the PAVA content in one 10X round (.5% times 10 equals 5% mixture)
19Maximum Effective Range PepperBall Projectile COMPARISON CHARTLess Lethal WeaponMinimum Safe DistanceMaximum Effective RangeKinetic Impact?On-board Inhibitor?Multiple Effects?PepperBall Projectile0 ft.150 ft. for Area SaturationYesPAVA PowderAerosols3 ft.12 to 35 ft.NoCN, CS, OC, PAVAImpact Munitions3-50 ft.ft.YesSomeComparing PepperBall to Paintball & Pepper Spray & Beanbag & TaserPepperBall projectiles impact with greater sting because the hard plastic casing focuses the impact on a smaller area.The gel cap material of paintballs allows the kinetic impact to be spread over a wider area producing less sting.The kinetic impact of PepperBall projectiles is approximately 12 times less than that of Bean bag rounds.Neither paintballs nor bean bag rounds provide a chemical agent effect.Bean bag rounds can cause fatal injuries.Bean bags are fired from a lethal platform, i.e. 12 gauge shotguns, and lethal rounds can accidentally be loaded by officers in the heat of the moment.Tasers may be ineffective if the suspect is hiding or has an obstacle between himself and the officer. Tasers may also be ineffective when engaging multiple suspects.Bottom Line-All of the above systems in law enforcement work in special situations. PepperBall Systems are the only ones that can work in all of these situations. It should always be mentioned that no tool will work 100% of the time and PepperBall is no exception. Even real bullets fail to stop suspects at times. However, PTI has received hundreds of success stories with PepperBall in the field.Taser0 ft.0-25 ft.NoElectricityFN 3033 ft.ft.YesOC Powder?
20PEPPERBALL ADVANTAGES Non-LethalThousands of actual uses– No deaths or serious injuries No lawsuitsFlexible Escalation of ForceChemical agent exposure Kinetic impactEffective when suspect is hidden or not in viewSafe at Point-Blank RangeAccurate—No RecoilHigh CapacitiesRealistic trainingNo formal range requiredThe PepperBall system offers the ability to start with a low-level of force application of PAVA chemical agent only if desired. If suspect compliance is not gained with PAVA alone, then kinetic impact pain compliance can be used.PepperBall launchers have no recoil, making it easier to use, learn, and teach than burning munitions-type weapons. Most experienced PepperBall operators are able to adjust their impact point by adjusting their point of aim on the suspect target. With no recoil, officers don’t constantly have to readjust their sight picture as they do with recoil weapons systems.High capacityWhat other weapon systems do we use in law enforcement that offer up to 450 round capabilities? High capacities allow individual officers to deal with multiple suspects and large crowds with one system. Both bean bag shotguns and 37 and 40 mm projectile systems have limited capacities, usually under 8 rounds.Realistic trainingLaw enforcement officers have been using paintball technology for years to develop tactics and upgrade the realism of their training. PepperBall now allows officers to train with the exact same weapon system that they will deploy in the field, correctional setting or tactical environment. This increases officer confidence and allows officers to train the exact way they will deploy the system in the real world. A formal range is not required to conduct training and a firing certification course can be done indoors or outdoors.
21PEPPERBALL ADVANTAGES Multiple types of roundsPsychological effectsSuspect unsure – Large barrel – Firing soundMeasurable and specific targetingControlled application – Specific area saturationFewer officers can control large numbers of suspectsQuick recovery from PAVA powderCan be used to deny access or egress to specific areasEase of operationVideoMeasurable and specific targeting: Because PepperBall projectiles can be fired one at a time, officers can not only measure out very precise amounts of force, they can target specific individuals at the same time. Unlike other crowd control systems, PepperBall systems can be used to saturate a specific area and contain the chemical agent contamination to as small or large an area as desired. The typical comparison of PepperBall rounds is to a blast dispersion grenade. Once you pull the pin on a grenade, you get a large cloud of chemical agent that is no longer controllable. With PepperBall, you can control the exact amount of agent and make adjustments for shifting winds and other environmental factors.Fewer Officers can control large numbers of suspects: In a recent large-scale riot at Los Angeles County jail, one PepperBall operator was able to maintain control over 250 inmates in two separate modules who were rioting.Quick recovery from PAVA: Most persons exposed to PAVA powder recover within minutes. This is a huge advantage to the extended recovery times normally encountered when spraying a suspect with an aerosol.Deny access or egress: By delivering chemical agents to specific areas up to 100 feet away, officers can deny access or egress to crowds in riot situations. During a tactical entry PepperBall can be used to contaminate parts of a structure denying access to a suspect.Simple and quiet operation: Less chances for the contagious fire that can occur as other officers arrive on the scene. The PepperBall launchers are easy to use and simple to maintain, ensuring quick deployment for officers.
22PEPPERBALL LIMITATIONS Dedicated systemTraining/Policy issuesMay not work on heavily clothed or padded suspectsPAVA, like all other chemical agents, may not work on certain personsMentally ill, drug abusers, alcoholicsEnraged, highly emotional, focusedPotential for misuse due to high rate of fire and increased capacitiesStaged system—not always availableDedicated system: The PepperBall system is a new non-lethal alternative that must be incorporated into an agencies continuum of force and policy and procedures prior to implementation. Instructor and Operator training must also conducted to reduce potential liability concerns.Breakability issues: PepperBall projectiles may not break on heavily clothed or padded suspects. Even though it is listed as a disadvantage, adjusting your aiming point can overcome it. The legs are still a viable and effective target when a person is wearing a heavy jacket.Chemical Agent effectiveness: 14 to 16 percent of the population are not affected or are affected less than others by chemical agents. This is easily overcome since an officer still has kinetic impact and psychological effect working.Misuse potential: Some agencies may have concerns about giving patrol officers high capacity systems. If this is a concern, the SA10 pistol offers a reduced number of rounds an officer may deploy on a suspect.Staged system: The reality of using any non-lethal or less-lethal system is that it must be available when the incident is occurring. By deploying these systems with special teams like SWAT or Supervisors only, agencies take the risk that the systems won’t be available in a timely manner when encountering situations in patrol or in the jail.
23PEPPERBALL APPLICATIONS The flexibility of the PepperBall® system is one of its greatest attributes.Armed AttackerVehicle StandoffBarricaded SuspectDrug LabsSuicide-by-CopHigh-Risk WarrantsCivil DisobedienceVessel InterdictionArea DenialVIP ProtectionVersatility is the key component of the PepperBall launcher! What other weapons platform can perform all these tasks?Prison/Jail RiotsEvent SecurityBuilding/Field SearchesAnimal ControlBorder SecurityTactical Training
25Name the 2 primary PepperBall effects What is PAVA? MODULE 3 REVIEWQuick QuizName the 2 primary PepperBall effectsWhat is PAVA?What is the maximum distance for area saturation?What are 3 advantages and 2 limitations of the PepperBall system?Name 5 applications for the PepperBall systemReview Module 3 and solicit questions from the students.2 primary effects: Physical and psychological. Max distance: 150 feet. 3 advantages: see slide. 2 limitations: see slide. 5 applications: see slide.
26Identify the 6 projectile types by color code and usage. MODULE 4 – PROJECTILESModule ObjectivesIdentify the 6 projectile types by color code and usage.List the correct deployment distances for each of the 6 projectiles.Name the projectile type that is not designed for use on humans.Describe the kinetic impact force of red rounds.Review module objectives with students.
27PROJECTILE SPECIFICATIONS Hard, plastic frangible (breakable) sphereWeight = 3 gramsVelocity envelope = 300 to 350 fps (feet per second)Kinetic impact = 10 to 12 ft./lbs. of energyCompare to Bean Bag impact = 120 ft./lbs.Operational Temperature range = Minus 30° to plus 150° degrees FahrenheitBecause the rounds do not break in the launcher, unlike paintball, there are fewer maintenance issues with the PepperBall system. Agencies may not use paintball rounds in their PepperBall launchers! They are the same caliber. However, using paintballs in PepperBall launchers voids all manufacturer warranties. Explain to students that using paintballs may lead to a reduction in reliability when they really need it to perform in real world situations.The velocity is verified at PTI prior to shipping and should not be adjusted by personnel unless they are certified as a PepperBall armorer. The only way to set accurate velocity settings is with a chronograph, that most department armorers should have.The kinetic impact is similar to a recreational paintball launcher. However, most people report that PepperBall projectiles cause more pain due to their hard construction. It focuses all of the impact in one area instead of spreading it out as softer gel cap paintballs do.The shelf life of PAVA rounds is 3 years, which is consistent with all other chemical agents used in law enforcement.Shelf life of PAVA rounds is 3 years.
28PROJECTILE TYPES RED PAVA Powder Chemical Agent/ Kinetic Impact RED/BLACK10X5% PAVAChemical Agent/Kinetic ImpactPURPLEInert Scented PowderKinetic Impact/ TrainingCLEARWaterKinetic Impact/ TrainingGREENDye MarkerKinetic Impact/ Mark SuspectsDo not use on HumansWHITEGlass ShatteringVehicle/ Building GlassRed: PAVA powder with .5% formulationPurple: The purple projectile contains scented powder that allows officers to ascertain by smell where the PAVA would be taken by the wind. Freezing the powder rounds has no effect on the kinetic impact. Purple can also be used for kinetic impact only on suspects where you don’t want to deploy chemical agentsWhite: White rounds are made for glass shattering. They will shatter most automobile side windows without penetrating the vehicle. The rounds shatters on impact along with the safety glass window. Very little debris enters the vehicle. They are also highly effective on residential glass and are extremely effective on sliding glass doors. Glass shattering rounds are not intended for use against humans.Green: Green rounds are filled with an indelible dye that will mark clothes and/or skin. These are most often used to mark inmates for further prosecution during unrest in a jail or to mark agitators during crowd control incidents. They can be used to mark vehicles or other moveable objects also.10X-10X projectiles share the characteristics of the regular red PAVA projectiles. The only difference is the color (red/black) and the percentage of PAVA by weight (5% for 10X, .5% for red).
29Individual 0-60 ft. Area Saturation to 150 ft. ACCURACY/BALLISTICSREDIndividual 0-60 ft. Area Saturation to 150 ft.10-12 ft. lbs energyRED/BLACK10XSame as REDPURPLEIndividual 0-60 ft.10-12 ft. lbs. energyNo Recoil 7-9 inch groups Older powder projectiles distance = 30 ft.CLEARIndividual 0-30 ft.10-12 ft. lbs. energyGREENIndividual 0-30 ft.10-12 ft. lbs. energyWHITEVehicle/Building 0-30 ft.Not ApplicableDo not use on HumansReview specifications of all projectiles with class. Agencies may determine their own maximum and minimum ranges for individual rounds based on their own testing. The ranges listed above are recommendations only.
30Name the 6 projectile types by color code and usage. MODULE 4 REVIEWQuick QuizName the 6 projectile types by color code and usage.What are the correct deployment distances for each of the 6 projectiles?What projectile is not designed for use on humans?Compare the kinetic energy of PepperBall projectiles to bean-bag rounds.Review Module 4 and solicit questions from the students.
31MODULE 5 – AIR FILL PROCEDURES Module ObjectivesDescribe 3 advantages of high-pressure air over CO2.Identify the required DOT HPA mandated inspections.Identify the recommended maximum/minimum air pressure for filling HPA bottles.Describe proper SCUBA tank storage when not in use.Review module objectives with students.
32HIGH-PRESSURE AIR COMPONENTS High Pressure Air (HPA)HPA most practical for L.E.Readily available/cheaperEasily transportableMaintains consistent velocityLess affected by temperature rangescu. in. bottle fills per SCUBA tankWhen filled to 3000 psi (MAXIMUM!)Recharge SCUBA tank when fills less than 1500 psiPepperBall launchers use high pressure air (HPA). This offers many advantages over CO2 which is commonly used in recreational paintball. CO2 requires large filling stations that can not be transported like HPA SCUBA tanks can. Also, CO2 systems do not maintain consistent velocity from shot to shot. Each shot fired from a CO2 system results in less velocity. HPA systems maintain the same velocity from the first shot to the last shot of a HPA bottle. Moreover, HPA systems are not affected by cold weather. CO2 systems can freeze up and fail to fire.SCUBA and Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) tanks are easily filled by any fire department—free! CO2 tanks must be rented and maintained by a medical supply company.SCUBA and SCBA tanks are portable, allowing agencies to respond to large riots or crowd control with on-scene fill capabilities. CO2 tanks are too big to be portable.Many officers are SCUBA divers and already have familiarity with SCUBA systems. Likewise, many officers are familiar with SCBA systems.Fills per tankDepending on how fully charged the tank is and environmental conditions such as heat or cold, approximately bottle fills (13 cubic inch) should be possible from a fully pressurized 80 cubic foot SCUBA tank.
33TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON HPA COMPONENTS Generally, temperature effects on PepperBall HPA bottles will be minimal.An increase of 1 degree F will result in an additional 5 psi in the bottle or tank.Example: HPA Bottle filled to 2500 psi at 70°F will expand to 2600 psi at 90°F.Pressure will decrease at same rate if temperature goes down.
34DOT HPA INSPECTION REGULATIONS HPA SCUBA tank and 48 cu. in. (and larger) bottle required inspectionsAnnual visual inspection (VIP)Every 5 years Hydrostatic inspection13 cu. in. bottle inspection exemption (diameter=1.97 inches)Requalification not required per the note under table 1 in 49CFR part The note reads, "Any cylinder not exceeding two (2) inches in outside diameter and less than two (2) feet in length is exempt from volumetric (hydrostatic) expansion testing.Laws governing SCUBA tanks and HPA bottles bigger than two inches in diameter:SCUBA tanks are designed to be used by humans to breathe underwater. They come under federal laws governing their manufacture and inspection. Each SCUBA, SCBA tank and HPA bottle larger than 13 cubic inches must be:Visually inspected (VIP’d) each year, according to the date on the label that is required on each tank.Hydrostatically tested (Hydro’d) every 5 years according to the date on the label on each tank.The CFR refers to the Code of Federal Regulations. More information can also be obtained at
35HPA BOTTLE NOMENCLATURE Screw ThreadsBottle O-ringFill NippleOver-pressure Relief ValveDust CapPressure GaugeThe bottle O-ring seals the connection between the launcher and the bottle when attached. The O-ring should be changed once per year, or whenever a leak is detected at the seal between the launcher and the HPA bottle. A few drops of PepperBall lubricant should always be used when replacing the O-ring.The fill nipple fits into the fill adapter to allow for air pressure equalization between the SCUBA tank and the HPA bottle.The pressure gauge shows how much air pressure is left in the HPA bottle psi is a usable bottle pressure. The launcher will likely fail at 700 psi.The HPA bottle has two over-pressure relief valves at two different stages to ensure that any over-pressurization of the bottle with trigger a spring valve to relieve the over-pressure. The valves are situated to ensure that the bottle will spin in place if the valves are activated, as opposed to causing the bottle to take on ballistic characteristics.HPA = High-Pressure Air3000 psi max pressure
36FILL STATION NOMENCLATURE Fill AdapterCompressionKnobScuba TankO-ringMain ValveFill Station Nomenclature: All valves close in a clockwise direction and open in a counter-clockwise direction--(Righty-Tighty / Lefty-Loosey)Scuba Tank: Make sure the O-ring in the dive tank valve is in place. O-rings are very inexpensive. It is a good idea to buy a few spares and tape them to the side of the SCUBA tank in a plastic baggie in case the O-ring needs replacementFill Adapter: The compression knob is used to attach the air fill adapter to the SCUBA tank. The relief valve is used to relieve the pressure after a fill (Righty-Tighty / Lefty-Loosey). A spring-loaded quick release fitting holds bottle in place during fill. It also has a small black O-ring that seals the air flow between the fill adapter and the HPA bottle. It is also a good idea to have some spare air adapter O-rings on hand. Inexperienced users may open the SCUBA tank valve without having a HPA bottle attached to the air fill adapter and this can result in blowing the O-ring out of the quick release fitting.PressureRelief ValveQuick-Release Fitting(O-ring inside)
37AIR FILL SETUP & PROCEDURES Inspect SCUBA or SCBA tankCheck O-ringAttach Fill Adapter to HPA tankOrient “This Side Up”Hand-tighten compression knob. Do not over-tightenAlways wear eye protection or turn head to side when filling HPA bottlesVideoFill Station SetupVisually inspect the SCUBA or SCBA tank. Ensure that the O-ring is in place. A missing O-ring will cause the fill adapter to leak.Attach fill adapter to HPA tank. Make sure the “This Side Up” is facing up and that the circular metal ring on the inside of the adapter matches the O-ring on the SCUBA tank.Ensure the screw end of the adapter fits into the indent on the back of the SCUBA tank manifold valve.Hand tighten the compression knob. Do not over-tighten the knob.Equalizing PressureRemember that when filling a HPA bottle from a SCUBA or SCBA tank, you are actually equalizing the pressure between the two containers. If the SCUBA tank has 2400 pounds of pressure, the HPA bottle will have 2400 pounds of pressure. Some people are under the mistaken impression that the bigger SCUBA tank can actually create more pressure because it is filling a smaller bottle. This is not true.
38SCUBA STORAGESCUBA tanks and HPA bottles should never be stored empty. Store the cylinder with a slight positive pressure, approximately 20 – 100 psi.When not filling HPA bottles, SCUBA tanks should be stored on their side to prevent accidental valve damage and internal moisture concentration buildup.Warning:SCUBA and SCBA tanks are highly pressurized and should be stored horizontally on their side in a rack or on the ground to avoid the chance of failure due to accidental breakage of the manifold valve. Storing the tank on its side also prevents concentrated internal corrosive buildup to occur. Valve failure or breakage could cause the tank to become a 3000 psi projectile. Tanks should be handled carefully when being moved or transported.
39What are 3 advantages of high-pressure air over CO2? MODULE 5 REVIEWQuick QuizWhat are 3 advantages of high-pressure air over CO2?What are the required DOT HPA mandated inspections?What is the recommended minimum air pressure for filling HPA bottles?How should SCUBA tanks be safely stored when not in use?Review Module 5 and solicit questions from the students.Advantages of HPA over CO2: portability, cost, familiarity, less susceptible to temperature variance, and more consistent ballistics. Required Dot inspections: 1 year visual inspection, 5 years hydrostatic inspection. 13 cubic inch bottles ar exempt from 5 year inspection. Minimum air pressure for fills is 1500 psi. Store SCUBA tanks on their sides when not being used.
40MODULE 6 – LAUNCHER OPERATIONS Module ObjectivesDemonstrate the safe loading, unloading and operation of PepperBall launchers.Identify the major component parts of each launcher.Always use proper safety procedures when demonstrating weapons systems in a classroom or on a range. Never point the system at anyone. Tell the students and show them that the systems are unloaded. Keep the safety on and your finger outside the trigger guard. Never deploy live agents indoors during training. Only bad things can happen by having live chemical agent rounds in an indoor classroom setting.Because the TAC700 bottle cannot be removed, make sure the launcher is unloaded prior to letting students handle it.
41CUSTOM CARBINE/SX/TX LAUNCHERS Air Powered: 3000 psi HPA bottleAction: Semi-autoCapacity: 160 rounds gravity-fed hopperLength: inchesWeight: 2.9 lbs. (without bottle)Firing Rate: 8 rounds per secondCarbine-TXThe major differences in the Custom and the SA200 is in rate of fire (8 rounds to 6 rounds) and in custom loading a round. The Custom launcher does not allow opening the breech in the same way as the SA200.In order to empty the breech in the Custom, the launcher must be turned upside down to ensure that the round in the breech can roll back into the hopper. The launcher can then be brought right-side up and custom rounds may be loaded into the breech.The Custom Carbine is also available in the TX and SX version. The major differences in these variations is the addition of the swing swivel, the integrated top picatinny rail, and the divided receiver halves which allow the major internal components to be worked on without removing the entire left side.
42Velocity Adjustment Screw CUSTOM NOMENCLATUREFeed ElbowCharging HandleRear SightFront SightTriggerBarrelVelocity Adjustment ScrewSafetyHPA AdapterMost of the nomenclature is exactly the same as the SA200 with the exception of the vertical grip.Vertical GripAir Line
43Air Powered: 3000 psi HPA air bottle TAC700 LAUNCHERAir Powered: 3000 psi HPA air bottleAction: Electronic trigger with selectable mode of fireSemi-, Three round burst, Full-automaticCapacity: 200 rounds with auto-feed hopperLength: 20 inchesWeight 3.5 lbsFiring Rate: Selectable from 3 to 12 rounds per secondThe TAC700 launcher is a compact, select-fire launcher that can address situations where a higher rate of fire may be necessary. The launcher uses an electric trigger and can be fired in semi-automatic, full automatic, three round burst, auto response, and turbo modes.The TAC700 can also be used in conjunction with the riot vest by directly attaching the air hose to the fill nipple on the attached 13 cubic inch bottle.Please refer to the owner’s manual for instructions on the proper use of the TAC700.Refer to the PepperBall Instructor Manual for information on selecting the mode of fire for TAC700s manufactured prior to 2008 with five round selector mode.
44TAC700 NOMENCLATURE Hopper Cocking Handle Front Sight Rear Sight SafetyBarrelReview TAC700 Nomenclature with students and allow them to handle an unloaded weapon to gain familiarity. The TAC700 is a modified Tippmann A5 launcher.LowerReceiverTriggerSupport BracketHPA Forward Adapter
45Fires standard PepperBall projectiles Maximum range: 30 feet FLASHLAUNCHERCO2 poweredFires standard PepperBall projectilesMaximum range: 30 feetWeight: 2.2 lbsLength: inchesLaser sight plus 100 lumen lightSeparate training DVD recommendedThe PepperBall® FlashLauncher™ system fires PepperBall projectiles which strike with force and release hot pepper powder. The combination ofthe psychological shock of being laser sited and then launched upon, painful kinetic impact, and potent hot pepper act to startle, distract, and subduesuspects or would be attackers. The FlashLauncher system incorporates 5 shot semi-automatic action with an 80 lumen flashlight that illuminatesthe inside of vehicles, corrections cells, patrol areas, and more. The beam is also focused to illuminate a person size area at FlashLauncher’s targetaccurate range of 30 feet. This makes FlashLauncher a first choice less-lethal option in many scenarios including high risk traffic stops, cell checksand extractions, watch-person vehicle or foot patrols, fugitive surprise, and personal defense.FlashLauncher recharge stations can mount in your vehicle or facility, and allow for easy transfer of your Flash-Launcher to an ambidextrousholster system for quick reaction use.PhysicalFlashLauncherSize: 11.25” L x 2.6” T x 2.3” WWeight: 2.2 lbs. fully loaded, with batteries.Material composition: Extremely rugged hard case withsteel internals. Water resistant.Light sourceLED emitter at 100 lm.HolsterType: Modular system for belt, thigh, or shoulder.Ambidextrous.Draw: Strong or weak side draw.Size: Custom to fit FlashLauncher.OperationalSafetySlide cover with lock. Slide forward safety off, laser on.LaserRed. 650 nm. Operated via safety (above).TriggerFirst trigger push arms unit and launches first round.Semi-automatic action thereafter.Target accuracy range30 feet.Velocityfeet per second on average at muzzle.Kinetic impact10-12 ft-lbs. at muzzle, per projectile.Reload ProjectilesQuick reload tubes. Spring loaded push/turn open.CO2Powers launcher. Red o-ring indicator visible in sidewindow. Reload from front, screw down cap.BatteryNiMH rechargeable or CR123 disposable.Flashlight Burn time60 min. on NiMH, 120 min. on CR123.FlashLauncher 15°10 020 030 0
46Four projectiles per magazine Maximum range: 30 feet SA-4 LAUNCHERFour projectiles per magazineMaximum range: 30 feetLaunches PepperBall® ImpactPlus™ projectiles with approximately 20 ft. lbs. of kinetic impact.Uses 9v battery for power, no high pressure air requiredWeight: 14 ouncesDimensions: 6 in. x 6 in.Separate training DVD recommended for SA-4The SA-4 PepperBall® system launches ImpactPlus™ projectiles which strike with approximately twenty foot-pounds of force and release threegrams of hot pepper. The combination of psychological shock from being laser sited and then launched upon, painful kinetic impact, and potent hotpepper powder combine to subdue suspects. The SA-4 launcher is compact and can be easily holstered and carried by law enforcement, corrections,or military officers, as well as private security guards, or bail enforcement agents. This system is a first choice less-lethal option in many scenariosincluding domestic disputes, inmate management, non-combatant scenarios, security response, suspect compliance, and defensive tactics.The SA-4 is a self-contained and integrated solution. There is no staging requirement. Easy reload magazines are available for live pepper or inerttraining rounds. An ambidextrous holster system that custom fits the SA-4 launcher is also available.Physical and Operational SpecificationsPhysicalLauncherSize: 6”x 6”Weight: Under 14 oz., fully loaded and with battery.Material composition: Rugged polymer, impact resistant,water resistant.ProjectileType: Use only ImpactPlus™ PepperBall® projectiles.Fin stabilized.Weight: 5.7 gramsComposition of live/pepper projectiles:3 grams of capsaicin II powder.Composition of training projectiles:3 grams scented inert powder.Live round color code: Red, white, red.Training round color code: Red, white, blue.HolsterType: Modular system for belt, thigh, or shoulder.Ambidextrous.Draw: Cross draw from weak side.Size: Custom to fit SA-4 launcher.Operat ionalSafetyMulti-position for safety on, safety off/laser off,safety off/laser onLaserRed, operated via safety (above).ReloadMagazine nozzle comes loaded. Use pre-loaded nozzlesas a new magazine, or reload existing nozzle as desired.Target Accuracy Range30 feet.Velocity320 feet per second on average at muzzle.Kinetic ImpactApproximately 20 ft-lbs. at muzzle, per projectile.BatteryShipped with 9V rechargeable alkaline battery. Will alsowork with 9V lithium batteries
47Spare magazine can be kept ready Ambidextrous Safety Weight: 2.7 lbs SA-8 LAUNCHER8 shot capacityUses CO2 cartridgeSpare magazine can be kept readyAmbidextrous SafetyWeight: 2.7 lbsDimensions: 11” x 8”Maximum range: 35 feetOperational temp range: 37F-120FThe SA-8 pistol uses a detachable magazine that also contains the CO2 cartridge. This allows operators to carry spare magazines with the CO2 pre-staged and ready to quickly reload 8 rounds.The SA-8 has a max range of 35’.Remind students to place a drop of launching oil on the small end of the CO2 cartridge prior to inserting it in the magazine.
48HOTSHOT PERSONAL PROTECTION DEVICE Single shotUses 5% PAVA formulationMaximum range: 12 feetWeight: 3.4 ouncesDimensions: 1 in. x 6 in.Operational temp range: 34°F-120°FThe HotShot is a personal protection device. It is designed to be fired out to a max range of 12’ depending on wind conditions and direction.Contains hotter 5% formulation.Payload of 5grams.May not work properly at temps less than 34F due to small CO2 cartridge located at back end.
49SA200 LAUNCHER-Discontinued 2006 Air Powered: 3000 psi HPA bottleAction: Semi-autoCapacity: 160 rounds Gravity-fed hopperLength: 33 inchesWeight: 3.5 lbs.Firing rate: 6 rounds per secondAlways use proper safety procedures when demonstrating weapons systems in a classroom or on a range. Never point the system at anyone. Tell the students and show them that the systems are unloaded. Keep the safety on and your finger outside the trigger guard. Never deploy live agents indoors during training.This is one of the most reliable and easy-to-use launchers in the world. It has been used hundreds of thousands of times with very few malfunctions. The high capacity is one of the big selling points as one officer can deal with numerous suspects, large crowds and rioters.Seattle PD used 10 SA200 systems at the WTO riots in December 1999 with great success. Production of the SA200 PepperBall launcher was discontinued in December The PepperBall Custom Carbine replaced the SA200 and offers several improvements.
50SA10-NX LAUNCHER-Discontinued 2008 CO2 Powered: 12 gram cartridgeAction: Semi-autoCapacity: 10 rounds (plus 1 in chamber)Length: 13.5 inchesWeight: 2.6 lbs.Firing rate: 6 rounds per secondAdvantagesDoesn’t need a Fill Station.Can be independently deployedIs smaller, more portable than rifle versionsCan be carried in the console area of a patrol car and quickly slung over the shoulder (using optional shoulder holster rig).Has same ballistic characteristics of rifle launchersCan be carried by a designated specialist for breaking windows, or marking suspects in crowd.DisadvantagesOnly has 10-round capacity (Extra 10-round speed pods can be carried in holster)CO2 cartridge needs to be changed every shotsRelatively large size and heavyOperatingRefer to launcher operations guide in Instructor’s manual
51Name the major component parts of each launcher. MODULE 6 REVIEWQuick QuizDemonstrate the safe loading, unloading and operation of PepperBall launchers.Name the major component parts of each launcher.Review Module 6 and solicit questions from the students.Ask students to name the major component parts out loud in class. Make sure the launchers are unloaded prior to allowing students to handle them in the classroom.
52Identify department issues related to using PepperBall systems. MODULE 7 – USE OF FORCEModule ObjectivesIdentify department issues related to using PepperBall systems.Identify the primary consideration when facing a lethal-force situation.Identify 3 different force option levels when using the PepperBall system.Review module objectives with the students.
53AGENCY USE of FORCE CONSIDERATIONS Where does PepperBall fit in your Use of Force Policies?What reports are required when PepperBall is deployed?Who needs to be notified when PepperBall is deployed?Who is authorized to deploy PepperBall?Who is going to train your PepperBall operators?What decon or medical policy will be followed?These questions are typical of the type that agencies need to ask themselves when they adopt the PepperBall system as a use of force option. As a manufacturer, it falls outside the area of PepperBall Technologies responsibility as each agency must determine their own policies.
54PEPPERBALL FORCE OPTIONS Officer Presencewith PepperBallDirect ImpactReapplicationVerbal CommandsPoint PepperBallLauncher at SuspectDirectImpactAreaSaturationPepperBall Force OptionsWhen an officer arrives on the scene holding a PepperBall launcher the sight of the launcher can be enough to get a suspect to comply with the officer’s demands. Many jails have found that inmates stop their aggressive behavior because they either don’t know what PepperBall is, or if they do know, don’t want to get shot with it.The next level of force is to point the launcher at the suspect(s). This again may have the psychological effect of gaining compliance.PepperBall PAVA projectiles can be used to saturate an area around a suspect in an effort to gain compliance using the pepper powder only. The powder coupled with the noise the launcher makes may gain compliance from a suspect.Direct application of a projectile onto a suspect is the next level of force. It couples pepper powder, kinetic impact and the noise to gain compliance. Although this will leave marks on the suspect it will not penetrate his skin and is non-lethal.An officer can now increase the number of projectiles launched onto a suspect. This increases the number of impacts on the suspect. If the are close together it can increase the psychological effects on the suspect.In all these force levels we are trying to use the physical affects of PepperBall coupled with the psychological effects to make the suspect think about himself instead of the officer.
55DEADLY FORCEOfficer Safety is the primary consideration when facing a potentially lethal threat.Do not shoot at the head, neck or spine unless a deadly force situation exists and the use of force is within Department policy.Deadly Force: Emphasize the fact that officers should not target the throat, face, and eyes. Other areas to avoid include the base of the neck and the spine. That still leaves 90 percent of the body to target.
56USE OF FORCE–PRIVATE SECURITY Private Security (Laws vary by State)Cannot use PepperBall in offensive manner (in some States).May only be used to defend or protect themselves or others from harm or bodily injury.May not use to protect property.Must have chemical agents card in possession (in some States).Are held to a higher standard than private citizens regarding chemical agent usage.Some special contracts (usually with public entities or banks) may allow for offensive use.Find out what laws apply in your State.Use of Force—Private Security
57Name 2 department issues related to using PepperBall systems. MODULE 7 REVIEWQuick QuizName 2 department issues related to using PepperBall systems.What is the primary consideration when facing a lethal-force situation?List 3 different force option levels when using the PepperBall system.Review Module 7 and solicit questions from the students.
58MODULE 8 – TARGETING & TACTICS Module ObjectivesIdentify key considerations when deploying PepperBall.Identify alternate target areas on heavily clothed suspects.Describe 2 considerations when targeting individuals.Identify the importance of tactical planning and backup options when deploying PepperBall.
59PROJECTILE TARGETING CONSIDERATIONS Projectile FrangibilitySuspect’s clothing is key consideration.May not break on suspects wearing heavy jacket, multiple layers, or loose-fitting clothing.Adjust aim point and target shins, knees, and large muscles of legs.Alternately, target hard objects near suspect.Walls, ceilings, automobiles, groundTargeting/TacticsFrangibility (breakability): Four things must be considered when deploying any chemical agents: wind, humidity, temperature, and surrounding environment. With PepperBall, we must also consider the type of clothing or any protective gear the suspect is wearing. The hard plastic PepperBall projectiles require something relatively hard to break against. When suspects are wearing multiple layers of clothes, heavy jackets, soft down jackets, or loose fitting clothing (like many gang members wear), then the projectiles may not break.As part of the suspect evaluation process, officers should immediately change the target zones to take advantage of less clothing layers (legs) or lighter padded areas such as arms or hands when a suspect is wearing any of the above clothing. The shoulders and upper arms are also excellent target areas. The inner thigh also makes a good aim point, as the skin tissue is very sensitive in that area. The hands also have many nerve endings that are extremely sensitive.As an alternative, target hard objects around the suspect to break the projectiles and create a pepper powder cloud in his proximity.
60Anticipate suspect lowering head Target from upper torso down TARGETINGAnticipate suspect lowering headTarget from upper torso downRecommend 6 o’clock hold with front sight of launcherVerbalize commandsUse surrounding objectsWalls, ceilings, roof lineGround, automobilesJustify each use of forceImpact on suspect versus area saturationFollow Department guidelines regarding Minors, Elderly, and Pregnant Females.Reinforce awareness that suspects may lower their head as they are struck with PepperBall projectiles. Officers should anticipate this action and lower their point of aim as they deploy projectiles.Verbalization should always, when feasible, be used with the deployment of PepperBall launchers/projectiles. Tell the suspect what you want him/her to do (“Drop the knife” “Get on the ground”). These verbal commands should be incorporated during range drills.Officers should be aware that pulling the trigger of a PepperBall launcher is a use of force and he/she must be able to articulate the reason for this action. Always refer to department policies and procedures in regards to use of force issues.A six o’clock hold means that the front sight of the launcher is placed directly below the area where an impact with the projectiles is desired. This helps prevent the possibility of shooting high on a suspect.
61Chemical Agent Effectiveness TACTICSChemical Agent Effectiveness14-16% of the population is not affected or is affected differently when exposed to chemical agentsHave a plan before approaching suspectMaximize safe distance/ reactionary gapIf situation allows, wait for cover officersCommunicate intentions to other officersALWAYS have a back-up planCalifornia DOJ Study: A study conducted by the California Department of Justice found that about 14% to 16% of suspects were not affected, or remained essentially unaffected, when exposed to OC spray. Even though the PAVA in PepperBall may not affect the suspect, the officer may still gain compliance utilizing kinetic impact.Tactical Plan: Highly motivated individuals can overcome the effects of chemical agents, especially those who have trained with chemical agents or who are highly enraged and emotional. Distance can afford officers more time to react to situations. Officers should always have a back-up plan and cover officers. PepperBall systems will not work on every person in the street.
62DEPLOYMENT ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES WindPrimary reason for ineffectiveness of powderCan be used to advantage during individual targeting and area saturationRainLight or moderate rain won’t affect performanceHeavy rain may reduce effectiveness of powderSnowMay prevent projectiles from breaking during area saturationVentilation Systems (indoor)Wind is the primary environmental concern when delivering projectiles on a suspect. A heavy cross wind may quickly blow the PAVA powder away from the suspect. If at all possible, try and position yourself so the wind is at your back. This will cause the PAVA powder to raise up into the suspect’s face after the rounds impact. Remember, even though the wind may reduce the effectiveness of the powder, you can still use kinetic impact and psychological surprise to your advantage.As a rule of thumb, the faster the wind is blowing towards the suspect, the further away from the suspect you need to shoot saturation rounds to enable the wind to carry the PAVA powder into the suspects proximity. Wind can be used to your advantage during an area saturation by drifting the PAVA cloud into the suspect’s location.A normal or light rain will have no effect on the deployment of a PepperBall system. A heavy downpour could reduce the effectiveness of the PAVA particles. One possible advantage of rain is the fact that the suspect’s skin may become wet and cause more PAVA particles to stick to the suspect, causing more irritation. Puddles of water may absorb the projectiles during an area saturation and result in non-breakage.Snow can reduce the ability of the projectiles to break during an area saturation deployment. It is also difficult to view the PAVA cloud when it is released in the air since it is the same color as snow.Ventilation Systems: Most ventilation systems are connected to a central air circulation system. Officers should be aware of the potential for contaminating more areas in a building than just the room or space that PepperBall projectiles are deployed. Depending on the type of building, such as schools, hospitals, or other public areas, officers may need to consider alternative methods other than deploying chemical agents.
63Name 2 key environmental considerations when deploying PepperBall. MODULE 8 REVIEWQuick QuizName 2 key environmental considerations when deploying PepperBall.Describe 2 tactical concerns when targeting individuals.List alternate target areas on heavily clothed suspects.When should backup plans be discussed with other officers?Review Module 8 and solicit questions from the students.
64MODULE 9 – KINETIC EFFECTS & DECONTAMINATION Module ObjectivesIdentify 3 types of injuries that are consistent with PepperBall deployment.List the 2 main methods of decontamination.Identify Department policy regarding medical aid and evaluation.Recognize cross-contamination issues when deploying PepperBall.Review the module objectives with the students.
65Injury Types Bruising Abrasions Welts KINETIC EFFECTS VIDEOInjury TypesBruisingAbrasionsWeltsFollow your Department’s policy regarding medical response and evaluation.VideoPepperBall Projectiles are safe to fire at point blank range foot-pounds of energy is expended on contact. The projectile impact may break skin but usually will not cause deep tissue wounds or bone breakage. The welts and bruised depicted in the video are typical of the types of contusions that will occur. For demonstration purposes, don’t shoot students on bare skin that is not covered by some type of clothing.
66Begin decontamination after suspect is controlled and in custody Fresh Air & Cool Clean WaterKeep suspect calmReassure suspectEffects are temporaryLook for unusual reactionsMonitor for distress, coherence and respirationIf in doubt, summon medical aidFollow Department policiesAfter applying PepperBall PAVA powder to a suspect officers should try and facilitate decontamination. In most cases all that will be needed is to place the suspect into fresh air. The faster the wind speed, the quicker the decontamination. PAVA powder blows off easily unlike oil-based aerosol OC sprays that trap the OC on the skin. Cool clean water can be used to wash the PAVA powder from the skin if necessary.Protect the suspect from injury. He/she will likely be incapacitated and unable to see for a short period of time. The suspect may also be disoriented from the burning associated with the powder.Try and reassure the suspect that he will recover swiftly. Keep the suspect as calm as possible. The suspect’s excited breathing will just prolong the exposure for him. Recovery time for PAVA powder varies from individual to individual. This time is dependent upon location of exposure, indoor versus outdoor, wind speed, temperature and humidity. The recovery time should be from 5 to 15 minutes.If a suspect has an unusual reaction to the PAVA, he/she should be taken for a medical evaluation. Unusual reactions include but are not limited to: Skin blistering, tremors, convulsions, seizures, delirium, hallucinations - visual (seeing things), tactile (feeling bugs on the skin), auditory (hearing voices), violent, aggressive behavior, "Superhuman" strength, paranoia, bizarre or irrational behavior, meaningless acts (e.g. licking windows), rapid, slow or irregular pulse rate, hyperthermia - high body temperature, sweating, confusion, unusual yelling or screaming, or thrashing after being restrained.
67CROSS-CONTAMINATIONApplication of any chemical agent usually results in cross-contamination of officers.If suspect is controlled or responding to verbal commands, wait to allow for dissipation of chemical agents.Waiting a few extra seconds prior to handcuffing can help minimize cross-contamination.Cross contamination from PAVA powder is mild. At 25 to 30 feet standoff distance the majority of the powder will settle to the ground before officers approach the suspect. PAVA powder will tend to fall to the ground in about seconds unless it is carried by the wind. Try and keep officers upwind from the dispersal location. If possible, the officer may pause a few seconds before approaching the suspect to allow time for more of the PAVA powder to disperse.
68POST-DEPLOYMENT ISSUES Sudden In-Custody Death (Agitated/Excited Delirium)Warning SignsProfuse Sweating/OverheatedPartially ClothedUnder the InfluenceBizarre/Irrational BehaviorExtremely Violent/StrongIncoherent/UnresponsiveUnaffected by Chemical AgentsMonitor/observe suspect carefullyIf in doubt, summon medical aidFollow Department policiesDANGERMost agencies today will have some type of training or policies devoted to this topic. As a manufacturer, PTI is reminding agencies that this is a widely recognized issue and should be addressed by each individual agency.For additional information, there is an newly published book on this subject.Sudden Deaths in Custody Darrel L. Ross, PhD Theodore C. Chan, MD Humana Press 2006 ISBN: E-ISBN:
69List the 2 main methods of decontamination. MODULE 9 REVIEWQuick QuizName 3 types of injuries that are consistent with PepperBall deployment.List the 2 main methods of decontamination.Identify Department policy regarding medical aid and evaluation.Identify one method to minimize cross-contamination.Review Module 9 and solicit questions from the students.
70Identify the key differences between periodic and annual maintenance. MODULE 10 – MAINTENANCEModule ObjectivesIdentify the key differences between periodic and annual maintenance.Review primary maintenance actions on launchersPerform periodic maintenance on an HPA bottle.Review module objectives with the students.
71General Maintenance Tips Only use PepperBall or paintball lubricant. Do not use solvents.Do not get lubricant in the launcher barrels or breechKEEP INSIDE OF BARRELS DRY!!!!!!!!!!Lubricate the HPA bottle O-ring and threads whenever the O-ring is replaced or the bottle is removed from the launcher.Clean barrels with dry swab.General Maintenance TipsPeriodic maintenance should be performed at least twice per year, or whenever approximately 2000 projectiles have been fired from a launcher. In areas of extreme high and low temperature variance throughout the year, or if the launchers are used in dusty or marine environments, maintenance should be performed more often.When in doubt about replacing an O-ring, replace it with new factory replacement parts.It is critical to emphasize to the students about using only PepperBall lubricants on the launchers and air fill accessories.
72LAUNCHER-SPECIFIC MAINTENANCE SA200Lubricate O-rings on front and rear bolt, and 2 attachment points on linkage arm.CUSTOM CARBINELubricate O-ring on rear bolt and front bolt.TAC700Replacement of electronic trigger battery. (see video)Each launcher will have different maintenance needs. The SA200 and Custom launchers are similar in design and in periodic and annual maintenance issues.The TAC700 is a more complex weapons system and the only agency maintenance that should be performed is to change the electronic trigger battery when needed. A video is included on the instructor materials CD that shows how to perform this procedure.For detailed maintenance information, refer to the owners manuals that are attached to the training CD.
73TIPS & TRICKSWhen removing HPA bottle from launcher, always take it all the way off. Never unscrew the bottle part way then screw it back on as this can cut the bottle O-ring.Tape a plastic baggie or envelope containing spare O-rings for the tank, HPA bottle and fill adapter to the side of the SCUBA tank .Put a small amount of Lithium grease on the HPA bottle threads to ease resistance when attaching and removing the bottle.Demonstrate these tips to students.
74High and low shooting angles may cause failure to feed projectiles. TIPS & TRICKSUse fingertips to push firmly on the center of the hopper lid and listen for distinct "snap" to ensure lid is securely closed.If rounds fail to feed properly, stay on target and flick launcher from side-to-side.High and low shooting angles may cause failure to feed projectiles.After emptying the hopper, turn the launcher completely upside down to ensure that no projectiles are left in the feed elbow.Demonstrate these tips to students.
75Identify the key differences between periodic and annual maintenance. MODULE 10 REVIEWQuick QuizIdentify the key differences between periodic and annual maintenance.Perform periodic maintenance on an HPA bottle.Review Module 10 and solicit questions from the students.Periodic maintenance can be performed by operator-level officers. Annual maintenance should be performed by certified PepperBall armorers.
76MODULE 11 – MANUFACTURER RECOMMENDATIONS Module ObjectivesIdentify the suspect no-target zones for PepperBall deployment.Identify the time period for instructor recertification.Review module objectives with students.
77DEPLOYMENT RECOMMENDATIONS PepperBall® Systems should only be fired by trained personnel.PepperBall® projectiles generally should not be targeted at a person’s throat, face, or eyes. The base of the neck and the spine should also be avoided.Always follow your agency’s Use of Force policies when deploying PepperBall® Systems.Deployment RecommendationsWarningsRemind officers of the warnings that dictate PepperBall usage.For obvious liability reasons, only trained personnel should be allowed to deploy the PepperBall launcher systems. Each agency should have at least one officer trained as a PepperBall Technologies certified instructor.No-target areas of the bodyFollow agency guidelines regarding use of force.
78TRAINING RECOMMENDATIONS Agency determines qualifying course of fire.Operators fire between 20 and 50 rounds.Drills to cover the use of the different types of projectiles used by the department.Operator annual qualification course of fire. Include shooting that encompasses potential uses such as shooting from towers, shooting through food slots, etc.Cover applicable laws, policies, procedures, rules, regulations & updates.Training RecommendationsCertification course of fireEach agency must determine what course of fire is appropriate to certify users. Courses of fire should be designed to match situations officers may encounter in their line of work.Drills should be developed to cover the use of all the projectiles an agency may deploy. For example, a drill may simulate having an operator custom load a glass shattering round to break out a vehicle window. Or rounds could be deployed to simulate denying an area to a group of protesters.
79INSTRUCTOR CERTIFICATION PTI recommends that each agency have at least one certified PepperBall instructor.Authorized to instruct agency personnel onlyRecertificationRecommended every 2 years.Questions can be answered on website:Instructor CertificationPTI recommends that at least one person in every agency becomes certified as a PepperBall Instructor. This person can then instruct the other members of the department on how to use the launcher and the projectiles safely and effectively.A course of instruction for the user should consist of classroom, range, and scenario training.On the firing site, have each officer demonstrate the loading, charging and firing procedures of the appropriate launcher.The certification course of fire should consist of rounds, depending on the size of the class and rounds available.Incorporate wind testing into the initial course of fire.Experiment with the officers moving their position depending on wind conditions, and continuing to fire.Make sure officers place rounds around the target area, simulating saturating the area around the suspect with PAVA powder.Written testRefer to the test in the instructors manual. Have copies made so students can turn in their test for certification/record keeping purposes.
80Identify the suspect no-target zones for PepperBall deployment. MODULE 11 REVIEWQuick QuizIdentify the suspect no-target zones for PepperBall deployment.How long is the instructor certification valid?Review Module 11 and solicit questions from the students.Now is the time for testing and the qualifying course of fire. You can do the written test and then shoot, or shoot and come back in and take the written.After taking the written test, review it with the students and remediate any incorrect answers.Make sure that the students hand in all required course administrative paper work prior to passing out the certificates of completion.
81MAINTENANCE, ARMORER & UPGRADE KITS PBPartsDepot offers volume discount pricing for PepperBall® SA200, Custom Carbine and TAC700 maintenance, armorer and upgrade kits.(PBPartsDepot is not associated with PepperBall Technologies, Inc.)PBPartsDepot offers volume discount pricing for PepperBall SA200 and Custom Carbine launcher maintenance, armorer and upgrade kits. Our customers are law enforcement, military and private security users of the PepperBall product line of less-lethal weapons. This store came about because of the high prices charged by paintball stores for parts. If your agency has had the same issues, you've come to the right place! We've designed maintenance, rebuild and upgrades kits for the SA200, Custom Carbine and TAC700 that aren't available in the paintball arena. By buying in bulk and selling in volume, we offer the best prices on the planet for maintaining and upgrading your PepperBall less-lethal launchers.Go to and check out the various kits.
82INSTRUCTOR CERTIFICATION COURSE Other resources include: