Presentation on theme: "Parent Advocate’s Guide to Special Education"— Presentation transcript:
1 Parent Advocate’s Guide to Special Education Bill Doolittle, National PTA Special Needs Committee, Co-ChairmanDr. James Pulos, National PTA Legislation Committee MemberElizabeth Rorick, Deputy Exec. Director, Government Affairs and Communications2014 Legislative Conference
2 Workshop Style Interactive Inquisitive There are no bad questions or ideasParticipant directedParking lot to hold ideas
3 Who are we ? Parents Educators Administrators Clinicians Policy makers Concerned individualsOthers
4 Advocating for children with disabilities Your childParentEducatorOthersOther’s ChildrenPTA AdvocatesVolunteer parent advocateVolunteer educator advocateParent information and resource center advocatesIssue group advocatesPaid advocatesYour LEA, Your state, USA and beyond
5 Advocacy CoreYour child Educating yourself Advocating for your child Individual children Parental request Parental education and support Parental permissions and wishes Advocating for the child
6 Advocacy Core continued Broader advocacy Base advocacy knowledge Identifying common areas of need and concern Communicating common areas of need and concern Identifying others with common concerns Intermediate advocacy knowledge Contacting decision makers Contacting partners Building coalitions Getting to work Advanced advocacy knowledge Strategic planning Systems change NPTA Special needs committee
8 Background and History Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)Main federal program authorizing state and local aid for special education and related services for children with disabilities.Requires states to provide a free, appropriate public education (FAPE) to children with disabilities so that they can be educated to the greatest extent possible along with all other children.Created to help states and school districts meet their legal obligations to educate children with disabilities, and to pay part of the extra expenses of doing so.Today, approximately 6 million children currently receive special education services.
9 Background and History Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)2000s2004: President Bush signed the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, a major reauthorization that worked to remove the barriers separating special education from general education.
10 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Free appropriate public education (FAPE)to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability.no cost to the parent.meets state education standards.consistent with your child's Individualized Education Program (IEP).FAPE doesn't mean the best possible education is offered at public expense to your child. Courts have defined "appropriate education" as a basic floor of opportunity. In other words, while IDEA guarantees equal opportunity, it does not guarantee a specific level of achievement or even a regular high school diploma.10
11 What is Special Education? Set of services, rather than a specific place for your child to go.The general education classroom is considered the least restrictive environment or LRE for most kids.Most special education students spend the majority of the day in general education.“Push in" or "pull out" support from the special education staff.IEPs are mostly implemented in the general education classroom.Besides instruction in general education, other options for receiving special education services may be considered,especial classes,special schools,home instruction, andinstruction in hospitals and institutions.11
12 What is Special Education? IEPs are mostly implemented in the general education classroom.Besides instruction in general education, other options for receiving special education services may be consideredspecial classes,special schools,home instruction, andinstruction in hospitals and institutions.12
13 Parental Involvement Provisions under IDEA Create and preserve constructive relationships between parents and schools.Ensure parent involvement in planning and decision making.Assist parents to develop skills they need to participate effectively in the education and development of their children.Support parents as participants within partnerships.Help overcome economic, cultural, and linguistic barriers to full parent participation.
14 Parents have the right to… Informed Consent: Each LEA must obtain informed consent from parent before conducting an evaluation.Notification: Must be notified early enough to ensure the one or both of the child’s parents or guardians can attend IEP meetings. Parents may request that IEP meetings are scheduled at a mutually agreed upon time.Native Language: Have access to an interpreter if their native language is not English.Alternate meeting mediums: LEAs and parents can agree to use alternative means of meeting participation such as video or audio conferencing.
15 Parent Training Information (PTI) Centers Parent ResourcesParent Training Information (PTI) CentersProvide training, information and support to parents who have a child through the age of 26 with special needs.Authorized in Part D of IDEA and are funded by the U. S. Department of Education Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP).PTI Center in each state --some states also have Community Parent Resource Centers (CPRCs) which focus on reaching underserved populations, including low income families.
16 Parent Training Information (PTI) Centers Parent ResourcesParent Training Information (PTI) CentersCurrently there are 104 PTI Centers, 32 of which are CPRCs, which operate under a unified system to provide technical assistance and resources for parents, family members, professionals, and school personnel.PTI Centers assist parents in the development of their child’s IEP, as well as assist parents in obtaining the appropriate information about the range, type, and quality of programs and services.FY 2011 request is $28 million
17 Individualized Education Plan Individual Education Program (IEP): Title 34 CFR §321IDEA requires children to have an individualized education program (IEP), in order to receive special education services.The IEP includes information about a child’s present levels of performance on various tests and measures and includes information about goals and objectives, specifically how the child’s educational problems will be addressed.
18 Individualized Education Plan The IEP must be developed with input from:At least one of the child’s parents;At least one regular education teacher;At least one of the child’s special education teachers or providers;A representative of the school district who is qualified, knowledgeable, and authorized to commit the district to the delivery of resources to the child;A qualified professional who can interpret the evaluation of child; andOthers at the discretion of the parent or the school district and, where appropriate, the child with a disability.
20 Where we are…Teachers report “uncivil” behavior is increasing and is a threat to effective learning (Skiba & Peterson, 2000)There is a link between general level of disruptive behavior and more extreme acts of violence (Skiba & Peterson, 2000)
21 Hardwired vs Programmed Which of the following do you think children are born with as hardwired emotional responses?PatienceJoyAngerEmbarrassmentSadnessEmpathySurpriseDisgustGratitudeFearForgiveness
22 Hardwired vs Programmed Which of the following do you think children are born with as hardwired emotional responses?PatienceJoyAngerEmbarrassmentSadnessEmpathySurpriseDisgustGratitudeFearForgiveness Jensen, E. (2009). Teaching with poverty in mind. ASCD.
24 Why Should We Implement PBIS? Problem behavior is increasingEducators often rely on reactive and crisis management interventions to solve chronic behavior problemsEducators often lack specialized skills to address severe problem behaviorTeachers are being asked to do more with lessStudents have limited opportunities to learn social skills and to receive feedback on their use
25 Special Needs Students Research shows that students with special needs are more likely than students without special needs to be involved in the school disciplinary process.For the school year, the out of school suspension rates for all racial groups combined were13 percent for students with special needs7 percent for those without special needs.
26 Special Needs Students A staggering 25 percent of African-American students with special needs were suspended out of school at least one time in
27 It Doesn’t Make Sense! When a student can’t read… we teach. When a student can’t calculate… we teach.When a student can’t write… we teach.When a student can’t behave… we punish?
28 What Happens if we don’t Intervene? Three years after leaving school, 70% of antisocial youth have been arrested (Walker, Colvin, & Ramsey, 1995)82% of crimes are committed by people who have dropped out of school (APA Commission on Youth Violence, 1993)
29 Meaningful Differences Observed in homes in the 1960sProfessional vs. Poverty11-18 month olds (in one year)LanguageProfessional: hear 4 million wordsAffirmative statements = 30 per hourPoverty: hear 250,000 wordsAffirmative statements = 6 per hour(Hart & Risley, 1995)
30 Hart and Risley conclude… Thousands of hours of affirmative feedback are needed in preschool to even begin to overcome what child has learned about himself/herself in the first 3 years of life (p. 188)To provide average welfare child with the amount of weekly language experience equal to that of average working class child would require 41 hours per week of out-of-home experiences (p. 201)
31 Hart and Risley conclude… 1,100 more instances of affirmative feedback per week to keep confidence-building experiences of welfare children equal to those of working class children (p. 201)26 hours per week of substituted experience with affirmatives for the welfare child’s experience to equal that of the working-class child (p. 202)
33 School Punitive disciplinary approach Lack of clarity about rules, expectations, and consequencesLack of staff supportFailure to consider and accommodate individual differencesAcademic failure(Mayer, 1995)
34 What are our “common” responses? Clamp down on rule violatorsReview rules and sanctionsExtend continuum of aversive consequencesImprove consistency of use of punishmentsEstablish “bottom line”Notify and confer with parents (Lombardi et al., 1990)
38 School-wide Discipline Procedures →Classroom?Minor OffensesOffice?Major OffensesIS THEINCIDENTMANAGEDIn the……1st Offense-Verbal warning-Re-teach behavior expectation-Parent contact (optional)Behavior ceases. No further action.→Write referral to AP in Infinite Campus.-Send copy of tracking form to AP2nd Offense(Behavior violates the same NMS Behavioral Expectation)-Re-teach behavior expectation-Assign low-level consequence-Begin tracking form-Parent contact with tracking formBehavior ceases. No further action.→↓AP determines course of action or consequences(In addition, student may be referred to Counselor for Scheduling changes and/or involvement in other interventions. Intervention Specialist will be notified for documentation to occur.)3rd Offense(Behavior violates the same NMS Behavioral Expectation)-Re-teach behavior expectation-Assign low-level consequence-Parent contact with phone or andtracking form-Parent conference/RTI meetingBehavior ceases. No further action.→↓4th Offense(Same Behavior)-Referral to AP written in IC-Document in referral that“PBIS steps have beenaddressed.”- tracking form to APTeam Meeting-Discuss student with team (samebehaviors in other classes?)-Document in team meeting minutes- tracking form to Inter. Specialist-All team members participate in conference if behaviors are common-Parent contact (phone/ )-Hard copy of referral to student(noted in IC)-Link to referral sent to teacher andSgt. Edwards
39 Typical Reactive Responses Zero tolerance policiesSecurity guards, student uniforms, metal detectors, video camerasSuspension/expulsionExclusionary options (e.g., alternative programs)
40 Problems of Being REACTIVE… Fosters environments of controlReinforces antisocial behaviorShifts accountability away from schoolDevalues child-adult relationshipWeakens relationship between academic and social behavior programmingResearch does not support effectiveness
41 What Doesn’t Work…Reviews of over 600 studies on how to reduce school discipline problems indicate that the LEAST effective responses to school violence are:Counseling (talking therapies)PsychotherapyPunishmentAssociated with INCREASED aggression, vandalism, truancy, tardiness, and dropouts(Elliott, Hamburg & Williams, 1998; Gottfredson, 1996; Lipsey, 1991, 1992; Mayer, 1995; Mayer & Sulzer-Azeroff, 1990; Tolan & Guerra, 1994)
43 What DOES Work…Same research reviews indicate that the MOST effective response to school violence is a comprehensive approach that includes:social skills trainingacademic restructuringbehavioral interventions
44 Ideas for Effective PBIS Invest in PreventionTeach, monitor, and reward before resorting to punishment and exclusion.Focus first on the social culture of the schoolEfficient OrganizationCombine rather than add initiativesWork smarter – not harder
45 Ideas for Effective PBIS 3. Build “Systems of Support”Build different systems for different problemsBuild durable systemsAdministrative leadership is essential5. Adapt the systems and practices to “fit” each schoolSelf-assessmentDifferent paths – common outcomes6. Gather and use information (data) for on-going decision-making
46 Key components Problem behaviors have clear consequences Discipline is implemented consistently by staff and administrationStudent behavior is monitored and staff receive regular feedback
47 Responsiveness to Intervention Source: PBIS.orgResponsiveness to InterventionAcademic SystemsBehavioral SystemsIntensive, Individual InterventionsIndividual StudentsAssessment-basedHigh IntensityIntensive, Individual InterventionsIndividual StudentsAssessment-basedIntense, durable procedures1-5%1-5%Targeted Group InterventionsSome students (at-risk)High efficiencyRapid response5-10%5-10%Targeted Group InterventionsSome students (at-risk)High efficiencyRapid responseUniversal InterventionsAll studentsPreventive, proactiveDiscuss that PBIS is the behavior side of the Response to Intervention (RtI) triangle.Explain that you are currently presenting the universal level of PBIS (for all students) and that the secondary and tertiary levels will be developed soon.80-90%Universal InterventionsAll settings, all studentsPreventive, proactive80-90%
48 Key components Problem behaviors have clear consequences Discipline is implemented consistently by staff and administrationStudent behavior is monitored and staff receive regular feedback
49 School Wide Systems Common purpose and approach to discipline Clear set of positive expectations and behaviorsProcedures for teaching expected behaviorContinuum of procedures for encouraging expected behaviorContinuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate behaviorProcedures for on-going monitoring and evaluation
50 Non Classroom Systems Hallway, cafeteria, bus, restroom Teaching expectations and routinesActive supervisionScan, move, interactPre-corrections and remindersPositive reinforcement
51 Classroom Management Behavior management Teaching routines and procedures – then MODELING and PRACTICING them!Ratio of 6-8 positive to 1 negative adult-student interactionInstructional managementCurriculum and Instructional designWell-planned, engaging lessons = fewer opportunities for off-task behaviorsEnvironmental managementSet your classroom up to be successful!
53 National PTA UrgesRequire the inclusion of a classroom-based behavioral management plan that focuses on prevention during the development of every student’s IEP and 504 plan.Require that both general and special education teachers know how to respond to behavioral problems with Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS).