3 About 60% of the 1.2 billion population lives on agriculture. Land Use Conflicts:growing concernsAbout 60% of the 1.2 billion population lives on agriculture.Industry and manufacturing will have to grow at an average annual rate of 9.8%XI Plan ReportThe World Bank puts the health costs of environmental degradation in India at US $ 7 billion a yearData.undp.org.inArmy deployed in Kolkata to quell riots over NandigramLivemint.com, The Wall Street Journal, Wed, NovRyots protest against Sathyavedu SEZ (Tirupati)The Hindu, Wednesday, May 02, 2007Anti-SEZ agitation in Goa demands scrapping of all the SEZs in the state.Peasants from five villages stage protests against the land transfer to a company for setting up SEZ.
4 Land Use Conflicts: growing concerns Farmers' protest in Delhi underscores India's land woesAugust 26, 2010; International Business TimesIn New Delhi, about 15,000 flag-waving, slogan-shouting farmers squatted at a square near parliament after being stopped by police in riot gear.Farmers protest against land acquisition in Chhattisgarh, 78 heldThe Times of India, Jan 19, 201178 Farmers protesting against forcible acquisition of their land for a 3600 mw power plant were arrested and several others lathi charged in Chhattisgarh's Janjgir Champa district.India: Uttar Pradesh farmers protest spreadsTodays’ News; May 9th, 2011A protest by thousands of farmers against alleged forced acquisition of land has spread to parts of the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.Power plants protest shows industry - farmer riftPublished on Fri, Jan 21, 2011 at 17:34 | Source : ReutersHundreds of stone-hurling farmers protested in Uttar Pradesh against the takeover of their land for two proposed power plants on Friday, police said, spotlighting challenges the country faces in building infrastructure.
5 Land Use Conflicts: growing concerns "We don't want compensation or any relief package in exchange of the land we are depended upon. The government should use waste land for industry”- Ramanbhai Patel, a farmer from HirapurFarmers to launch protest against land acquisition in Gujarat; Dec 9, 2009, Place: Ahmedabad | Agency: PTI“In the Indian reform story, policies on land have been the least reformed one”.“Leaders need to define and reconcile between cultivated land and industrial land, because agriculture also needs to be efficient. There should be no long term detriment to land owners”. - Ratan Tata, IndustrialistIndian Express, Dec , 08:45 hrs Mumbai
6 Total Geographical Area: 328.73 Mio Ha Land Use StatusClassificationReporting Area for Land Utilisation Statistics284.3298.5303.7304.2304.9305.2305.1305.3305.6305.4305.7Forests14.218.121.022.222.822.7Area Under Non-agricultural Uses3.35.05.46.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52Barren & Un-culturable Land13.412.09.36.65.85.7Other Uncultivated land excluding Fallow Land17.413.212.411.410.69.89.79.59.4Fallow Lands9.98.06.88.184.108.40.206.98.7Net Sown Area41.844.646.446.146.946.343.446.245.8Total Cropped Area (Gross Cropped Area)53.758.360.765.365.266.261.866.967.467.968.068.9Source: Agricultural Statistics at a Glance 2010, Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Department of Agriculture & Cooperation
7 Share of AgricultureTotal Population and % Agricultural Workers (in mio)195119611971198119912001361.1439.2548.2683.3846.41028.726.9%29.8%22.9%21.7%21.9%22.8%Source: Agricultural Statistics at a Glance 2010, Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Department of Agriculture & CooperationShare of Agriculture and Industry in GDPYear% GDP of Agricultureand Allied Sectors to Total GDP17.416.815.714.614.2% GDP of Industry to Total GDP28.728.82830.7??Source: Annual Report , Department of Agriculture & Cooperation; Agricultural Statistics at a Glance 2010, Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Department of Agriculture & Cooperation
8 Industry is one of the major drivers for land use changes Some Key ConcernsLack of integrated spatial planningSpatial planning (State Plans, Regional Plans, Master Plans etc.) where sites/zones for setting up of industries or industrial estates are specified has limited existenceHaphazard land use changesActivities that tend to be attracted around industrial areas needing land:Housing/residential areasCommercial areasAmenities and facilities such as schools, hospitals, hotels etc.Infrastructure, viz. roads, rail etc.Water, waste water and waste storage/treatment installationsAncillary industries and service industryPollution and disaster threatsHandling, storage and transportation of hazardous chemicals/materialsEmission of pollutants including toxic emissionsEffluents, especially those that are not easily biodegradable and toxicPollution of ground water, streams, rivers, lakes, oceans, or other bodies of water. Hazardous wastes –liquids, solids, contained gases or sludges.Industrial disaster risks and natural disaster risksOver exploitation of resourcesEg. Inadequate water to cater to both industry and agriculture
9 Resolving Industry and Agriculture Land Use Conflicts Strategic ApproachResolving Industry and Agriculture Land Use Conflicts
10 Land Use PlanningDefinition by FAO and UNEP published in 1999 reflects consensus among the international organisationsLand use planning is a systematic and iterative procedure carried outin order to create an enabling environment for sustainable development of land resourceswhich meets people’s needs and demands.It assesses the physical, socio-economic, institutional and legal potentials and constraintswith respect to an optimal and sustainable use of natural resources andempowers people to make decisions about how to allocate those resources.
11 Land Use Planning: German Experience Urban land has nearly doubled in 50 years, but the agricultural land decreased from only from 57.7% to about 52%.Land Use Planning: German ExperienceMainly three planning levelsState level planning (State level Plans or Programmes)Regional (District) Planning (Regional Plans)Municipal Planning (Master Plans and Lay-Out Plans)Process orientedUpper planning level guides development at lower planning level, while the lower planning levels provide input into the plans development at higher planning levels.Collaboration and co-ordination between concerned governmental authorities is compulsory and the necessary procedures to be followed are relatively strict.Social groups and general public are involved.Plans summarise future demandsAll plans summarise the socially accepted future demand for land and resources identified in a democratically organised process involving all social groups and the general public.
13 National Bureau of Soil Survey & Land Use Planning NRSANational Bureau of Soil Survey & Land Use PlanningNRSA conducted land use survey using Remote Sensing Technique in the year Has 22 categories of land use:Built up landAgricultural landFallow land PlantationsForestsWastelandsetc.State soil maps (1:250,000 scale)29District soil resource maps (1:50,000 scale)83Research farm (1:10,000/1:5,000 scale)76Village soil map (1:10,000/1:5,000 scale)32Watershed/command/catchment (1:5,000 scale)70Operational project (1:5,000 scale)57District land use atlasCPCBDistrict/State Environmental AtlasesDistrict-wise mapping of potential zones for industries/industrial estatesDirectorate of Economics & Statistics, Department of Agriculture & Cooperation, MoAgri.Agricultural Statistics at a Glance 2010, 2009 ….
14 Suggestions Suggestion 1(a): Initiate integrated spatial planning Develop guiding framework from national level – technical, processes, organisationsTranslate socio-economic-environmental needs into spatial plansCover all levels - state/district/local levelsSuggestion 1(b): Undertake land use planning for “Special/priority Areas”- Agricultural areas effected by major drivers of land use changes (areas facing higher rate of industrialisation and urbanisation)- ‘Good agricultural lands’ - level of agricultural production and the crop pattern is of average or above average productivity [Land Acquisition (Companies) Rules, 1963]- Agricultural areas in proximity to environmentally sensitive/fragile areasSuggestion 2: Identify and plan industrial ‘Investment Regions’ minimizing conflicts with agricultural useImpact assessment on agricultural land use and its functionsProvide incentives for promoting clean, resource efficient and environment friendly technologies for production processes
15 SuggestionsSuggestion 3: Identify/demarcate preferential lands, other than agricultural lands, for developmental activities - Industry could be planned in suitable ‘waste lands’Suggestion 4: Identify ‘agricultural areas to be avoided’ for developmental activities- Double cropped, land capability class I-III, command areas of irrigation projects- Major source of livelihoodSuggestion 5: Land Use regulation around Industrial Estates to protect agricultural landsAgricultural Protected Zones (APZ-1)Agricultural Preference Zones (APZ-2)Buffer Zones (BZ)Development Zones (DZ 1)Development Zones (DZ 2)Environmental Resources Protection Zones (ERPZ 1)
16 Drainage Waste Lands Land Capability Land Use Irrigation Map Agriculture Land UseAgricultural areas to be avoidedPreferential lands, other than agricultural lands, for developmental activitiesIrrigation Map
17 Industrial EstateBuffer Zone (50 m)Agricultural Protected Zone – 1 (2-4 km)Transport networkAgricultural Protected Zone – 2 (varies as per current land use)Environmental Resources Protection Zones (ERPZ) – as per location/land useDevelopment Zones
18 SuggestionsSuggestion 6: Relocation of polluting industries and Industrial Estates/Clusters from agricultural areasGovernment support for planning and development at new site,Sponsor pollution prevention mentoring programme,Integrate innovative environmental technologiesStreamline permitting processesSuggestion 7(a): National level and state land use policy to be developed for protecting agricultural land use while achieving developmental objectives.Suggestion 7(b): - Guidelines for land use planning and management to be developed for all key sectors- Agriculture; - Natural resource areas- Environmentally sensitive and fragile areas - Transportation- Legally protected areas - Socially important placesIndustrial areas, Mining areas, Tourism areas - Urban and rural settlementsSuggestion 7(c): Bring in legal provisions wherever required:- restrictions or prohibition of certain activities in certain areas- procedure for permitting activities in certain areas
19 Suggested Next StepsDevelop policies/guidelines /actions/rules for regulating conversion of agricultural land use and protection of agricultural lands.Constitute an Expert Panel at central levelRep. of relevant sectoral ministries (agriculture , environment, water, transport, industry, urban, statistics etc.)Sectoral expertsPlanning expertsInitiate pilot work in 2 to 3 volunteering states to develop and successfully test approach/results/benefits of sustainable developmentProvide support from MoAgriculture – funding, coordinationTechnical services of agencies such as NRSA, NSS&LUB, TCPO etc. could be used.- Constitute Working Group at state level (sectoral departments, experts)Involve all the stakeholders for a transparent process.- Reps. of civil society, industry associations etc.International experiences could be brought in under bilateral cooperation.