Presentation on theme: "N. Raghu Babu Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH Indo German Environment Programme Strategic Approach for Resolving Industry."— Presentation transcript:
N. Raghu Babu Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH Indo German Environment Programme Strategic Approach for Resolving Industry and Agriculture Land Use Conflicts Strategic Approach for Resolving Industry and Agriculture Land Use Conflicts
Issues and Concerns
»Industry and manufacturing will have to grow at an average annual rate of 9.8% XI Plan Report »The World Bank puts the health costs of environmental degradation in India at US $ 7 billion a year Data.undp.org.in »Army deployed in Kolkata to quell riots over Nandigram Livemint.com, The Wall Street Journal, Wed, Nov »Ryots protest against Sathyavedu SEZ (Tirupati) The Hindu, Wednesday, May 02, 2007 »Anti-SEZ agitation in Goa demands scrapping of all the SEZs in the state. »Peasants from five villages stage protests against the land transfer to a company for setting up SEZ. Land Use Conflicts: growing concerns About 60% of the 1.2 billion population lives on agriculture.
Farmers' protest in Delhi underscores India's land woes August 26, 2010; International Business Times In New Delhi, about 15,000 flag-waving, slogan-shouting farmers squatted at a square near parliament after being stopped by police in riot gear. Farmers protest against land acquisition in Chhattisgarh, 78 held The Times of India, Jan 19, Farmers protesting against forcible acquisition of their land for a 3600 mw power plant were arrested and several others lathi charged in Chhattisgarh's Janjgir Champa district. India: Uttar Pradesh farmers protest spreads Todays’ News; May 9th, 2011 A protest by thousands of farmers against alleged forced acquisition of land has spread to parts of the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Power plants protest shows industry - farmer rift Published on Fri, Jan 21, 2011 at 17:34 | Source : Reuters Hundreds of stone-hurling farmers protested in Uttar Pradesh against the takeover of their land for two proposed power plants on Friday, police said, spotlighting challenges the country faces in building infrastructure. Land Use Conflicts: growing concerns
"We don't want compensation or any relief package in exchange of the land we are depended upon. The government should use waste land for industry” - Ramanbhai Patel, a farmer from Hirapur Farmers to launch protest against land acquisition in Gujarat; Dec 9, 2009, Place: Ahmedabad | Agency: PTI “In the Indian reform story, policies on land have been the least reformed one”. “Leaders need to define and reconcile between cultivated land and industrial land, because agriculture also needs to be efficient. There should be no long term detriment to land owners”. - Ratan Tata, Industrialist Indian Express, Dec , 08:45 hrs Mumbai Land Use Conflicts: growing concerns
Source: Agricultural Statistics at a Glance 2010, Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Department of Agriculture & Cooperation Classification Reporting Area for Land Utilisation Statistics Forests Area Under Non- agricultural Uses Barren & Un-culturable Land Other Uncultivated land excluding Fallow Land Fallow Lands Net Sown Area Total Cropped Area (Gross Cropped Area) Total Geographical Area: Mio Ha Land Use Status
%29.8%22.9%21.7%21.9%22.8% Total Population and % Agricultural Workers (in mio) Year % GDP of Agriculture and Allied Sectors to Total GDP % GDP of Industry to Total GDP ?? Source: Annual Report , Department of Agriculture & Cooperation; Agricultural Statistics at a Glance 2010, Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Department of Agriculture & Cooperation Share of Agriculture and Industry in GDP Source: Agricultural Statistics at a Glance 2010, Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Department of Agriculture & Cooperation Share of Agriculture
Some Key Concerns Lack of integrated spatial planning Spatial planning (State Plans, Regional Plans, Master Plans etc.) where sites/zones for setting up of industries or industrial estates are specified has limited existence Haphazard land use changes Activities that tend to be attracted around industrial areas needing land: Housing/residential areas Commercial areas Amenities and facilities such as schools, hospitals, hotels etc. Infrastructure, viz. roads, rail etc. Water, waste water and waste storage/treatment installations Ancillary industries and service industry Pollution and disaster threats Handling, storage and transportation of hazardous chemicals/materials Emission of pollutants including toxic emissions Effluents, especially those that are not easily biodegradable and toxic Pollution of ground water, streams, rivers, lakes, oceans, or other bodies of water. Hazardous wastes –liquids, solids, contained gases or sludges. Industrial disaster risks and natural disaster risks Over exploitation of resources Eg. Inadequate water to cater to both industry and agriculture Industry is one of the major drivers for land use changes
Strategic Approach Resolving Industry and Agriculture Land Use Conflicts Strategic Approach Resolving Industry and Agriculture Land Use Conflicts
Land Use Planning Land use planning is a systematic and iterative procedure carried out in order to create an enabling environment for sustainable development of land resources which meets people’s needs and demands. It assesses the physical, socio-economic, institutional and legal potentials and constraints with respect to an optimal and sustainable use of natural resources and empowers people to make decisions about how to allocate those resources. Definition by FAO and UNEP published in 1999 reflects consensus among the international organisations
Land Use Planning: German Experience Mainly three planning levels State level planning (State level Plans or Programmes) Regional (District) Planning (Regional Plans) Municipal Planning (Master Plans and Lay-Out Plans) Process oriented Upper planning level guides development at lower planning level, while the lower planning levels provide input into the plans development at higher planning levels. Collaboration and co-ordination between concerned governmental authorities is compulsory and the necessary procedures to be followed are relatively strict. Social groups and general public are involved. Plans summarise future demands All plans summarise the socially accepted future demand for land and resources identified in a democratically organised process involving all social groups and the general public. Urban land has nearly doubled in 50 years, but the agricultural land decreased from only from 57.7% to about 52%.
State soil maps (1:250,000 scale)29 District soil resource maps (1:50,000 scale) 83 Research farm (1:10,000/1:5,000 scale) 76 Village soil map (1:10,000/1:5,000 scale) 32 Watershed/command/catchment (1:5,000 scale) 70 Operational project (1:5,000 scale)57 District land use atlas32 NRSA conducted land use survey using Remote Sensing Technique in the year Has 22 categories of land use: Built up land Agricultural land Fallow land Plantations Forests Wastelands etc. NRSA National Bureau of Soil Survey & Land Use Planning CPCB District/State Environmental Atlases District-wise mapping of potential zones for industries/industrial estates Agricultural Statistics at a Glance 2010, 2009 …. Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Department of Agriculture & Cooperation, MoAgri.
Suggestion 1(a): Initiate integrated spatial planning -Develop guiding framework from national level – technical, processes, organisations -Translate socio-economic-environmental needs into spatial plans -Cover all levels - state/district/local levels Suggestion 1(b): Undertake land use planning for “Special/priority Areas” - Agricultural areas effected by major drivers of land use changes (areas facing higher rate of industrialisation and urbanisation) - ‘Good agricultural lands’ - level of agricultural production and the crop pattern is of average or above average productivity [Land Acquisition (Companies) Rules, 1963] - Agricultural areas in proximity to environmentally sensitive/fragile areas Suggestion 2: Identify and plan industrial ‘Investment Regions’ minimizing conflicts with agricultural use - Impact assessment on agricultural land use and its functions - Provide incentives for promoting clean, resource efficient and environment friendly technologies for production processes Suggestions
Suggestion 3: Identify/demarcate preferential lands, other than agricultural lands, for developmental activities - Industry could be planned in suitable ‘waste lands’ Suggestion 4: Identify ‘agricultural areas to be avoided’ for developmental activities - Double cropped, land capability class I-III, command areas of irrigation projects - Major source of livelihood Suggestion 5: Land Use regulation around Industrial Estates to protect agricultural lands Agricultural Protected Zones (APZ-1) Agricultural Preference Zones (APZ-2) Buffer Zones (BZ) Development Zones (DZ 1) Development Zones (DZ 2) Environmental Resources Protection Zones (ERPZ 1)
Land Use Agriculture Land Use Land Capability Drainage Irrigation Map Waste Lands »Agricultural areas to be avoided »Preferential lands, other than agricultural lands, for developmental activities
Industrial Estate Buffer Zone (50 m) Agricultural Protected Zone – 2 (varies as per current land use) Development Zones Environmental Resources Protection Zones (ERPZ) – as per location/land use Agricultural Protected Zone – 1 (2-4 km) Transport network
Suggestions Suggestion 6: Relocation of polluting industries and Industrial Estates/Clusters from agricultural areas - Government support for planning and development at new site, - Sponsor pollution prevention mentoring programme, - Integrate innovative environmental technologies - Streamline permitting processes Suggestion 7(a): National level and state land use policy to be developed for protecting agricultural land use while achieving developmental objectives. Suggestion 7(b): - Guidelines for land use planning and management to be developed for all key sectors - Agriculture;- Natural resource areas - Environmentally sensitive and fragile areas- Transportation - Legally protected areas- Socially important places -Industrial areas, Mining areas, Tourism areas- Urban and rural settlements Suggestion 7(c): Bring in legal provisions wherever required: - restrictions or prohibition of certain activities in certain areas - procedure for permitting activities in certain areas
Suggested Next Steps Develop policies/guidelines /actions/rules for regulating conversion of agricultural land use and protection of agricultural lands. Constitute an Expert Panel at central level Rep. of relevant sectoral ministries (agriculture, environment, water, transport, industry, urban, statistics etc.) Sectoral experts Planning experts Initiate pilot work in 2 to 3 volunteering states to develop and successfully test approach/results/benefits of sustainable development - Provide support from MoAgriculture – funding, coordination - Technical services of agencies such as NRSA, NSS&LUB, TCPO etc. could be used. - Constitute Working Group at state level (sectoral departments, experts) Involve all the stakeholders for a transparent process. - Reps. of civil society, industry associations etc. International experiences could be brought in under bilateral cooperation.
Agriculture Land Use Land Capability Drainage Irrigation Map Waste Lands