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Teddy Theryo, P.E. Bryce Binney, P.E., S.E. Parsons Brinckerhoff

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Presentation on theme: "Teddy Theryo, P.E. Bryce Binney, P.E., S.E. Parsons Brinckerhoff"— Presentation transcript:

Teddy Theryo, P.E. Bryce Binney, P.E., S.E. Parsons Brinckerhoff Segmental Bridge Group PCEF COMMITTEE MEETING IN DOVER AUGUST 25, 2009

2 Presentation Outline 1 2 3 4 5 Definition & History
Construction Process 3 Design Aspect 4 Segment Detailing 5 Grouting, Anchorage Protection

3 Outline Definition Reasons for Use History (Florida Specific)
1 Definition & History Definition Reasons for Use History (Florida Specific) Current Practices

4 Definition of Spliced Girder:
NCHRP Report 517 “Extending Span Ranges of Precast Prestressed Concrete Girders” Defines as: Section “…a precast prestressed concrete member fabricated in several relatively long pieces (i.e., girder segments) that are assembled into a single girder for the final bridge structure. Post-tensioning is generally used to reinforce the connection between girder segments.” Reasons for Use: Increasing span lengths Improving safety by eliminating shoulder piers or interior supports (beginning applications) Economic considerations (cost savings over other materials)

5 History in Florida: Growing concern over highway safety during middle 1960’s 1967 AASHTO Traffic Safety Committee Report “…adoption and use of two-span bridges for overpasses crossing divided highways…to eliminate the bridge piers normally placed adjacent to the shoulders”

6 History: PCI published information to extend spans:
PCI, Prestressed Concrete for Long Span Bridges, 1968. PCI Bridge Bulletin, “Long Spans with Standard Bridge Girders”, 1967. Publications addressed splicing using P/T and falsework ~115' Florida used this approach on bridges in the late 1970’s: Chipola Nursery Bridge (Northwest Florida) I-75 Overpasses (Southwest Florida) Both used AASHTO Type IV with spans of approx. 115’

7 Typical Usage Original concept evolved to bulb-tees with haunches
Intracoastal Waterway Crossings (navigational clearance) Spans up to 300’ can be accommodated 200’ to 300’ 65’ 150’ Haunch Girder is used for span equal or larger than 250’

8 Spliced Girder Project Photos
Escambia River Bridge Pascagoula Bridge, MS Rt.33 Bridge, VA

9 Outline Design/Construction Interdependency Erection Process
2 Construction Process Design/Construction Interdependency Erection Process Design Concept


11 Temporary Support During Construction
Robust temporary structures Stable structure at all stages Avoid using PT bars coupler if possible Robust temporary bracing system Lock girder Supports against longitudinal and lateral sliding

12 Erection Process End Segment Haunch Segment Drop-in Segment 3 2 4 1

13 1 Install Falsework

14 Falsework on Pier Footing
1 Falsework on Pier Footing Bleed lenses form as a result of the separation of water from the cement. Ducts with vertical rises will typically experience more bleed due to the increased pressure within the grout column. Intermediate bleed water lenses may form in tall vertical ducts, leaving a void through the cross-section of the duct exposing the tendon. This sedimentation process is accentuated by the addition of seven-wire strand. The spaces within the individual twisted wires that form the strand are large enough to allow easy passage of water but not cement.

15 Install Haunched Segments
2 Install Haunched Segments

16 Transporting Haunched Girders
2 Transporting Haunched Girders

17 2 Placement of Girder

18 Erecting Haunched Girders
2 Erecting Haunched Girders

19 Install Temporary Bracing
2 Install Temporary Bracing

20 3 Place End Segments Strongback

21 Installing Strongbacks
3 Installing Strongbacks

22 3 Place End Segments

23 3 Strongback Detail Masterflow 816 is a highly fluid grout which contains no aggregate of any kind. It is a Grade C grout with excellent flow retention designed for superior pumpability. It is typically used for grouting of post tensioned cables and bars, and protects the highly stressed steel from corrosion by giving complete fill, with absolutely no bleeding or segregation.

24 4 Place Drop-in Girders

25 Prepare for Drop-in Girders
4 Prepare for Drop-in Girders

26 Placing Drop-in Girder
4 Placing Drop-in Girder This slide builds on both sides, showing the process of measuring flowable grouts on a flow table and fluid grouts using the flow cone. Describe the test procedure, and the relationship between the two tests. 145% flow on the table represents the limit of the edge of the table. After that the grout runs off the edge, and you have to use the flow cone.

27 5 Apply Post Tensioning

28 Significant Stages of Construction:
Design Concept Significant Stages of Construction: Girders erected & supported by falsework or strongbacks

29 Significant Stages of Construction:
Design Concept Significant Stages of Construction: C.I.P. diaphragms or splices poured, Stage 1 P/T applied

30 Significant Stages of Construction:
Design Concept Significant Stages of Construction: Deck poured, Stage 2 P/T applied (deck compression) Longitudinally, bridge is fully serviceable. Deck and girders held to an allowable stress (usually 3√f’c).

31 Assumed Erection Sequence
Construction Sequence to be included in contract documents

32 Outline Span to Depth Ratios Staged Construction Loading
3 Design Aspect Span to Depth Ratios Staged Construction Loading Post-Tensioning Layouts Deck Replaceability

33 Design Philosophy Two Stages of Post-Tensioning Stability
Serviceability Time Dependant Analysis Ultimate Limit States

34 Span to Depth Ratios General Guidelines:
Simple span AASHTO prestressed girders (L/20) L/25 – L/28 Continuous post-tensioned spliced girder (L/25 to L/28) L/20 – L/25 Haunched pier continuous post-tensioned spliced girder (L/20 to L/25) ** See AASHTO LRFD Article Agency may adhere to these requirements.

35 Example of Dead Load Staging:
Staged Dead Loads Example of Dead Load Staging: Erect girders + After P/T, removal of temp. supports** Deck pouring ** Notice change in static scheme in this stage to a continuous unit

36 Staged Construction *Forces/stresses in structure are sum of all load cases Final analysis program should account for: Incremental summation of all loads Changes in static system throughout construction Time dependant creep & shrinkage, including beam/slab differential (CEB-FIP Model Code Capability Preferable) Temporary loads & supports Preferably ability to pour deck in stages A few available software packages: BD2 TANGO ADAPT Consplice (LEAP) MIDAS RM LARSA 4D

37 Typical Tendon Profile
Post Tensioning Typical Tendon Profile Parabolic profile Inflection points at 0.9 to 0.95 of span length 90% to 95% of Span Parabolic

38 Post Tensioning 3 to 5 tendons per girder 9 to 15 strands per tendon
Typical Tendon Sizes 3 to 5 tendons per girder 9 to 15 strands per tendon Normally 50% of the tendons stressed on non-comp. structure Double End Stressing For tendons with excessive lengths, dual end stressing may be required to overcome large friction loss.

39 Miscellaneous Considerations
Other Considerations Miscellaneous Considerations Non-Linear Temperature Gradient Check Principle Web Stress (composite section complicates this procedure, perhaps check at non-composite & composite C.G.) If stresses are high, 3.5√f’c to 4.0√f’c, consider using a thicker web.

40 Vertical Geometry Spliced FBT-78 Navigational Unit
Finished Grades vs. Top of Beam Elevations 75.5 75.0 74.5 74.0 73.5 Finished Grade Elevation 73.0 72.5 72.0 71.5 71.0 0.0 100.0 200.0 300.0 400.0 500.0 Distance From Begin Main Unit Finished Grades Top Of Beam

41 Deck Replaceability Common Practice to include the deck as part of
composite section in supporting SDL and Live Loads Can the deck be replaced ? Answer: Yes How can the deck be replaced ? It must be designed for deck replacement

42 Design Strategy for Deck Replacement
Deck Replaceability Design Strategy for Deck Replacement Use light weight Concrete Deck Use Precast Deck Panel (ABC) Stress all tendons prior to deck placement Add temporary / permanent straight top tendon Deck and girder is a composite section for SDL and LL (no prestress in the deck section)

43 Outline Web Thickness Pier Segment End Span Segments 4
Segment Detailing Web Thickness Pier Segment End Span Segments

44 Beam Design

45 Web Thickness PT Ducts Concrete Placement Vibratory Clearance
Pouring Concrete PT Ducts Concrete Placement Vibratory Clearance Radial Stresses

46 Radial Stresses Strand Tensioning Grout Pressure

47 Post Tensioning Ducts Oval Ducts Round Ducts Spall of outer concrete
Longitudinal cracking Oval Ducts Round Ducts

48 Haunched Beams

49 Pier Segment Considerations
Erection Load Case Support self-weight during transport and erection Support weight of “drop-in” girders with prestressing (other loads: diaphragms, strongbacks, construction loads) Prestressing Configuration Positive and negative moments during construction Use eccentricity vs. 1/P diagrams to satisfy both conditions

50 Pier Segment Considerations
Pier Segment Cross-Section

51 Pier Segment – Vertical Bursting
@ 0.6H @ 0.4H 3” 1.75” 11.5” 26.5” End of Beam Elevation T

52 Ult. Negative Moment Capacity
Neg. Moment Over-reinforced (AASHTO Formulas) Under-reinforced (AASHTO Formulas) 32” 52” 40” 20”

53 Ult. Negative Moment Capacity
Local Widening of Compression Flange

54 End Segment Considerations
Anchorage Block Use web tapering to transition to typical beam cross-section Bursting Forces Use local thickening of beam to accommodate anchorages Consider staging of P/T in bursting models If beam reaction is > approx. 10% of P/T force, consider in S & T

55 PT Anchorage DSI old Anchorage

56 DSI Multi Strand Anchorage System
Post-Tensioning Anchorage DSI Multi Strand Anchorage System Post grouting Inspection access Grout port COMPLY WITH FDOT SPEC


58 Anchorages – Including Inspection Ports
Hardware System – FDOT 462 Anchorages – Including Inspection Ports Grout & Inspection Port

59 Hardware System – FDOT 462 Pressure Tested Ducts

60 Anchorages/End Block Adjacent Span or backwall placed after bottom strands are jacked

61 Anchorages/End Block Adjacent Span or backwall placed after bottom strands are jacked

62 Anchorages/End Block Top View
Adjacent span or backwall can be placed before tensioning Top View

63 End Segment Design 1st Stage Post-Tensioning 2nd Stage Post-Tensioning
2nd Stage P/T T T T Stage 1 & P/S T 1st Stage & P/S Also need to consider case at prestressing

64 End Segment Details

65 Outline 5 Grouting & Anchorage Protection Recent research has reveled the importance of good grouting practices Anchorages shall receive multiple layers or protection to avoid ingress of contaminants Florida DOT has implemented a stringent / robust PT and grouting spec. to enhance durability

66 Grout from lowest point and one direction grout flow
Grout Tube and Grout Vent Locations Vent Vent Grout Flow Grout Flow Grout Tube/Drain Simply Supported Beam Strand Bundle Vent Vent Duct Vent Min. 3 ft. Grout Flow Grout Flow Stressing Anchorage Grout Dead End Anchorage Grout Tube/Drain Grout Tube/Drain Continuous Beam Grout from lowest point and one direction grout flow

67 Highlights of Florida Grouting
Grout Vent Drain

68 Highlights of Florida Grouting
Grout Material Zero Bleed Water, Pre-Bagged, Pre-Approved Duct Material Plastic Duct, Light Color Sealed & Pressure Tested Grouting Procedure Injected Solely from Extreme Low Point High Points & Anchorages Inspected After Grouting Secondary (Vacuum) Grouting if Needed

69 Anchorage Protection (FDOT Standard)
Four Levels of Protection: Grouted Tendon Permanent Grout Cap Epoxy Grout Pour-Back Encapsulating Diaphragm Permanent Grout Cap Epoxy Grout Pour-back Diaphragm Deck Slab Pour Full Width Permanent Grout Cap Epoxy Grout Pour-back Drain Hole (extend Outside of Beam – fill With Epoxy Grout) Diaphragm

70 Summary Topics Presented Spliced girder explanation
Construction process Design philosophy Segment detailing/design Addressed durability and grouting Final Statement: Concrete spliced girders provide an economical and durable alternative for medium span ranges. With increasing familiarity to owners and contractors, they will likely become a common solution…..

71 References Anon., “Highway Design and Operational Practices Related to Highway Safety,” Report of the Special AASHTO Traffic Safety Committee, February 1967. Anon., Prestressed Concrete for Long Span Bridges, Prestressed Concrete Institute, Chicago, 1968. Anon., “Long Spans with Standard Bridge Girders,” PCI Bridge Bulletin, March-April 1967, Prestressed Concrete Institute, Chicago. Castrodale, R. W., and C. D. White “Extending Span Ranges of Precast, Prestressed Concrete Girders.” NCHRP Report 517. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. “Detailing for Post-Tensioning”, VSL International, Bern Switzerland, 1991. FDOT, New Directions for Florida Post-Tensioned Bridges, Volumes 1 & 4. Podolny, Jr., Walter, and Jean Muller, “Construction and Design of Prestressed Concrete Segmental Bridges,” John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1982. PTI Post-Tensioning Manual, 6th ed., Post-Tensioning Institute, U.S.A., Ch. VIII, Anchorage Zone Design. Ronald, H. D “Design and Construction Consideration for Continuous Post-Tensioned Bulb-Tee Girder Bridges.” PCI Journal, Vol. 46, No. 3, Prestressed Concrete Institute, Chicago, IL, May-June 2001, pp

72 Thank you for your time ? Any questions?

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