Presentation on theme: "1 Women in Physics in Russia – Changes for the Period of 2002-2005 Nelli Didenko 1, Olga Vorontsova 2, Elena Ermolaeva 3, Renata Vitman 4, Ekaterina Kunitsyna."— Presentation transcript:
1 Women in Physics in Russia – Changes for the Period of 2002-2005 Nelli Didenko 1, Olga Vorontsova 2, Elena Ermolaeva 3, Renata Vitman 4, Ekaterina Kunitsyna 4 1 St. Petersburg Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), 2 The Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF), 3 Moscow Lomonosov State University (MSU), Department of Physics, 4 A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute of RAS (PTI), 1 St. Petersburg
2 Agenda Feminization of Russian Science Women in Academy: on the example of A.F.Ioffe Physico- Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (PTI). Women in applied research: on the example of the Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF). Women in universities: on the example of Moscow Lomonosov State University (MSU) and St. Petersburg State University (SPbSU) Women-physicists – participants of building of civil society in Russia.
3 Feminization of Russian Science During Soviet period it was a considerable proportion of women-scientists because of the access to High education regardless of gender with availability of childcare facilities and legal protection of working mothers After 1991 women-scientists were put in a much more difficult situation than men, because of lack of social welfare policies, together with traditionally rigid patterns of promotion and recognition The married woman became the second “bread- winner”, double or even triple employed
4 Feminization of Russian Science Woman in research tend to stay because of academic environment if her work brings exciting results The status of women-physicists is becoming higher, but rather slowly There are 1 women-academician (in the Engineering department) and 3 women among corresponding members of RAS: 2 in the Department of Physics and one in the Engineering Department). Two of them were elected in 2003. In physics & mathematics the proportion of women-scientists is about 35.5%, but they occupy fewer than 5% of leading positions  the proportion of women-scientists all over the world is 6-10%, USA -22.4%
5 Women in Academy: on the Example of A.F.Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (PTI) and Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics of RAS (PINP). Researchers (% of women) PhD (% of women) Doctor of Sciences Degree (% of women) /Years200220042002200420022004 PTI37,233,824,12412,913,8 PINP40,336,421,721,832,9 Positions Senior researchers Leading researchers Main researchers PTI20,11813,8151012,5 PINP10,411,38,37,300
6 Statistics in Natural Sciences & Engineering Sciences Migration of scientists to business, politics, management and foreign countries is continued, but became slower  ResearchersPhD Doctor of Sciences Degree /Years200020032000200320002003 All Science42595440977583962788702194022936 Natural Sciences 998349632836326343691029710687 Engineering Sciences 274955256921282062456044804370
7 Women in Applied Research: on the Example of the Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All- Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 44% of the R&D personnal are women scientists Less than 6% women among candidates of science (Ph.D.’s) Among doctors of science - near 3%. 40% of women among participants of International projects, But only 9% women are managers of the projects
8 Women in Moscow Lomonosov State University (MSU) Since 1933 more than 25000 persons graduated from the Physics Department MSU, a quarter of whom were girls. Now there are 220 doctors of sciences physicists, 15% of them are women. There were 30% of girls among 90 students who graduated with honors this year. There are 30% of girl among 400 graduate students. There were 50% girls among winners of annual MSU young physi8cist’s conference.
9 Women in the Department of Physics of Saint Petersburg State University (SPbSU) During 2000-2004 in the SbSU (Department of Physics) women were about 20% of lecturers, about 7% of professors, and the representation of women among associate professors changed from 22% in 2000 to 25% in 2004. Although women are 13% of those with Doctor of Sciences Degrees, only 7% of them become professors. The female percentage of master’s degree holders changed from 17.4%(2000) to 28.7%(2004).
10 Women-Physicists – Participants of Building of Civil Society in Russia NGO of women – scientists with participations of women-physicists: Women Council of MSU Women of Closed Towns, St. Petersburg Women Association in Science (SPWAS) and others.
11 Co-founders of the St. Petersburg Women Association of Science (SPWAS) St. Petersburg, 1999 Increasing of status of women-scientists Integration of Saint- Petersburg women- scientists to the international science community
12 Women-Physicists – Participants of Building of Civil Society in Russia Several Russian women physicists – members of SPWAS received travel grants from International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP)
13 At the 3rd International Conference: Women in Basic Research, devoted to the Memory of Prof. Iya Ipatova, St. Petersburg, November 2004
14 Women-Physicists – Participants of Building of Civil Society in Russia Two International conferences devoted to the Memory of two outstanding women scientists of Ioffe PTI took place in St. Petersburg by initiative of SPWAS: in November 2002 to Prof. Nina Gorunova In November 2004 to Prof. Iya Ipatova Prof. Iya Ipatova was a participant of 1st IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics” in Paris.
15 Women-Physicists – Participants of Building of Civil Society in Russia A biographical dictionary “Moscow State University in Women Faces” was published by Women Council of MSU in commemoration of 250th anniversary of the Moscow University The book contains brief biographies of some 619 women employed by MSU, 63 of which are detailed academic biographies of members of the Department of Physics and of its adjacent research institutes.
16 Women-Physicists – Participants of Building of Civil Society in Russia They are Doctors of Sciences, full professors, some are WWII veterans. Their life in science has embodied all tendencies of the Soviet period of the country. The great majority of them has graduated from the Moscow State University and has been working at MSU for more than 25 years. Women’s organizations have started in definite sense to train certain groups of women-scientists to become aware of their rights Activity of women organizations lead to development of gender awareness in scientific community and to gradual change of man’s view at women role in science.
17 Woman-Physicists in the Period of Crisis of Science Conclusions Certain changes that occurred in the most recent 3 years cannot be deemed positive in regard to improving the status of women scientists. But, changing of stereotypes that women are afraid of being leaders is observed. Female professional physicists have proved to be rational but flexible, capable of profound
18 Woman-Physicists in the Period of Crisis of Science Conclusions Russia demonstrates growth by a number of economic indicators. For the period of 2003-2004 the industry build-up was ~ up to 7% per year . Several successful companies create jobs attractive for scientists. However, state R&D funding has been frozen at the same low level. International scientific and technical collaboration may influence considerably towards a better environment for women researchers not only in Russia but worldwide.
19 Conclusion What Can We do Together? To establish permanent e-Network of women- physicists all over the world To help find Partners for International Projects To Publish International experience of women in physics, the ways of overcoming «glass ceiling»
20 References 1.Science in Russia in Figures-2001. Statistical collection of papers, M., TzISN, 2001 (in Russian) 2.Russia in Figures in 2003, Statistics, Moscow, 2004 (in Russian) 3.Interview with Dr. Abela Aganbegyan to the agency PRIME-TASS 05.11.2004.
21 Acknowledgements Authors are thankful to the vice-rector of St. Petersburg State University Vladimir N. Troyan and the head of personnel department of St. Petersburg Research Center of RAS Yuri N. Fokichev for the data which they kindly provided to us.