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ECOLOGY The study of the interactions between organisms and the living and nonliving components of their environment.

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Presentation on theme: "ECOLOGY The study of the interactions between organisms and the living and nonliving components of their environment."— Presentation transcript:

1 ECOLOGY The study of the interactions between organisms and the living and nonliving components of their environment

2 LEARNING OBJECTIVES Define ecology and explain why it is important List and describe three human-caused environmental problems Identify 5 levels or organization in ecology Explain interconnectedness

3 ECOLOGY INVOLVES: collecting information about organisms and their environments Looking for patterns and seeking to explain these patterns. WHY? Because each organism depends in some way on other living and nonliving things in its environment.

4 Today’s Environment Exploding Human Population -has tripled 2B->6B in 70 years Sixth Mass Extinction: species are disappearing faster than last dinosaur extinction Thinning Ozone Layer: responsible for sunburns and skin cancers Climatic Changes: Earth’s temperature has increased 1 0 F due to the greenhouse effect

5 LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION BIOSPHERE ECOSYSTEM COMMUNITY POPULATION ORGANISM

6 INTERCONNECTEDNESS INTERCONNECTEDNESS IS THE INTERDEPENDENCE OF ORGANISMS WHICH IS THAT ALL ORGANISMS ARE DEPENDENT ON OTHER ORGANISMS AND THEIR NONLIVING ENVIRONMENT

7 INTERCONNECTEDNESS/ INTERDEPENDENCE

8 ECOLOLOGICAL MODELS SCIENTISTS USE MODELS SUCH AS GRAPHS AND DIAGRAMS TO MAKE A HYPOTHESIS OR PREDICTION ABOUT FUTURE BEHAVIOR MODELS ARE USED TO PLAN AND EVALUATE SOLUTIONS TO ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

9 EXAMPLE OF A MODEL Wetter Drier

10 REVIEW OF LEARNING OBJECTIVES Define ecology and explain why it is important List and describe three human-caused environmental problems Identify 5 levels or organization in ecology Explain interconnectedness

11 ECOLOGY OF ORGANISMS WHERE DO THEY LIVE AND WHY DO THEY LIVE THERE?

12 LEARNING OBJECTIVES CONTRAST ABIOTIC FACTORS WITH BIOTIC FACTORS AND LIST 2 EXAMPLES OF EACH EXPLAIN THE IMPORTANCE OF A TOLERANCE CURVE EXPLAIN THE CONCEPT OF A NICHE AND HOW IT IS DIFFERENT FROM HABITAT

13 BIOTIC FACTORS The living components of the environment are called biotic (bie-AHT-ik) factors. Biotic factors include all of the living things that affect the organism.

14 ABIOTIC FACTORS The nonliving factors, called abiotic (AY-bie-AHT-ik) factors, are the physical and chemical characteristics of the environment. Important abiotic factors include temperature, humidity, pH, salinity, oxygen concentration,amount of sunlight, availability of nitrogen, and precipitation.

15 ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES AND RESPONSES ABIOTIC FACTORS ARE NOT CONSTANT, THEY CAN CHANGE IN HOURS, DAYS, MONTHS, SEASONS ORGANISMS CAN SURVIVE A WIDE RANGE OF CHANGES ORGANISMS CAN NOT SURVIVE IN ENVIRONMENTS OUTSIDE IT’S TOLERANCE LIMITS.

16 TOLERANCE CURVE

17 UNSUITABLE CONDITIONS HOW DO ANIMALS ACCLIMATE TO CHANGES IN ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS?

18 ANSWERS! ECTOTHERMS ENDOTHERMS MIGRATION HIBERNATION

19 DIFFERENCE? ACCLIMATION HAPPENS DURING AN ORGANISM’S LIFETIME ADAPTATION IS A GENETIC CHANGE THAT HAPPENS OVER MANY GENERATIONS

20 NICHE IS THE ROLE THE SPECIES PLAYS IN IT’S ENVIRONMENT FUNDAMENTAL NICHE IS A RANGE OF CONDITIONS A SPECIES CAN TOLERATE REALIZED NICHE IS THE RANGE OF RESOURCES IT ACTUALLY USES.

21 NICHE? HABITAT? HOW ARE THE TWO DIFFERENT? NICHE IS HOW AN ORGANISM LIVES HABITAT IS WHERE IT LIVES!

22 REVIEW OF LEARNING OBJECTIVES CONTRAST ABIOTIC FACTORS WITH BIOTIC FACTORS AND LIST 2 EXAMPLES OF EACH EXPLAIN THE IMPORTANCE OF A TOLERANCE CURVE EXPLAIN THE CONCEPT OF A NICHE AND HOW IT IS DIFFERENT FROM HABITAT

23 POPULATION ECOLOGY

24 LEARNING OBJECTIVES EXPLAIN THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN POPULATION SIZE, DENSITY AND DISPERSION. DESCRIBE 3 PATTERNS OF POPULATION DISPERSION. EXPLAIN HOW CHANGES OCCUR IN POPULATION GROWTH RATE

25 POPULATION SIZE A population’s size is the number of individuals it contains. Size is a fundamental and important population property, but it can be difficult to measure directly.

26 POPULATION DENSITY Population density measures how crowded a population is. Population density is always expressed as the number of individuals per unit of area or volume.

27 POPULATION DISPERSION Population dispersion is the spatial distribution of individuals within the population. In a clumped distribution, individuals are clustered together. In an even distribution, individuals are separated by a fairly consistent distance. In a random distribution, each individual’s location is independent of the locations of other individuals in the population.

28 CLUMPED? EVEN?

29 POPULATION DYNAMICS All populations are dynamic—they change in size and composition over time. One important measure is the birth rate, the number of births occurring in a period of time. In the United States, there are about 4 million births per year. A second important measure is the death rate, or mortality rate, which is the number of deaths in a period of time. The death rate for the United States is about 2.4 million deaths per year. Another important statistic is life expectancy, or how long on average an individual is expected to live. In the United States in 1996, the life expectancy for a man was 72 years, and for a woman it was 79 years.

30 POPULATION GROWTH RATE Demographers, scientists who study population dynamics, define the growth rate of a population as the amount by which a population’s size changes in a given time. Whether a population grows, shrinks, or remains the same size depends on four processes: birth, death, emigration, and immigration. birth rate - death rate = growth rate

31 REVIEW OF LEARNING OBJECTIVES EXPLAIN THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN POPULATION SIZE, DENSITY AND DISPERSION. DESCRIBE 3 PATTERNS OF POPULATION DISPERSION. EXPLAIN HOW CHANGES OCCUR IN POPULATION GROWTH RATE

32 HUMAN POPULATION GROWTH

33 LEARNING OBJECTIVES Explain how the development of agriculture changed the pattern of human population growth. Describe the change in human population growth that began around Describe how growth rates have changed since World War II.

34 DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE The hunter-gatherer lifestyle began to change about 10,000 to 12,000 years ago, when humans discovered how to domesticate animals and cultivate certain plants for food. This dramatic change in lifestyle is called the agricultural revolution, and it led to profound changes in every aspect of life.

35 POPULATION EXPLOSION Human population growth began to accelerate after 1650, primarily because of a sharp decline in death rates. There are many reasons for the decline in death rates: better sanitation and hygiene, control of disease, increased availability of food, and improved economic conditions. While death rates fell, birth rates rose

36 DEVELOPED/UNDEVELOPED COUNTRIES ABOUT 20% OF THE WORLD’S POPULATION LIVE IN DEVELOPED COUNTRIES AND HAVE A LOW GROWTH RATE. ABOUT 80% OF THE WORLD’S POPULATION LIVE IN UNDEVELOPED COUNTRIES AND HAVE A HIGHER GROWTH RATE WHY DO YOU THINK THIS IS SO?

37 COMMUNITY ECOLOGY

38 LEARNING OBJECTIVES Distinguish predation from parasitism. Evaluate the importance of mimicry as a defense mechanism. Describe two ways plants defend themselves against herbivores. Explain how competition can affect community structure. Contrast mutualism with commensalism, and give one example of each type of relationship.

39 PREDATION Predation is a powerful force in a community. In predation, one individual, the predator, captures, kills, and consumes another individual, the prey. Predation influences where and how species live by determining the relationships in the food web. Predation is also an effective regulator of population size.

40 A rattlesnake is able to detect a variation in temperature of as little as 0.1°C, which helps it locate prey. To disable its prey, the snake injects a strong, fast-acting poison through sharp, hollow fangs. PREDATOR OR PREY?

41 MIMICRY Mimicry is when a harmless species resembles a poisonous or distasteful species. The harmless mimic is protected because it is often mistaken to be its dangerous look- alike.

42 HERBIVORE DEFENSE Through natural selection, plants have evolved adaptations that protect them from being eaten. Physical defenses, such as sharp thorns, spines, sticky hairs, and tough leaves, can make the plant more difficult to eat. They synthesize chemicals from products of their metabolism, called secondary compounds, that are poisonous, irritating, or bad-tasting. A large number of drugs, including morphine, atropine,codeine, taxol, and quinine, are derived from the secondary compounds of plants.

43 PARASITISM Parasitism is a species interaction that resembles predation in that one individual is harmed while the other individual benefits. In parasitism, one individual, known as the parasite, feeds on another individual, known as the host.

44 PARASITES Ectoparasites are external parasites; Examples of are ticks, fleas, lice, leeches, lampreys, and mosquitoes. Endoparasitesare internal parasites, and they live inside the host’s body. Familiar endoparasites are disease- causing bacteria, protists such as malaria parasites, and tapeworms.

45 TICKS TAPEWORM

46 COMPETITION Competition results from fundamental niche overlap—the use of the same limited resource by two or more species. Ecologists use the principle of competitive exclusion to describe situations in which one species is eliminated from a community because of competition for the same limited resource.

47 COMPETITION

48 MUTUALISM Mutualism is a cooperative relationship in which both species derive some benefit. Some mutualistic relationships are so close that neither species can survive without the other.

49 MUTUALISM Animals that carry pollen arecalled pollinators. A flower is a lure for pollinator; The plant usually provides food for its pollinators. As the animal feeds in the flower, it picks up a load of pollen, which it will carry to the next flower of the same species it visits,

50 COMMENSALISM Commensalism is an interaction in which one species benefits and the other is not affected.

51 LEARNING OBJECTIVES REVIEW Distinguish predation from parasitism. Evaluate the importance of mimicry as a defense mechanism. Describe two ways plants defend themselves against herbivores. Explain how competition can affect community structure. Contrast mutualism with commensalism, and give one example of each type of relationship.


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