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小马托福 400-663-1986 这可不是小事儿 ———— 托福中的指代 小马过河托福阅读老师白凤娇.

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Presentation on theme: "小马托福 400-663-1986 这可不是小事儿 ———— 托福中的指代 小马过河托福阅读老师白凤娇."— Presentation transcript:

1 小马托福 400-663-1986 这可不是小事儿 ———— 托福中的指代 小马过河托福阅读老师白凤娇

2 小马托福 400-663-1986 自我介绍:不扑腾,何以为青春不扑腾,何以为青春 新浪围脖:小马过河白凤娇 Sunshine小马过河白凤娇 Sunshine

3 小马托福 400-663-1986 OUTLINE 指代 指代这一家 指代与 TOEFL 指代 Tips

4 小马托福 400-663-1986 Jack : I figure life is a gift and I don't intend on wasting it. You never know what hand you're going to get dealt next. You learn to take life as it comes at you…. Jack :我觉得生命是一份礼物, 我 不想浪费它, 你不会知道下一手 牌会是什么, 要学会接受生活。

5 小马托福 400-663-1986 指代 用代词、普通名词去替代前文中出现过的名词即 是指代

6 小马托福 400-663-1986 指代这一家 代词(人称、物主、疑问代词) 人称代词 He often helps me. May I use your pen? The bike is hers.

7 小马托福 400-663-1986 指代这一家 反身代词 Help yourself to some cakes. (宾语) We do homework by ourselves. (强调) 指示代词 this , that , these , those

8 小马托福 400-663-1986 指代之 it ( 1 )指物: It's a robot. ( 2 )指自然现象: It's raining now, but it will be fine soon. ( 3 )指时间: What time is it? It's 8 o'clock. ( 4 )指距离: It's twenty minutes' walk.

9 小马托福 400-663-1986 指代之 it ( 5 )作形式主语: It's important for us to fight pollution. It took me half an hour to finish the work. It's kind of you to say so. ( 6 )作形式宾语: We think it necessary to relax from time to time.

10 小马托福 400-663-1986 指代之复合不定代词 something , anything , nothing , everything ; 某物 somebody , anybody , nobody , everybody , someone , anyone , no one , everyone ; 某人 somewhere , anywhere , nowhere , everywhere 某地 单数

11 小马托福 400-663-1986 指代之复合不定代词 不定代词被形容词修饰时,定语放在它们的后面。如: I’ve got something interesting to tell you. There's nothing new in the newspaper. 写作中注意奥 ~

12 小马托福 400-663-1986 可数 有 木有 有木有? a few few the few 不可数 有 木有 有木有 ? a littleLittleThe little

13 小马托福 400-663-1986. 两者都两者都不要么。。。 Both…areNeither iseither 三者都三者都不 All…areNone is/are

14 小马托福 400-663-1986 Someotherany other / others oneanother on one handon the other hand

15 小马托福 400-663-1986 指代与指代题 The word “they” in the passage refers to ○ applied-art objects ○ the laws of physics ○ containers ○ the sides of pots Since the laws of physics, not some arbitrary decision, have determined the general form of applied-art objects, they follow basic patterns, so much so that functional forms can vary only within certain limits.

16 小马托福 400-663-1986 ETS’ EXPLANATION!!! This is an example of a simple pronoun-referent item. The highlighted word they refers to the phrase “applied-art objects,” which immediately precedes it, so choice 1 is the correct answer. Often the grammatical referent for a pronoun will be separated from the pronoun. It may be located in a preceding clause or even in the preceding sentence.

17 小马托福 400-663-1986 The word “It” in the passage refers to ○ The advent of projection ○ The viewer's relationship with the image ○ A similar machine ○ Celluloid With the advent of projection, the viewer's relationship with the image was no longer private, as it had been with earlier peepshow devices such as the Kinetoscope and the Mutoscope, which was a similar machine that reproduced motion by means of successive images on individual photographic cards instead of on strips of celluloid. It suddenly became public—an experience that the viewer shared with dozens, scores, and even hundreds of others.

18 小马托福 400-663-1986 The word “them” in the passage refers to ○ workers ○ political patty loyalties ○ disagreements over tactics ○ agents of opportunity Workers were united in resenting the industrial system and their loss of status, but they were divided by ethnic and racial antagonisms, gender, conflicting religious perspectives, occupational differences, political party loyalties, and disagreements over tactics. For them, the factory and industrialism were not agents of opportunity but reminders of their loss of independence and a measure of control over their lives.

19 小马托福 400-663-1986 指代之句子简化题 Fladmark's hypothesis received additional support from the fact that the greatest diversity in Native American languages occurs along the west coast of the Americans, suggesting that this region has been settled the longest.

20 小马托福 400-663-1986 指代之句子简化题 ○ Because this region has been settled the longest, it also displays the greatest diversity in Native American languages. ○ Fladmark's hypothesis states that the west coast of the Americas has been settled longer than any other region. ○ The fact that the greatest diversity of Native American languages occurs along the west coast of the Americans lends strength to Fradmark's hypothesis ○ According to Fladmark, Native American languages have survived the longest along the west coast of the Americas.

21 小马托福 400-663-1986 指代之句子简化题 Contrary to the arguments of some that much of the pacific was settled by Polynesians accidentally marooned after being lost and adrift, it seems reasonable that this feat was accomplished by deliberate colonization expeditions that set out fully stocked with food and domesticated plants and animals.

22 小马托福 400-663-1986 指代之句子简化题  Some people have argued that the Pacific was settled by traders who became lost while transporting domesticated plants and animals.  The original Polynesian settlers were probably marooned on the islands, but they may have been joined later by carefully prepared colonization expeditions.  Although it seems reasonable to believe that colonization expeditions would set out fully stocked, this is contradicted by much of the evidence.  The settlement of the Pacific islands was probably intentional and well planned rather than accidental as some people have proposed.

23 小马托福 400-663-1986 指代与句子简化题 Perhaps, like many contemporary peoples, Upper Paleolithic men and women believed that the drawing of a human image could cause death of injury, and if that were indeed their belief, it might explain why human figures are rarely depicted in cave art.

24 小马托福 400-663-1986 ○ Upper Paleolithic people, like many contemporary peoples, believed that if they drew a human image in their cave art, it would cause death or injury. ○ Many contemporary people believe that the drawing of a human image can cause death or injury, so they, like Upper Paleolithic people, rarely depicted human figures in their cave art. ○ If Upper Paleolithic people, like many contemporary peoples, believed that the drawing of a human image could cause death or injury, this belief might explain why human figures are rarely depicted in cave art. ○ Although many contemporary peoples believe that the drawing of a human image can cause death or injury, researchers cannot explain why Upper Paleolithic people rarely depicted human figures in their cave art.

25 小马托福 400-663-1986 指代之句子简化题 This scenario begins with the planting of hyper accumulating species in the target area, such as an abandoned mine or an irrigation pond contaminated by runoff.

26 小马托福 400-663-1986  Before considering phytoremediation, hyper accumulating species of plants local to the target area must be identified.  The investigation begins with an evaluation of toxic sites in the target area to determine the extent of contamination.  The first step in phytoremediation is the planting of hyper accumulating plants in the area to be cleaned up.  Mines and irrigation ponds can be kept from becoming contaminated by planting hyper accumulating species in targeted areas.

27 小马托福 400-663-1986 指代之句子简化题 There were three sources of power: animal or human muscles; the wind, operating on sail or windmill; and running water. Only the last of these was suited at all to the continuous operating of machines, and although waterpower abounded in Lancashire and Scotland and ran grain mills as well as textile mills, it had one great disadvantage: streams flowed where nature intended them to, and water-driven factories had to be located on their banks whether or not the location was desirable for other reasons.

28 小马托福 400-663-1986 ○ Running water was the best power source for factories since it could keep machines operating continuously, but since it was abundant only in Lancashire and Scotland, most mills and factories that were located elsewhere could not be water driven. ○ The disadvantage of using waterpower is that streams do not necessarily flow in places that are the most suitable for factories, which explains why so many water-powered grain and textile mills were located in undesirable places. ○ Since machines could be operated continuously only where running water was abundant, grain and textile mills, as well as other factories, tended to be located only in Lancashire and Scotland. ○ Running water was the only source of power that was suitable for the continuous operation of machines, but to make use of it, factories had to be located where the water was, regardless of whether such locations made sense otherwise.

29 小马托福 400-663-1986 指代与句子简化题 As densities increased, domestic architecture became larger, culminating in crowded pueblos. Some scholars expand on this idea by emphasizing a corresponding need for arable land to feed growing numbers of people: construction of small dams, reservoirs, terraces, and field houses indicates that farmers were intensifying their efforts during the 1200s.

30 小马托福 400-663-1986 A. Some scholars even claim that the intensification of farmers' various efforts during the 1200s led to further population growth and the consequent need for more arable land B. Evidence of intensifying agriculture in the 1200s indicates a need to feed a larger population and so extends the argument that a growing population was the cause of the move to pueblos C. During the 1200s, farmers met the demand for more arable land, but they also succeeded in cultivating existing land more intensively with the help of agricultural construction projects D. Some scholars feel strongly that the construction of small dams, reservoirs, terraces and field houses in the thirteenth century is independent evidence for growth in the number of people.

31 小马托福 400-663-1986 指代与句插题  指示代词 : this those  人称代词: they  the/such/another+ 名词  it

32 小马托福 400-663-1986 When this widespread use of projection technology began to hurt his Kinetoscope business, Edison acquired a projector developed by Armat and introduced it as “Edison’s latest marvel, the Vitascope." Paragraph 3: ■ Exhibitors, however, wanted to maximize their profits, which they could do more readily by projecting a handful of films to hundreds of customers at a time (rather than one at a time) and by charging 25 to 50 cents admission. ■ About a year after the opening of the first Kinetoscope parlor in 1894, showmen such as Louis and Auguste Lumiere, Thomas Armat and Charles Francis Jenkins, and Orville and Woodville Latham (with the assistance of Edison's former assistant, William Dickson) perfected projection devices. ■ These early projection devices were used in vaudeville theaters, legitimate theaters, local town halls, makeshift storefront theaters, fairgrounds, and amusement parks to show films to a mass audience. ■

33 小马托福 400-663-1986 The findings of these geologists inspired others to examine the rock and fossil records in different parts of the world . Paragraph 5: Not only could Smith identify rock strata by the fossils they contained, he could also see a pattern emerging: certain fossils always appear in more ancient sediments, while others begin to be seen as the strata become more recent. █ By following the fossils, Smith was able to put all the strata of England's earth into relative temporal sequence. █ About the same time, Georges Cuvier made the same discovery while studying the rocks around Paris. █ Soon it was realized that this principle of faunal (animal) succession was valid not only in England or France but virtually everywhere. █ It was actually a principle of floral succession as well, because plants showed the same transformation through time as did fauna. Limestone may be found in the Cambrian or—300 million years later—in the Jurassic strata, but a trilobite—the ubiquitous marine arthropod that had its birth in the Cambrian—will never be found in Jurassic strata, nor a dinosaur in the Cambrian.

34 小马托福 400-663-1986 They esteem symbols of Roman power, such as the massive Colosseum. Paragraph 4: Modern attitudes to Roman civilization range from the infinitely impressed to the thoroughly disgusted. ■ As always, there are the power worshippers, especially among historians, who are predisposed to admire whatever is strong, who feel more attracted to the might of Rome than to the subtlety of Greece. ■ At the same time, there is a solid body of opinion that dislikes Rome. ■ For many, Rome is at best the imitator and the continuator of Greece on a larger scale. ■ Greek civilization had quality; Rome, mere quantity. Greece was original; Rome, derivative. Greece had style; Rome had money. Greece was the inventor; Rome, the research and development division. Such indeed was the opinion of some of the more intellectual Romans. “Had the Greeks held novelty in such disdain as we,” asked Horace in his epistle, “what work of ancient date would now exist?”

35 小马托福 400-663-1986 To enhance their listeners’ enjoyment, storytellers continually make their stories more engaging and memorable. (特殊) Paragraph 3: █ Although origin in ritual has long been the most popular, it is by no means the only theory about how the theater came into being. █ Storytelling has been proposed as one alternative. █ Under this theory, relating and listening to stories are seen as fundamental human pleasures. █ Thus, the recalling of an event (a hunt, battle, or other feat) is elaborated through the narrator’s pantomime and impersonation and eventually through each role being assumed by a different person.

36 小马托福 400-663-1986 Another aspect of advertising that may especially influence children is fantasy. ■ Fantasy is one of the more common techniques in advertising that could possibly mislead a young audience. ■ Child-oriented advertisements are more likely to include magic and fantasy than advertisements aimed at adults. ■ In a content analysis of Canadian television, the author Stephen Kline observed that nearly all commercials for character toys featured fantasy play. ■ Children have strong imaginations and the use of fantasy brings their ideas to life, but children may not be adept enough to realize that what they are viewing is unreal.

37 小马托福 400-663-1986 指代与细节题 According to paragraph 4, Fuller’s Fire Dance was notable in part for its ○ use of colored gels to illuminate glass ○ use of dyes and paints to create an image of fire ○ technique of lighting the dancer from beneath ○ draperies with small dots resembling the Pointillist technique of Seurat

38 小马托福 400-663-1986 Paragraph 4: Fuller had scientific leanings and constantly experimented with electrical lighting (which was then in its infancy), colored gels, slide projections, and other aspects of stage technology. She invented and patented special arrangements of mirrors and concocted chemical dyes for her draperies. Her interest in color and light paralleled the research of several artists of the period, notably the painter Seurat, famed for his Pointillist technique of creating a sense of shapes and light on canvas by applying extremely small dots of color rather than by painting lines. One of Fuller’s major inventions was underlighting, in which she stood on a pane of frosted glass illuminated from underneath. This was particularly effective in her Fire Dance (1895), performed to the music of Richard Wagner’s “Ride of the Valkyries.” The dance caught the eye of artist Henri de Toulouse- Lautrec, who depicted it in a lithograph.

39 小马托福 400-663-1986 指代与细节题 According to the passage, one of the adaptations of fast- swimming fishes that might be used to improve the performance of ships is these fishes' ability to ○ swim directly through eddies ○ make efficient use of water currents ○ cover great distances without stopping ○ gain speed by forcing water past their gills

40 小马托福 400-663-1986 There are adaptations that increase the amount of forward thrust as well as those that reduce drag. Again, these fishes are the envy of engineers. Their high, narrow tails with swept-back tips are almost perfectly adapted to provide propulsion with the least possible effort. Perhaps most important of all to these and other fast swimmers is their ability to sense and make use of swirls and eddies (circular currents) in the water. They can glide past eddies that would slow them down and then gain extra thrust by "pushing off" the eddies. Scientists and engineers are beginning to study this ability of fishes in the hope of designing more efficient propulsion systems for ships.

41 小马托福 400-663-1986 The author mentions bankers and investors in the passage as an example of which of the following? ○ The Democratic Party's main source of support ○ The people that Democrats claimed were unfairly becoming rich ○ The people most interested in a return to a simple agrarian republic ○ One of the groups in favor of Andrew Jackson's presidency

42 小马托福 400-663-1986 The Democrats tended to view society as a continuing conflict between "the people”—farmers, planters, and workers—and a set of greedy aristocrats. This "paper money aristocracy" of bankers and investors manipulated the banking system for their own profit, Democrats claimed, and sapped the nation's virtue by encouraging speculation and the desire for sudden, unearned wealth.

43 小马托福 400-663-1986 指代与修辞目的题 Why does the author mention “ herbs”, “shrubs”, and “trees ”? ○ To provide examples of plant types that cannot tolerate high levels of harmful minerals. ○ To show why so many plants are hyperaccumulators. ○ To help explain why hyperaccumulators can be found in so many different places. ○ To emphasize that hyperaccumulators occur in a wide range of plant types.

44 小马托福 400-663-1986 指代与修辞目的题 A survey of known hyperaccumulators identified that 75 percent of them amassed nickel, cobalt, copper, zinc, manganese, lead, and cadmium are other minerals of choice. Hyperaccumulators run the entire range of the plant world. They may be herbs, shrubs, or trees. Many members of the mustard family, spurge family, legume family, and grass family are top hyperaccumulators. Many are found in tropical and subtropical areas of the world, where accumulation of high concentrations of metals may afford some protection against plant-eating insects and microbial pathogens.

45 小马托福 400-663-1986 指代 Tips 1 单复数一致 2 顺序 you , he and I / WE , YOU , THEY 3 it/this/that 可指代整件事儿

46 小马托福 400-663-1986 TOEFL 必胜!!!

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