Presentation on theme: "The official definition of dyslexia according to the National Institute of Child Health: In simple terms, Dyslexia (aka “word blindness," which is actually."— Presentation transcript:
The official definition of dyslexia according to the National Institute of Child Health: In simple terms, Dyslexia (aka “word blindness," which is actually a politically incorrect term) is a learning disability in which the person has trouble reading and writing, mostly due to the inability to sound out or make use of phonics. This disorder is not developed over time; one is born with it. Like other LDs, Dyslexia has wide variations, ranging from mild to moderate or severe. “…..one of several distinct learning disabilities. It is a specific language- based disorder of a constitutional origin, characterized by difficulties in single word decoding, usually reflecting insufficient phonological processing abilities. These difficulties in single word decoding are often unexpected in relation to age and other cognitive and academic abilities; they are not the result of generalized developmental disability or sensory impairment. Dyslexia is manifested by variable difficulty with different forms of language, often including, in addition to reading problems, a conspicuous problem with acquiring proficiency in writing and spelling.” (Lyons, 1996, 34) (pg 36).
Dyslexia: A Specific Language Disorder Dys (Difficulty) Lexicos (Pertaining to Words)
Phonemes -Most people are able to recognize phonemes intuitively, however, for a person with dyslexia, this does not occur. -Ex. b/a/t- (bat). The word “bat” is made up of three phonemes, but sounds like one sound. So, it is common for people with Dyslexia to often confuse words like sleep with sheep, look with lock, and done as dun. (pg. 41) -Interesting fact (pg 40) Dyslexia is not prevalent in all languages. There are no children in Italy that have dyslexia since their language is only made up of 33 combo’s of letters to spell 25 phonemes, whereas English has 1,120 ways of spelling 40 different phonemes. (pg. 40)
Signs of Dyslexia (pg. 41-42) Difficulty naming letters or singing the “alphabet song” Trouble identifying words that begin with the same sound Problems rhyming or recognizing rhymes Inability to indentify sounds within words. (If you take the “h” out of hat what word do you have?) Problems with shapes and/or colors Speech articulation problems Difficulty remembering automated sequences (numbers, or months of the year) Issues with fine motor activity (ie. Copying letters, drawing shapes) Problems finding the correct names for things Sequencing errors in words (David called his g-ma Dorsi instead of Doris0 Difficulty with verbal memory of what was just read or said
Lissa and David’s Struggles Lissa Inner-struggle to cope with the fact that her own son had a LD Constantly was exposed to David’s problems, which only put more stress on her Feelings of inadequacy of being a mother Strains on family ties with her husband and younger son, Dan. David Problems in school Issues with other children-didn’t have very many friends Inability to cope in social surroundings with other children or adults, like at birthday parties Torn between so many tutors and specialists, confusion Frustration in trying to communicate with others-they couldn’t understand his speech or read his hand-writing Uncooperative school system- David was not allowed preventative medicine, since in kindergarten, “he was not already behind grade level to receive special attention.” His dyslexia makes him feel like he has to lie and cheat in school in order to do well
How David Spells “Tkhe ditwdon was no a dinsor. It was a pelicosar it wotck on all for it had a dosol fin fortck on its bac the fqucysefolesoris had a Big Dom on its hed with was 10incthick which he ust maby for beyingledr of the hord are mating consest the sponsors lokt insacley lock ditrodon sponsoros had lots insterinsors sharp teecht for caching fish Wuck on 6 feet the end these are my favrein DINOSAURS” (pg. 93) Translation: The dimetrodon was not a dinosaur. It was a pelicosaur. It walked on all four feet. It had a dorsal fin perched on its back. The pachylcephalysaur had a big dome on its head which was ten inches thick which he used maybe for being leader of horde or mating contests. The spinosaurus looked exactly like the dimetrodon. Spinosaurs had lots of spines and rows of little sharp teeth for catching fish. It walked on all six feet. The end. These are my favorite dinosaurs. (pg. 93)
David’s Characteristics He is very bright and intelligent, but his parents know he is different even before he begins kindergarten. Here are a few signs: He is overly fascinated with odd things such as dinosaurs, GI Joe figures and later, WWII. He has a creative imagination and likes to use toys and things such as Legos to understand the world around him. His ideas behind his play are complex for his age. He teaches himself through his play. He often cannot remember names of other children, therefore, does not really like to be around others. He calls himself stupid and dumb. He does not share well with his little brother Dan He loves to learn about things through pictures in book. Lies about cheating in school to make his parents think he is doing well. Uses odd, idiosyncratic language or uses more complex words to describe simple things-uses sophisticated language unusual for his age. Often cannot imply what he means with words and confuses their meanings (he told his mom he wanted a turkey sandwich and was upset to find it was not ham) Manipulates his mother into doing his homework for him
Lissa’s Efforts to Help her Son -She read to David almost every night -Helped him with his homework (and sometimes even did it for him) -Invented and played board games to help David understand words and letters better -For the most part, had a fair amount of patience with David -Bought him toys when he did well on something, or after multiple counselor and tutor sessions -Took him to specialists, counselors, school SPED. teachers, and therapists -Was his advocate -Encouraged his own unique learning techniques and curiosity Useful/Helpful things to consider and focus on when dealing with a child who has Dyslexia:
Tips for Educators on Teaching Dyslexia Trust your students’ passion- lean on them. Let them play. This is a powerful learning tool. Don’t just lecture and talk to them. Get down on the floor and interact with them. Become a learning partner, not just a teacher. Read to them and have them following along. Provide a safe, stable leaning environment. (pg. 208-210).
About Lissa and David: Where They Are and How Far They Have Come L issa is an assistant professor in the doctoral program in clinical psychology at City College University of N.Y. She currently serves as associate director at the Pacella Parent Infant Center and is on the adjunct faculty of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine and Colombia Physicians and Surgeons Hospital. She has been working as a clinical psychologist for more than twenty years and has authored numerous articles about developmental psychology as well as contributed to a number of books. Davis is a seventh grader at a mainstream school in suburban N.Y. He sees himself as a good thinker who knows a lot about geography, dinosaurs, and WW II. He would like to be a marine biologist, a chef who does fancy food, or a writer when he grows up, as long as he doesn’t have to write the letters himself. He is currently on the honor roll. He would like everyone to know that he is very funny. Today, but not everyday, he feels he has an excellent mother.
Lessons Learned David- “Its too hard to remember what it was like before. It’s too hard not knowing the letters and what its felt like... I guess I’ll always prefer TV a bit to reading because its so much easier. I still don’t like new situations, but once I’m used to something, I’m very good...When I was in first grade, I couldn’t do one thing in my phonics book. But look at me now. I’m a great reader and I never even finished one phonics book…Sometimes I wonder what life would have been like if I didn’t have this problem. I will always have this scar deep down in my heart, feeling somewhat different from other kids, but that pretty much has been overcome.” (pg. 215- 216).