Motivation The human component is important in interactive systems This in Ubicomp, HCI and CSCW it is common to use research methods developed in the social sciences
Ubiquitous computing “the creation of environments saturated with computing and communication capability, yet gracefully integrated with human users” M. Satyanarayanan “…it makes possible for several computers to be available in the physical enviroment, and at the same time, invisible to the user.” Mark Weiser
Pervasive Healthcare Making healthcare available everywhere The application of Pervasive/Ubiquitous Computing to healthcare and Wellness
Key building blocks of Ubicomp Context Activity Behavior location walking wandering Your noise is my signal
HCI challenges in Ubicomp Natural/intuitive interfaces Tangible computing (‘haptics’) Integration of digital and physical media Augmented reality Geastures BCI
User experience in physical interactions What is the appropriate physical interaction experience for ubicomp? Explicit interactions Implicit interactions
What is natural? Geastures Voice Direct manipulation of objects (tangible computing) Is writing natural? Using the keyboard of a celphone is natural?
Implicit I/O Perceptual interfaces Error prone Usually task-specific interfaces How to provide feedback? Non-intentional purpose
Technologies Computer vision (gestures, presence) Voice recognition (commands, continuous voice) Recognition of patterns of brain activity Sensors in objects Wearable sensors Multimodal sensing
Implicit interaction thru human signals Our presence in an environment –Entering a place notifies the environment of our identity Our interactions with the environment –Our actions denote possible interest in the services offered Sensin human activity
“Calm Technology” User attention –Center of attention – “foreground” –Peripheral attention – “background”
Facing healthcare challenges Beyond illness control More personal involvement to promote healthier habits Behavior change
Importance of IT in healthcare Cost: 8.5% of the GNP in the EU invested in healthcare; 16% in US; 9% in Brazil Between 44,000 and 98,000 deaths caused by medical errors in hospitals in the US From 25 to 40% of the 3.3. billion USD spent in healthcare worldwide could be saved with the appropriate use of IT Worldwide population over 65 will triple by 2050 (one out of every 6 people)
Importance of HCI in Healthcare Patients in the US received incorrect doses, treatment was delayed and were exposed to medical errors for information incorrectly displayed in their medical records (January 2009) A baby died in the UK when a physician pressed the wrong button in an oxygenation pump (June 2006) A study in the US found that the use of Computerized Physician Order Entry systems facilitated 22 types of errors (JAMIA 293(10), 2005). Jakob Nielsen attributed much of these errors to usability problems.
Evaluation in HCI Evaluation allows to generalize results –Are there general design principles? –Are there general theories of human behavior? Explanatory Predictive –Can we validate ideas / visions / hipotheses? Evaluation procedures: –Validated theories, principles and guides –Evidence gathered / hypotheses rejected/
Uses in HCI/Ubicomp System design –Understand users and the tasks they perform –Requirement gathering –Problems in the way things are done (breakdowns) System evaluation –Usability studies –User performance –Insights to modify/update current systems Research –Is the system/technique proposed actually better?
Importance of psychology in HCI Users as “information processors” Fitts law Short-term memory (7±2) Color theory (contrast, attention, etc.) Vision, movement, stereoscopy Metaphors (desktop, assistant, etc.)
Importance of sociology in Cooperative Systms (CSCW) Alignment between incentives and objectives of the organization [Orlikowski92] Effort vs. benefit in cooperative relations [Grudin94] Importance of informal communication [Kraut90] Confidence vs. closeness [Mark02] Face-to-face vs remote collaboration [Olson97]
Techniques to obtain information from users Surveys. Used to gather specific information from users. Interviews. To etablish context from users, thay can be structured, semi-structured or unstructured. Focus Groups. Sessions with a group of users to discuss requirements or opinions. Observation. Follow and observe a user while it conducts its usual tasks
Techniques to gather information from users TechniquesUsed toInformation obtained AdvantagesDisadvantages SurveysAnswer specific questions Quantitative and qualitative Many people, not much effort The design is very important InterviewsExploreMostly qualitative Se puede guiar al entrevistado It takes considerable time Focus groups Compare several points of views Mostly qualitative Detectar áreas de consenso y conflicto. A participant can dominate the session ObservationUnderstand the contect of the user QualitativeObtiene información difícil de obtener de otra manera Requieres a lot of time to gather data and analyze it
Type of research methods Quantitative techniques –Based on the formulation of hypothesis, design of experiments, surveys, statistics and data analysis –Usually involve many users conducting controlled tasks Qualitative techniques –Based on observing users and/or interviews –Demandas a lot of time with a few users
Why use different methods? All methods: –Allow, but also constrain gathering and analyzing certain type of information –Are useful on certain situations and inappropriate in others –They have inherent limitations and restrictions –Several methods can be used to complement strengths –Mixed methods -McGrath (Methodology Matters)
When to evaluate? Pre-desing –What is that people do? –What do they need? Design –The design reflects what people think? During development –Find usability problems After development –Acceptance tests –Required changes
Articulate: who are the users their key tasks User and task descriptions Goals: Methods: Products: Brainstorm designs Task centered system design Participatory design User- centered design Evaluate Psychology of everyday things User involvement Representation & metaphors low fidelity prototyping methods Throw-away paper prototypes Participatory interaction Task scenario walk- through Refined designs Graphical screen design Interface guidelines Style guides high fidelity prototyping methods Testable prototypes Usability testing Heuristic evaluation Completed designs Alpha/beta systems or complete specification Field testing Interface Design and Usability Engineering [Greenberg01]
Scenarios Describen una actividad o tarea en forma de historia que permite la exploración del contexto y requerimientos. No describe explícitamente el uso del sistema. Fácil de entender y generar por usuarios Útil para diseñar sistemas complejos y novedosos
Sample scenarios Identify an opportunity Alex is co-authoring a research paper with a couple of colleagues and he needs to incorporate his final contributions and send the paper today. However, the latest version of the paper is currently locked by one of his co-authors who has left town to attend a conference for the week. Describe the use of a system A user attends a conference with multiple simultaneous tracks. On her handheld she fills a form specifying her main interests within the scope of the conference. While she registers at the conference she connects her handheld to a point of presence to send her profile, which launches an agent that will communicate with another agent in the conference server to build for her a personalized schedule given her preferences. Once the schedule is generated it will be stored in the server and downloaded to the handheld the next time it is connected to the network.
Types of evaluations Informal evaluation. Show a prototype to the user and gather opinions Usability tests. Measure the users performance with the sytem on well defined tasks and in a controlled environment Field study. Connducted in the user’s work environment. Example. interviews, observation, content analysis Predictive evaluation. Experts detect usability problems based on heuristics
Types of evaluation Formative evaluation. To assist the development of the system Summative evaluation. To determine the efficacy of a system, if it can fulfill its purpose "When the cook tastes the soup, that’s formative; when the guests taste the soup, that’s summative.” Robert Stakes
Evaluation guide Determine evaluation objectives Establish research questions Select a mehtod to use Based on the mehtod select relevant aspects such as participants Evaluate and gather data Analyze and interpret results