Presentation on theme: "Microevolution and Charles Darwin son of a famous English Physician - a Noblemen was a Naturalist by hobby - collected specimens of nature did not like."— Presentation transcript:
Microevolution and Charles Darwin son of a famous English Physician - a Noblemen was a Naturalist by hobby - collected specimens of nature did not like Medical School got his college degree in Theology in his 20’s took a job as a naturalist aboard the Beagle his biology teacher got him the job sailed around the world for five years collecting specimens based on his findings he introduced Natural Selection as the means of species evolution
Darwin had practiced Artificial Selection in Pigeons by breeding them for specific traits Artificial Selection: Animal Data
Darwin had seen the effects of Artificial Selection in plant products by breeding them for specific traits Artificial Selection: Plant Data
The forelimbs of all mammals have the same skeletal elements Comparative Anatomical Data
Comparative Embryological Data Identifies anatomical homology that is less apparent in adults
Geological Data 1830: Lyell publishes Principles of Geology
Fossil Data Transitional fossils link the past with the present It is believed that whales evolved from terrestrial creatures. These fossils from Egypt and Pakistan show an extinct whale (Brachiosaurus) that had hind limbs.
“Living Fossil” Data Horseshoe Crabs are an example of a “living fossil” They have evolved very little over the last 600 million years.
Darwin sails around the world and in South America is puzzled by the absence of rabbits. Instead he finds these rabbit-like Patagonian Hares or Mara (Dolichotis patagonum) that are not rabbits but have similar characteristics as rabbits. He postulates that they must have evolved just like rabbits because of their similar environments South American Data
Darwin sailed next to the Galapagos Islands, a set of islands 3000 miles away from any other land source. He carefully characterized the island finches based on their specific traits. He found that several different types of birds existed and each had specific traits that would allow them access to a specific food source on the island. Galapagos Data
Darwin’s Logic on Natural Selection Any population has the capacity to produce more individuals than it can support. If the natural resources are limited this will create a competition for those resources. Variations in physical traits could give some individuals an advantage in the competition. This advantage would increase the individual’s survival and reproduction chances. These physical traits would then be passed on to the individual’s offspring via natural selection. In this way populations evolve, not individuals.
Evolutionary Timeline Summary 10-20 bya:Galaxy forms 5 bya:Earth forms 4 bya:Life forms from non-life 3 bya:Cyanobacteria evolve photosynthesis 500 mya:Explosion of Life - Massive Extinction 150 mya:Dinosaurs evolve 66 mya: Dinosaurs become extinct 5 mya:Humans begin to evolve 50 tya:Neanderthals/Cro-Magnon 10 tya:Homo sapians sapians
radial nerve nerve net segmental nerve ganglion nervous system Evolution of Nervous Systems
Crater found Dated to dinosaur extinctions 66 million years ago Iridium Would we have evolved if this didn’t happen? Dinosaur Extinction?
Association Areas Increase with Evolution Varied Cortical Commitment
Varied Cortical Surface Area
Genetics and Evolution Modern Day Chimpanzee Modern Day Human
HumanChimpanzee A random mutation causes the larynx to drop in human ancestor This increases the complexity of sounds that the species could make Couple this with a more complex brain and we have the advent of language And the evolution of the species based on cognition and language High in throat Low in throat Evolution of Language