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1. Compare and Contrast Why did scientist classify Pikaia as a chordate instead of as a worm 2. Review What two aspects of evolutionary history does the.

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Presentation on theme: "1. Compare and Contrast Why did scientist classify Pikaia as a chordate instead of as a worm 2. Review What two aspects of evolutionary history does the."— Presentation transcript:

1 1. Compare and Contrast Why did scientist classify Pikaia as a chordate instead of as a worm 2. Review What two aspects of evolutionary history does the cladogram of chordates show 3. Apply Concepts Recall what you learned about plant evolution in Ch 22. In what ways are chordate adaptations to life on land similar to plant adaptations. Based on the sequence of evolutionary change what was the first major adaptation of each

2 CH 26 ANIMAL EVOLUTION AND DIVERSITY 26.2 Chordate Evolution and History

3  Embryological studies suggest that the most ancient chordates were related to the ancestors of echinoderms.

4 Earliest Chordates  Pikaia  Cambrian fossil  First thought it was a worm but then determined that it had a notochord and paired muscles arranged in a series.

5  Cartilage  Strong connective tissue that is softer and more flexible than bone.

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7 Nonvertebrate Chordates  550 million years ago  Tunicates and lancelets  Turnicates  Adults look like sponges  Larval forms have all the key chordate characteristics.

8 Jawless Fishes  510 million years ago  No true jaws or teeth, and their skeletons were made of cartilage.

9 Jawless Fishes  Lampreys and hagfishes both lack vertebrae and have notochords as adults  Lampreys are filter feeders as larvae and parasites as adults  Hagfishes have pinkish gray, wormlike bodies, secrete incredible amounts of slime, and tie themselves into knots.

10 Sharks and Their Relatives  Jaws make it possible to bite and chew plants and other animals  Evolved paired pectoral (anterior) and pelvic (posterior) fins  Paired fins offered more control of body movement  Tail fins and powerful muscles gave greater thrust.

11 Chondrichthyes  “Cartilaginous” fishes  Sharks, rays, and skates  Paired fins and tail fins.

12 Osteichthyes  Bony Fishes  Skeletons made of true bone  Ray finned fishes  Lobe finned fishes.

13 Ray-Finned Fishes  Aquatic vertebrates with skeletons of true bone; most have paired fins, scales, and gills  Most fishes you are familiar with  Eels, catfish, walleye.

14 Lobe-Finned Fishes  Bony fishes that evolved fleshy fins supported by larger, more substantial bones  Lungfishes and coelacanths  Other ancient lobe-finned fishes evolved into the ancestors of tetrapods  Four-limbed vertebrates.

15 The Unique “Fishapod”  Series of transitional fossils have been discovered that document the skeletal transformation from lobe-fins to limbs.

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17 Amphibians  Vertebrates that, with some exceptions, require water for reproduction, breathe with lungs as adults, have moist skin with mucous glands, and lack scales and claws.

18 Reptiles  First vertebrates to evolve adaptations to drier conditions  Vertebrate with dry, scaly skin, well-developed lungs, strong limbs, and shelled eggs that do not develop in water.

19  Current hypotheses about the relationships between living and extinct reptiles.

20 Enter the Dinosaurs  Triassic and Jurassic periods saw a great adaptive radiation of reptiles  Lived all over the world, and they were diverse in appearance and in habit.

21 Exit the Dinosaurs  End of the Cretaceous Period  Worldwide mass extinction cause by  Series of natural disasters  String of volcanic eruptions  Fall in sea level  Huge asteroid smashing into what is now the Yucatán Peninsula  Many plant and animal groups went extinct.

22 Bird Roots  Support for hypothesis that birds evolved from a group of dinosaurs  Archaeopteryx shows both bird characteristics (flight feathers) and dinosaur characteristics (teeth and bony tail).

23 Birds  Reptiles that regulate their internal body temperature (endothermy)  Outer covering of feathers; strong yet lightweight bones; two legs covered with scales that are used for walking or perching; and front limbs modified into wings.

24  Bird clade is part of the clade containing dinosaurs  Clade containing dinosaurs is part of a larger clade of reptiles  Modern birds are also reptiles.

25 Mammals  Mammary glands in females that produce milk to nourish young, and hair  Breathe air, have four-chambered hearts, and regulate their internal body temperature.

26 The First Mammals  Very small and resembled modern tree shrews  Modern mammalian groups evolved during Triassic  Mammals diversified, increased in size, and occupied many niches after dinosaur extinction.

27 Modern Mammals  Monotremes  Egg laying mammals- platypus  Marsupials  Bear live young that usually complete their development in an external pouch  Kangaroos, koalas, and wombats  Placental mammals  Embryos develop further while still inside the mother  Care and nurse for young.


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