Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Origin of Species Ch. 14 Ms. Haut. The origin of species is the source of biological diversity The origin of species is the source of biological diversity.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Origin of Species Ch. 14 Ms. Haut. The origin of species is the source of biological diversity The origin of species is the source of biological diversity."— Presentation transcript:

1 Origin of Species Ch. 14 Ms. Haut

2 The origin of species is the source of biological diversity The origin of species is the source of biological diversity Speciation, the origin of new species Speciation, the origin of new species Is at the focal point of evolution Is at the focal point of evolution Figure 14.1

3 CONCEPTS OF SPECIES What is a species? What is a species? Carolus Linnaeus, a Swedish physician and botanist Carolus Linnaeus, a Swedish physician and botanist Used physical characteristics to distinguish species Used physical characteristics to distinguish species Developed the binomial system of naming organisms Developed the binomial system of naming organisms Linnaeus’ system established the basis for taxonomy Linnaeus’ system established the basis for taxonomy The branch of biology concerned with naming and classifying the diverse forms of life The branch of biology concerned with naming and classifying the diverse forms of life

4 Species Similarities between some species and variation within a species Similarities between some species and variation within a species Can make defining species difficult Can make defining species difficult Figure 14.2B Figure 14.2A

5 What is a species? The Biological Species Concept The Biological Species Concept The biological species concept defines a species as The biological species concept defines a species as A population or group of populations whose members can interbreed and produce fertile offspring A population or group of populations whose members can interbreed and produce fertile offspring Reproductively isolated by various factors preventing mixing with other species Reproductively isolated by various factors preventing mixing with other species

6 Reproductive barriers keep species separate Reproductive barriers Reproductive barriers Serve to isolate a species’ gene pool and prevent interbreeding Serve to isolate a species’ gene pool and prevent interbreeding Are categorized as prezygotic or postzygotic Are categorized as prezygotic or postzygotic Table 14.3

7 Prevent mating or fertilization between species Prevent mating or fertilization between species Habitat isolation —species live in same general area but not the same places Habitat isolation —species live in same general area but not the same places Behavioral isolation —special signals recognized Behavioral isolation —special signals recognized Temporal isolation —breeding occurs at different times Temporal isolation —breeding occurs at different times Mechanical isolation —anatomically incompatible Mechanical isolation —anatomically incompatible Gametic isolation —gamete recognition Gametic isolation —gamete recognition Prezygotic Barriers

8 Two species breed at different times Two species breed at different times Figure 14.3A Temporal isolation

9 There is little or no sexual attraction between species, due to specific behaviors There is little or no sexual attraction between species, due to specific behaviors Figure 14.3B Behavioral isolation

10 Figure 14.3C Female and male sex organs or gametes are not compatible Female and male sex organs or gametes are not compatible Mechanical isolation

11 Operate after hybrid zygotes are formed Operate after hybrid zygotes are formed Prevent the hybrid zygote from developing into a viable, fertile adult Prevent the hybrid zygote from developing into a viable, fertile adult Reduced hybrid viability —embryo aborted Reduced hybrid viability —embryo aborted Reduced hybrid fertility —offspring sterile Reduced hybrid fertility —offspring sterile Hybrid breakdown —offspring of hybrids sterile Hybrid breakdown —offspring of hybrids sterile Postzygotic Barriers

12 Figure 14.3D Offspring between two species are sterile and therefore cannot mate Offspring between two species are sterile and therefore cannot mate Hybrid sterility

13 MECHANISMS OF SPECIATION Geographic isolation can lead to speciation Geographic isolation can lead to speciation In allopatric speciation In allopatric speciation A population is geographically divided, and new species often evolve A population is geographically divided, and new species often evolve A. harrisiA. leucurus Figure 14.4

14 Figure 14.9

15 Laboratory studies of fruit flies Laboratory studies of fruit flies Have shown that changes in food sources can cause speciation Have shown that changes in food sources can cause speciation Figure 14.5A Starch medium Maltose medium Initial sample of fruit flies Results of mating experiments Female Starch Maltose Female Same Different population populations Male Maltose Starch Male Different Same Mating frequencies in experimental group Mating frequencies in control group Reproductive barriers may evolve as populations diverge

16 Geographic isolation in Death Valley Geographic isolation in Death Valley Has led to the evolution of new species of pupfish Has led to the evolution of new species of pupfish Figure 14.5B A pupfish Allopatric Speciation

17

18

19

20

21 MECHANISMS OF SPECIATION New species can also arise within the same geographic area as the parent species New species can also arise within the same geographic area as the parent species In sympatric speciation In sympatric speciation New species may arise without geographic isolation New species may arise without geographic isolation

22 Many plant species have evolved by polyploidy Many plant species have evolved by polyploidy Multiplication of the chromosome number due to errors in cell division Multiplication of the chromosome number due to errors in cell division Results in extra sets of chromosomes Results in extra sets of chromosomes Figure 14.6B Parent species Meiotic error Self- fertilization Offspring may be viable and self-fertile Zygote Unreduced diploid gametes 2n = 6 Diploid 4n = 12 Tetraploid O. gigas O. lamarckiana Figure 14.6A Sympatric Speciation

23 A Shetland pony on a UK farm has surprised its owners by giving birth to a half- zebra foal. Horse—2n=46 Zebra—2n=44

24 In adaptive radiation, the evolution of new species In adaptive radiation, the evolution of new species Occurs when mass extinctions or colonization provide organisms with new environments Occurs when mass extinctions or colonization provide organisms with new environments Island chains Island chains Provide examples of adaptive radiation Provide examples of adaptive radiation Adaptive radiation may occur in new or newly vacated habitats Cactus-seed-eater (cactus finch) Seed-eater (medium ground finch) Tool-using insect-eater (woodpecker finch) Figure 14.8B A B B B C C C B C C D D D Figure 14.8A

25 TALKING ABOUT SCIENCE Peter and Rosemary Grant study the evolution of Darwin’s finches Peter and Rosemary Grant study the evolution of Darwin’s finches Peter and Rosemary Grant Peter and Rosemary Grant Have documented natural selection acting on populations of Galápagos finches Have documented natural selection acting on populations of Galápagos finches Figure 14.9

26 1.Seeds blown over from mainland and form small colony 2.Gene pool isolated—evolves into new species B 3.Storms/other agents blow seeds to nearby island and evolve into species C 4.Some of species C recolonize the first island and cohabit with species B and some populate a new island 5.Speciation continues between new areas and previously colonized areas Plant speciation

27 Figure 14.12a The tempo of speciation can appear steady or jumpy According to the gradualism model According to the gradualism model New species evolve by the gradual accumulation of changes brought about by natural selection New species evolve by the gradual accumulation of changes brought about by natural selection

28 Figure 14.12b The tempo of speciation can appear steady or jumpy The punctuated equilibrium model draws on the fossil record The punctuated equilibrium model draws on the fossil record Species diverge in spurts of relatively rapid change, instead of slowly and gradually Species diverge in spurts of relatively rapid change, instead of slowly and gradually

29 Evolutionary trends do not mean that evolution is goal directed Evolutionary trends reflect species selection Evolutionary trends reflect species selection The unequal speciation or unequal survival of species on a branching evolutionary tree The unequal speciation or unequal survival of species on a branching evolutionary tree Figure 14.13

30

31 Earth History and Macroevolution Macroevolution Macroevolution Is closely tied to the history of the Earth. Is closely tied to the history of the Earth. The fossil record The fossil record Is an archive of macroevolution. Is an archive of macroevolution.

32 Fossilization Most fossils are actually casts of animals or plants. Most fossils are actually casts of animals or plants. Animal dies and sinks to the sea floor. Animal dies and sinks to the sea floor. Tissue begins to decay and is buried under layers of sediment such as mud or sand. Tissue begins to decay and is buried under layers of sediment such as mud or sand. These layers become rock. These layers become rock. The hard parts of the animal are replaced with minerals such as iron pyrites or silica. The hard parts of the animal are replaced with minerals such as iron pyrites or silica. These minerals form the fossil. These minerals form the fossil. Usually fossils show the hard parts of the animal or plant - such as shell or bones. Usually fossils show the hard parts of the animal or plant - such as shell or bones.

33 Trace fossils — evidence of living plants or animals, such as worm burrows or dinosaur footprints. Trace fossils — evidence of living plants or animals, such as worm burrows or dinosaur footprints. Most fossils are found in sedimentary rocks - rocks which were created when shells or small loose bits of rock are laid down in layers (limestone, sandstone, clay and chalk) Most fossils are found in sedimentary rocks - rocks which were created when shells or small loose bits of rock are laid down in layers (limestone, sandstone, clay and chalk) diversity/Tracehelminth.jpg

34 Determining Age of Fossils Relative age— determined by position in sedimentary rock Relative age— determined by position in sedimentary rock

35 Determining Age of Fossils Absolute age—determined by radiometric dating (radioactive isotopes) Absolute age—determined by radiometric dating (radioactive isotopes) Based on half-life of an isotope—period it takes for half the radioactive material to decay Based on half-life of an isotope—period it takes for half the radioactive material to decay

36 Carbon-14 Figure 14.17a

37 Plate Tectonics and Macroevolution The continents are not locked in place. They drift about Earth’s surface on plates of crust floating on a flexible layer called the mantle. California’s infamous San Andreas fault Is at a border where two plates slide past each other. Figure 14.18

38 Plate Tectonics About 250 million years ago About 250 million years ago Plate movements formed the supercontinent Pangaea. Plate movements formed the supercontinent Pangaea. Many extinctions occurred, allowing survivors to diversify. Many extinctions occurred, allowing survivors to diversify. About 180 million years ago About 180 million years ago Pangaea began to break up, causing geographic isolation. Pangaea began to break up, causing geographic isolation. Figure

39 Mass Extinctions and Explosive Diversifications of Life The fossil record reveals an episodic history, The fossil record reveals an episodic history, With long, relatively stable periods punctuated by briefer intervals when the turnover in species composition was much more extensive. With long, relatively stable periods punctuated by briefer intervals when the turnover in species composition was much more extensive. Extinction is inevitable in a changing world and occurs all the time. Extinction is inevitable in a changing world and occurs all the time. However, extinction rates have not been steady. However, extinction rates have not been steady. Extinctions typically eliminate various species of organisms Extinctions typically eliminate various species of organisms And are followed by explosive diversifications of organisms. And are followed by explosive diversifications of organisms.

40 Geologic Time Periods and Mass Extinctions Extinction of Dinosaurs

41 The Process of Science: Did a Meteor Kill the Dinosaurs? Scientists discovered an ancient impact crater buried underneath the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico Scientists believe that about 65 million years ago, at the end of the Cretaceous period A meteor impact contributed to the extinction of the dinosaurs. Figure solutions.com/sunstar/geology/BigB end/Images/Chicxulub.jpg

42 Acknowledgements BIOLOGY: CONCEPTS AND CONNECTIONS 5th Edition, by Campbell, Reece, Mitchell, and Taylor, ©2006. These images have been produced from the originals by permission of the publisher. These illustrations may not be reproduced in any format for any purpose without express written permission from the publisher. BIOLOGY: CONCEPTS AND CONNECTIONS 5th Edition, by Campbell, Reece, Mitchell, and Taylor, ©2006. These images have been produced from the originals by permission of the publisher. These illustrations may not be reproduced in any format for any purpose without express written permission from the publisher. Unless otherwise noted, illustrations are credited to Pearson Education which have been borrowed from BIOLOGY: CONCEPTS AND CONNECTIONS 3rd Edition, by Campbell, Reece, Mitchell, and Taylor, ©2000. These images have been produced from the originals by permission of the publisher. These illustrations may not be reproduced in any format for any purpose without express written permission from the publisher. Unless otherwise noted, illustrations are credited to Pearson Education which have been borrowed from BIOLOGY: CONCEPTS AND CONNECTIONS 3rd Edition, by Campbell, Reece, Mitchell, and Taylor, ©2000. These images have been produced from the originals by permission of the publisher. These illustrations may not be reproduced in any format for any purpose without express written permission from the publisher.


Download ppt "Origin of Species Ch. 14 Ms. Haut. The origin of species is the source of biological diversity The origin of species is the source of biological diversity."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google