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MØNA1000 Introduksjonsemne til studiet av Midtøsten Forelesning 11: Kulturelle uttrykk Litteratur og arabisk tenkning STEPHAN GUTH (IKOS) vår 2010 26.

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Presentation on theme: "MØNA1000 Introduksjonsemne til studiet av Midtøsten Forelesning 11: Kulturelle uttrykk Litteratur og arabisk tenkning STEPHAN GUTH (IKOS) vår 2010 26."— Presentation transcript:

1 MØNA1000 Introduksjonsemne til studiet av Midtøsten Forelesning 11: Kulturelle uttrykk Litteratur og arabisk tenkning STEPHAN GUTH (IKOS) vår 2010 26. april

2 2 > Overview Halim Barakat, chs. 9-11 Part III: The Dynamics of Arab Culture 9.National Character and Value Orientations 10.Creative Expression: Society and Literary Orientations 11.Arab Thought: Problems of Renewal, Modernity, and Transformation Many functions of literature => many possible approaches  exploration into human behaviour < science, philosophy  social product/manifestation < changing social reality  subliminal & cathartic expression < common experiences, self- consciousness, self-fulfillment  system of communication influences < literature’s impact on reality ‣ ‣ ‣‣ ‣ ‣

3 3 > Overview Approaches to the study of literature (cont.)  writers’ vision of social reality: harmony, conflict, alienation, class,...  justice, equality, freedom, love,... [cf. value orientations]  artistic styles [cf. value orientations]  writers’ attitude vis-à-vis the actual condition a)reconciliation b)exposure: compliance / non-confrontation / individual rebellion c)revolutionary change [cf. value orientations]

4 4 > Overview Approaches to the study of literature (cont.) All in all: anthropological / sociological / cultural  H. Barakat = anthropological / sociological / cultural approach  Basic questions: How... human beings  do Arabs (as human beings)... societies  do Arab societies... culture  does Arab culture... patternscategories Arab ways react (in general) to challenges? Which patterns („categories of behaviour“) are to be observed [and what can we learn from this about „Arab ways“ to deal with „the world“]? diversity! complexity! etc.  [close to essentialist position, but:] diversity! complexity! etc. historical  my approach = historical ‣ ‣ ‣

5 5 > ↕ ↕ ↕ ↕ ↕ ↕ Outline for this lecture 9. National Character and Value Orientations Part I: Prolegomena to a historical survey ‣ Part I: Prolegomena to a historical survey Part II: Historical survey (1850 => today) 10.Creative Expression: Society and Literary Orientations 11.Arab Thought: Problems of Renewal, Modernity, and Transformation

6 6 > Part I Prolegomena to a historical survey National Character... Value Orientations... = ? ? ?  smells a bit like  ”How are they, these Arabs / Orientals / Muslims – in general, I mean...”  ”An Arab is...”, ”the Turks have...”, ”it is a custom in Iran that...”  H. Barakat (+ SG): generalisations, essentialisations these are (Orientalist, but also Middle Eastern nationalist) generalisations, essentialisations ! GRRRR !!!!   

7 7 > The West, Europe The Orient innovation repetition of century-old customs progress stagnation modernity, modernism traditionalism Generalisations, essentialisations about the Middle East / the „Orient“... Orientalism ... have their origin in Orientalism which... colonialist ... is a colonial(ist) discourse, justifies „civilisatory mission“  cf. Edward Said, Orientalism  

8 8 > Diversity of value orientations according to Halim Barakat dominant culture subculturescounterculture(s) fatalism  -------  may insist on their distinctiveness but in the last analysis they can hardly be neutral and will have to emphasize one set of values or the other  -------  free will shameguilt conformitycreativity past-orientedfuture-oriented heart / faith / spiritmind / reason / matter formcontent collectivityindividuality closed-mindednessopen-mindedness obediencerebellion charityjustice vertical valueshorizontal values

9 9 > Formative Period || nation-building | post-WW II transition [..........???.........] Formative Period || nation-building | post-WW II transition [..........???.........] H. Barakat Orientations in Arabic Literature according to Halim Barakat  Reconciliation  Exposure  Revolutionary Change

10 10 > History of the Arab World Main periods (according to Barakat) Formative Period 1850-1914 Formative Period 19th c. reforms (EG: Moh. Ali, OE: tanzimat) WW I => end of great Empires => nation states Struggle for National Independence 1918-1945 Struggle for National Independence Interwar period – WW II Independence and Postindependence 1945-1992 Independence and Postindependence Researching the Roots of Disaster cf. H. Barakat, The Arab World (1993), III, ch. 11

11 11 > History of the Arab World Main periods (according to Guth)  Reform period (19 th c.)  Nationalism (early 20 th c.)  Disillusionment (± 1930)  Independence (early 1950s)  Beginning doubts (late 1950s / early 1960s)  Post-1967 (shock of June War)  Postmodern (1980s ff.) ►►► (cont.) Halim Barakat Formative Struggle Indep. & after

12 12 > cf. forelesning 4 (BOU) 1850-1914 Formative Period 19th c. reforms cf. forelesning 4 (BOU) EG: Muh. Ali (1805-48) & dynasty Militærvesen Administrasjon Utdanning Landbruk Industri Handel Det Osmanske Rik: tanẓīmāt („reformer“) Hærordning Administrasjon Utdanning Skatt Rettsvesen... Mahmut II 1808-1839

13 13 > Reforms in the late Ottoman Empire Institutions of higher education 1773 Naval Engineers School (‘Polytechnic’, mühendisḫāne) 1793 Artillery College 1796 Army mühendisḫāne 1827Medical Highschool (Ṭıbbīye) 1834Military Highschool (Ḥarbīye) 1839School of Law (Mekteb-i Maʿārif-i ʿAdlīye) 1848Dārülmuʿallimīn: teachers’ training college (higher education) 1850Dārülmaʿārif: ‘House of Know-how’ (technical branches) 1855École Ottomane (Paris) 1859Mülkīye: -> state employees for civil administration 1868Galatasaray: elite school (still in place today) 1878School of Finances 1879Academy of the Arts 1892School of Economics 1900 Dārülfünūn: ‘university’ (combines several ‘schools/colleges’)

14 14 > cf. forelesning 4 (BOU) 1850-1914 Formative Period Reformenes følger cf. forelesning 4 (BOU) Sentralisering, modernisering og de facto sekularisering (begynnende) Skapte en intervensjonsstat men under påtvungne frihandelsbetingelser nye samfunnsklasser  Skapte to nye samfunnsklasser som kom til å prege 1900-tallet: jordeierklasse  privat jordeierklasse (knyttet til råvareøkonomien) (EG) sekulær utdanningselite:the „engineers“  ny sekulær utdanningselite: the „engineers“ (vs. ʿulamāʾ/ulema ) while new system is introduced, most of the old institutions remain in place        dualistic system of parallel paths of education, religious vs. secular institutions, two elites (old and new)

15 15 > Saʿd Zaghlūl (+1860-1927) leader of Egyptian nationalist movement „Wog“ (Westernized Oriental Gentleman) („efendi“)

16 16 > Reforms in the late Ottoman Empire Aspects and consequences The „engineers“ steadily gaining self-esteem and claim to power competition with traditional (religious) elite over influence in society and politics => anti-religious standpoints cf. „value orientations“

17 19th c. Middle East Emergence of a new educated elite Institutions of traditional learning medrese al-Azhar „university“

18 18 > Reforms in the late Ottoman Empire Aspects and consequences The „engineers“ (cont.) steadily gaining self-esteem and claim to power competition with traditional (religious) elite over influence in society and politics => anti-religious standpoints cf. „value orientations“ pro (Western-inspired) reforms, but not too radical => negotiation vehicles of positioning themselves: – ideology: ideas of the French Revolution and... – nationalism ! – new values: social & political reform ! (democracy, human rights, women,...!) – new facilities: the press (cf. Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities: role of „print capitalism“ in the spread of nationalism) – genres (new aesthetics): literature (esp. prose)

19 19 > 1800-tallet – en reformperiode Litterære tendenser  “modern” literature (novel, short story, drama)  new (“modern”) elite – the “engineers”  “engineers” try to gain territory and position themselves a) between ruling classes and the masses

20 20 > Ottoman Empire Social Hierarchy (cf. ”vertical values”) khawāṣṣ khawāṣṣ (‚elite‘) – religion: Muslim – language: Osmanlıca ================== ʿawāmmrâyâ ʿawāmm / râyâ (‚the masses, the flock‘) – ‚coarse‘ Turkish millet millet s (religious & ethnical groups) + gilds (professional unions)         

21 21 > The „traditional“ (= pre-colonial) system of literary genres linguistic level poetryrhetoricized proseprose educated elite khāṣṣa good, high brow literature written language (high variety) (fuṣḥā / ʿosmānlıca) Scriptuality qaṣīda („ode“) ġazel / ghazal metrics: ʿarūḍ/aruz maqāma ‘high’ epics (often mes̱nevī/mas̱navī) inshāʾ adab witty, jocular distraction, useful (=edifying) entertainment, polite teaching of (moral) lessons incl. travelogues, historical writings (also biography), philosophy, religion the masses ʿāmma/ reʿāyā inferior, of minor value people’s spoken language (low variety) (ʿāmmiyya / ‘ḳaba’ Türkçe) orality poetry in the vernacular metrics: zajal, hece,... popular (‘folk’) epics (siyar shaʿbiyya, destan/dastân) popular stories (e.g. 1001 Nights), romances etc. told by professional story-tellers (ḥakawātī / meddāḥ / naqqāl

22 22 > 1800-tallet – en reformperiode Litterære tendenser  “modern” literature (novel, short story, drama)  new (“modern”) elite – the “engineers”  “engineers” try to gain territory and position themselves a) between ruling classes and the masses b) in contrast to the traditional elites  count on the masses rather than on court etc. => popularization (  de-elitarization, simplification, “democratization”)  orientated towards “global standard/norms”

23 Weltanschauung and Literature Modernism / Realism – Postmodernism 19th c. 1923 1980 time progressist ideologies, future-oriented Ottoman Empire | Türkiye Cumhuriyeti „Republic of T.“ (TC) Foundation of Republic Putsch of 12sep80 Modernism Postmodernism reforms (tanzimat) Kemalist nation-state Postkemalism Realism Enlightenment Mimetic Realism Postrealism cf. EG: 1981 Sadat > Mubarak Iran: 1979 Shah > Khomeini US: 1981 Reagan > 90s: Bush, „New World Order“ SU: 1985 Gorbachev > 1991 collapse H. Barakat Formative Period || nation-building | post-WW II transition [..........???.........]

24 24 > 7 stages of – also literary – history = 7 attitudes vis-à-vis ”the West”  Reform period (19 th c.)  Nationalism (early 20 th c.)  Disillusionment (± 1930)  Independence (early 1950s)  Beginning doubts (late 1950s / early 1960s)  Post-1967 (shock of June War)  Postmodern (1980s ff.) E / W

25 25 > (1) Reform period 7 stages – 7 attitudes vis-à-vis ”the West” (1) Reform period (19th c.)  belief in necessity (and possibility) to „recover“ and catch up with global standards => reforms  early 19th c.: „West“ is not yet a concept, and no „enemy“; later: „West/East“ (< colonialism)  new elite:  new elite: the European as chief authority, ”Bestätiger vom Dienst“ (R. Wielandt)  old elite  old elite (e.g., court administratives, ʿulamāʾ ): strictly conservative reactions  others:  others: reform from within!  nahḍah  nahḍah (cultural „renaissance“) [secular] iṣlāḥ  Islamic fundamentalist reformism ( iṣlāḥ : J. al-Afghānī, M. ʿAbduh, R. Riḍā, ʿA. al-Kawākibī) E / W

26 26 > cf. forelesning 4 (BOU) Ideologisk forspill før 1914 Reformislam osv. cf. forelesning 4 (BOU) Islamsk oppvåkning Islamsk oppvåkning Jamāl al-Dīn al-Afghānī 1839-1897 Muḥammad ʿAbduh 1849-1905 Arabisk (proto-)nasjonalisme ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Kawākibī 1849-1902 1900: krever et arabisk kalifat E / W

27 27 > (1) Reform period 7 stages – 7 attitudes vis-à-vis ”the West” (1) Reform period (19th c.) (cont.) at the service of reform  literature at the service of reform:  edition of classical texts, lexica, dictionaries, revival of old genres => make heritage accessible & bear fruits; + neoclassicism  printing of „folk“ literature => „relaxed“ entertainment  presentation and discussion of reform models (pros and cons)  teaching innovations and „real“ morals => edification  exposure of social „evils“, e.g.  criticism of tafarnuj / alafranga züppelik (ignorant/ unreflected imitation of European lifestyles, „dandyism“)  historical novels teach Arab history => national consciousness and pride (Jurjī Zaydān) E / W

28 28 > (1-2) pre–WW I 7 stages – 7 attitudes vis-à-vis ”the West” (1-2) pre–WW I  classicism, neo-maqāmah e.g. Muḥ. & Ibr. al-Muwayliḥī  contemplativity, ‘romantic’ idealism, sentimentalism e.g. Muṣṭafā L. al-Manfalūṭī, Jubrān Khalīl Jubrān  larmoyant rebellion, sentimental outcry al-Manfalūṭī, Jubrān  early national literature, rural life e.g. Muḥ. Ḥ. Haykal

29 29 > (2) Nationalism 7 stages – 7 attitudes vis-à-vis ”the West” (2) Nationalism (early 20th c.) Middle Eastern nationalisms are...  the main ideology of the secular modernizers („engineers“)  a reaction to increased European dominance, colonialism, occupation etc. cf. forelesning 4 (BOU) Første verdenskrig – ny verdensordning, nye stater cf. forelesning 4 (BOU) Sprikende britiske løfter:  Husayn – McMahon korrespondansen 1915-1916  Sykes-Picot avtalen 1916  Balfour-erklæringen 1917 Mandatstiden etter Første verdenskrig

30 30 > cf. forelesning 10 (Linda Helgesen) Hvem er en araber? Ulike typer nasjonal identitet cf. forelesning 10 (Linda Helgesen)  qawm  qawm (folk, etnisk gruppe) Den fruktbare halvmåne  wa ṭ an  wa ṭ an (land, territorium) Egypt, Algerie  ummah  ummah (fellesskap, særlig verdens muslimer) Egypt, Algerie

31 31 > (2) Nationalism 7 stages – 7 attitudes vis-à-vis ”the West” (2) Nationalism (early 20th c.) ‘National literature’: From idealistic hope to disillusioned sobriety (ca. 1910-WW II) 0.Programs of “National Literature” 1. Early, ‘naïve’, idealistic adab qawmī e.g., Maḥmūd Taymūr 2. National enthusiasm, belief in progress (≈ ”Yes, we can!”) e.g., Ṭāhā Ḥusayn 3. Doubts and desillusionment (≈ ”Can we really?”) e.g., Tawfīq al-Ḥakīm 4. Re-construction: other idealisms (≈ ”Since we can NOT, let’s try something else!”) e.g., Tawfīq al-Ḥakīm, Y. Ḥaqqī

32 32 > (2.1) Early National Literature 7 stages – 7 attitudes vis-à-vis ”the West” (2.1) Early National Literature  local contents!  countryside (often ‚romantically‘ idealized, idyllic)  „typical“ characters, local colour (incl. dialect!)  portraits => help to „imagine the nation“ (B. Anderson)  cf. Turkey: „Ḫalḳa doğru!” (Towards the people!) literature  „modern“ form!  novel, short story, plays  less intrusion from the author‘s side W E

33 33 >  optimism  cf. Atatürk, Reza Shah,...  al-Ayyām I (1929) = The Days / Egyptian Childhood  autobiography as “story of success”  Entwicklungsroman (novel of formation of the individual Self vs. society): inner maturation ( nation-building process)  Egypt as part of the Mediterranean, belonging more to Europe than to the East (2.2) National enthusiasm, belief in progress 7 stages – 7 attitudes vis-à-vis ”the West” (2.2) National enthusiasm, belief in progress ”Yes, we can!” Ṭāhā Ḥusayn (1889-1973) E / W

34 34 > (3.1) Doubts and desillusionment 7 stages – 7 attitudes vis-à-vis ”the West” (3.1) Doubts and desillusionment ”Can we really? We probably can’t...”  Tawfīq al-Ḥakīm: Return of the Spirit (ʿAwdat ar-rūḥ, 1927, publ. 1933) superiority of collective Egyptian suffering (!)  Maḥmūd Ṭāhir Lāshīn: Eve without Adam (Ḥawwā’ bi-lā Ādam, 1934) failure of education / emancipation project  Tawfīq al-Ḥakīm: The Maze of Justice: Diary of a Country Prosecutor (Yawmiyyāt nā’ib fī ’l- aryāf, 1937) incompatibility of “Code Napoléon” and the country- side, i.e. the “real” Egypt; heavy social criticism Tawfīq al-Ḥakīm (1898-1987) E / W

35 35 > (3.2) Reconstruction after disillusionment 7 stages – 7 attitudes vis-à-vis ”the West” (3.2) Reconstruction after disillusionment ”We still can if only we...”  Ideologicalization  Socialism, Communism, Fashism, Muslim Brotherhood,...  Tawfīq al-Ḥakīm: A Bird From the East (ʿUṣfūr min al-sharq, 1937) spiritualrūḥiyyat  “materialist West, spiritual East” (māddiyyat al-gharb, rūḥiyyat al-sharq)  Yaḥyā Ḥaqqī: The Oil Lamp of Umm Hashim (Qindīl Umm Hāshim, 1944) belief īmān  “no science without belief ” (lā ʿilm a bi-lā īmān)...............................................................................  Arab Socialism ‣‣‣  Arab Socialism / Nasserism ‣‣‣ Yaḥyā Ḥaqqī (1905-1992) E / W

36 36 > WW I – WW II What had happened? Some landmarks of political history e.g., Egypt WW I F l o o d o f e m o t i o n a l n a t i o n a l i s m 1919 'Revolution' 1922 (formal) Independance 1923-53 Constitutional Monarchy Wafd (S. Zaghlûl) ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ Forced development after European model. Aim: creation of a ‚modern‘ nation-state No democratic rights; corruption Ismāʿīl Ṣidqī I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n M i g r a t i o n i n t o c i t i e s WW II Political opposition Radical movements Emergence of ideologies (Muslim Brotherhood, Communists, Fascists,...) ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ 1953 Revolution > Nasser

37 37 > 1940s – 1950s Main feature: critical realistic assessment  ‚true‘, realistic surveys of society and insight into milieus, incl. diversity of ‚philosophies‘/Weltanschauungen  aim: assessment, exposure of social, economic, political drawbacks  main topics:  poverty of the masses  their struggle for survival  carrierism, corruption  conflicts within society  moral ‘decay’  young generation’s desperate search for a meaningful philosophy of life  ever-growing labour migration (deracinated peasants, migrant workers in urban slums, workers’ literature) & problems arising from industrialization (factory workers, urban proletariate)  increased “Westernization”

38 38 > (4) Independence 7 stages – 7 attitudes vis-à-vis ”the West” (4) Independence (early 1950s) difficultiessocial criticism, critical realismclear about many difficulties => social criticism, critical realism But also beliefbelief that main obstacles – foreign domination & ancien régime (incl. feudal system) – have been removed => middle classes (the „engineers“, the military) seize power commitmentcommitment to „al-sha‘b!“, „people‘s rule“ high spiritsenthusiasmhigh spirits, new enthusiasm (highly rhethoricized) equalitystrength belief in equality of „Third World“, own strength (Nasserism: Europe can be dealt with, faced, overcome, cf. Suez crisis) E / W

39 39 > (4) Independence 7 stages – 7 attitudes vis-à-vis ”the West” (4) Independence (1950s) (cont.) Social criticism, critical / socialist Realism Arabic „key“ narratives (mentioned also by H. Barakat)  Yūsuf Idrīs (1927-1991) al-Ḥarām (The Sin, 1959)  ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Sharqāwī (1920-1987) al-Arḍ (The Land/Soil, 1953)  Laylā Baʿalbakkī (*1936) Anā aḥyā (I live, 1958)  Nagīb Maḥfūẓ (1911-2006): the “Cairo novels” ►►►

40 40 > 1940-50s: Social criticism, critical realism Nagīb Maḥfūẓ (b. 1911): The Cairo novels  Khān al-Khalīlī (Khan al-Khalili, 1945)  al-Qāhira al-jadīda (The New Cairo, 1946?)  Zuqāq al-Midaqq (Midaq Alley, 1947)  Trilogy 1.Bayn al-Qaṣrayn (Between the Two Palaces, 1956) 2.Qaṣr al-shawq (Palace of Longing, 1957) 3.al-Sukkariyya (Sugar Lane, 1957) -history of urban middle class family over three generations -critical assessment of achievements and set-backs during the past half century (colonial, nationalist, independent Egypt)

41 41 > (5) Beginning doubts 7 stages – 7 attitudes vis-à-vis ”the West” (5) Beginning doubts (late 1950s / early 1960s) Reasons  doubts in authoritarian political leadership [cf. „vertical values“]  first failures of Nasserism become apparent  UAR ended  economic drawbacks  discrepancy between rhetorics and reality: heralded improvements still not noticeable  increasingly repression, secret service, torture, executions  hitherto pro-government intellectuals become critical of the regime (anti-Nasser)  Arab world: „al-naksa“ (lost war, June 1967) => open dispair

42 42 > (5) Beginning doubts 7 stages – 7 attitudes vis-à-vis ”the West” (5) Beginning doubts (late 1950s / early 1960s) Omslag mot slutten av 1950- / beg. av 1960-tallet  Nagīb Maḥfūẓ: The Children of Gebelawi (Awlād Ḥāratinā, 1959)  Nagīb Maḥfūẓ: The Thief and the Dogs (al-Liṣṣ wa’l-kilāb, 1962)  Ghassān Kanafānī: Menn under sola / Men in the Sun (Rijāl fī ’l- shams, 1963)  Ṣun‘allāh Ibrāhīm: The Smell of It (Tilka ’l-rā’iḥa,1965/66)  al-Ṭayyib Ṣāliḥ: Trekket mot Nord / Season of Migration to the North (Mawsim al-hijra ilā ’l-shamāl, 1966)becoming conscious of colonial burden, own responsibility  ‘Abdalḥakīm Qāsim: The Seven Days of Man (Ayyām al-insān al- sab‘a, 1969) E / W

43 43 > Arabic literature and the West Coming to terms with independence الطيّب صالح al-Ṭayyib Ṣāliḥ, 1929-2009 (Tayeb Salih) موسم الهجرة إلى الشمال Mawsim al-hijra ilā ’l-shamāl (1966*/1969) *first publication in Ḥiwār Season of Migration to the North, London: Heinemann etc., 1969 (og senere) Trekket mot Nord, Oslo: Gyldendal, 2003 Le migrateur, Paris 1972 "the most important Arabic novel of the 20th century" Arab Literary Academy in Damascus, 2001

44 44 > (6) Post-1967 7 stages – 7 attitudes vis-à-vis ”the West” (6) Post-1967 (shock of June War)  heavy self-criticism, esp. also language criticism (rhetoric „lies“)  Ṣādiq J. al-ʿAẓm: „Self-Criticism after the Defeat“ (al-Naqd al-dhātī baʿd al-hazīmah)  Nizār Qabbānī: „Notes on the margins of the Defeat Registers“ (Hawāmish ʿalā daftar al-naksah)  further insecurity, instability: political shift towards the West, opening of the markets, economic „liberalisation“, peace with Israel  mistrust in established / dominant discourses ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓  search for new fundaments: truth, authenticity, taʾṣīl, start from zero  epistemological turn: new, non-mimetic discourse on reality

45 45 > newrealities => explore into new, hitherto neglected, silenced, tabooicized realities! „sad“ themes  predominance of „sad“ themes: lonelinesshopelessnessfrustration of the individual Lebensangstdisgustdisappointment disillusionment inability to establish reliability in inter-human relationships etc. rebuilding from below => experimental, avantgardist mood of rebuilding from below:  (intentional) lack of structural coherence  associative narrating  absurdity, contradictions, antagonisms, incomprehensibility, irrationality of life  mixed realities: dreams, myth, surrealistic, phantastic elements (6) Post-1967 7 stages – 7 attitudes vis-à-vis ”the West” (6) Post-1967 (shock of June War) (cont.)

46 46 >  shocking, scandal-provoking: [cf. HB: „exposure“, „revolutionary“]  Ṣun‘allāh Ibrāhīm (*1937): “The Smell of It” (Tilka ’l-rā’iḥa,1965/66)  Muḥammed Shukrī (Mohamed Choukri, *1935): For Bread Alone (al- Khubz al-ḥāfī, 1972/73 resp. 1982)  Gamāl al-Ghīṭānī (*1945): Zayni Barakat (al-Zaynī Barakāt, 1974)  search for authentically “Arabic” = non-Westernizing way of writing  experimenting with pre-colonial genres (maqâmah, risâlah,...) (6) Post-1967 7 stages – 7 attitudes vis-à-vis ”the West” (6) Post-1967 (shock of June War) (cont.) E / W

47 Ṣun‘allāh Ibrāhīm (*1937): The Committee (al- Lajna, 1981)  fierce critique of economic globalization (anti- ”McDonaldization”)  grotesque satire on the Egypt of Sadat’s “open door” politics  plot: detective story, discovery of the crimes of the regime and their global collaborators (West/US- based multinational enterprises: CocaCola etc.) (7) Postmodern 7 stages – 7 attitudes vis-à-vis ”the West” (7) Postmodern (1980s ff.) (cont.) E / W

48 48 > (7) Postmodern 7 stages – 7 attitudes vis-à-vis ”the West” (7) Postmodern (1980s ff.) dissolution of West/East in global reciprocity Arabs in exile/diaspora (L. Aboulela, Translator ; Ḥanān al-Shaykh, Only in London ; Orhan Pamuk, White Castle ; Kader Abdollah) East as “mirror” of the West, and vice versa – each is part of the other’s identity play with stereotypes and “great narratives” (grands récits) such as the old West/East dichotomy E / W

49 49 > Edward al-Kharrāṭ (*1926): City of Saffron (Turābuhā za‘farān, 1985)  growing up in cosmopolitan Alexandria in the 1930s  nostalgia-loaden  Coptic minority  cosmopolitan diversity  child’s perspective (authenticity)  identity question: Who am I? Am I this boy “Michael”? (7) Postmodern 7 stages – 7 attitudes vis-à-vis ”the West” (7) Postmodern (1980s ff.) (cont.)


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