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Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute Principles of Human-Robot Interaction Guest Lecture.

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Presentation on theme: "Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute Principles of Human-Robot Interaction Guest Lecture."— Presentation transcript:

1 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute Principles of Human-Robot Interaction Guest Lecture

2 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute 1. Interaction and Design

3 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course

4 Defining Interaction

5 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course Ancestry of Interaction Studies Barnlund p. 7: the Assumptive World p. 8: context as all-important

6 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course Ancestry of Interaction Studies Barnlund p. 7: the Assumptive World p. 8: context as all-important Terry Winograd’s trajectory an an example

7 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course Ancestry of Interaction Studies Barnlund p. 7: the Assumptive World p. 8: context as all-important p. 9: superiority of interaction

8 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course Formalizing Interaction Barnlund p. 10: Communication as Change

9 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course Pitfalls for Interactive Communication Barnlund, p.12.. verbal – nonverbal discrepancy attitude of infallibility manipulative purpose one-way communication threatening context evaluative context

10 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course The Delight of Radical Surprise

11 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course

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14 Influence TechnologyPeople

15 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course Influence PeopleTechnology

16 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course

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18 Breakthroughs “Teamwork is hard especially with varying levels of skill and different personalities…can be rewarding only through compromise.” “Make active decisions. Have the attitude that if I don’t do it, no one will and remember that if you choose something, you are also choosing not to do other things because you have limited time, energy, etc. Choose what to do with your talents wisely and don’t waste them!”

19 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course The Robot Design Challenge

20 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course Dourish Robot interface –later in this slide set Embodiment/situatedness –Hide-and-seek –Embodiment deleterious example? Brooks and embodiment-architecture –“Use the world as its own best model” –Philosophy ; Descartes vs. Heidegger?

21 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course Evolving Toward Physical Interaction Text-based computer interaction narrow; single-threaded & synchronous; symbolic Graphical computer interaction parallel/peripheral; somewhat asynchronous; visual metaphor Animate but sessile robot multimodal; more asynchronous/episodic; palpable/continuous

22 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course Animate but sessile...

23 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course Social Mobile Robot Invasive: shared physical space extended interaction context: the human social- physical frame social communication as a co-habitant incidental & opportunistic interaction Asynchronous; episodic demands intentional transparency active communication acts

24 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course Social mobile robot...

25 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course Points of Departure Mobile robots are unlike standard computers More like independent agents; less human augmentation Computers can represent real things; robots are real things Robots push back on the world Mobile robots differ from standard physical artifacts “… uncertainty, randomness, free will or independence so strikingly absent in well-designed machines” – Grey Walter Invasive in human social space Need to reflect or externalize their internal states and intentions

26 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course High-level Goal Effective and pleasurable social interaction using embodied agents that share our space

27 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course Challenges in Social Robotics Perception & Representation Perceptual competency for spatial and social context Locomotion & Manipulation Physical competency, expressiveness, terrainability Behavior & Communication Social competency, deliberation and interaction in social spaces using time, intention, perceptual action

28 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course Motivation Rich, effective, satisfying interactions

29 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course The ‘Wicked Problem’* in HRC  Problem Identification  Every solution exposes new aspects of the problem.  Satisficing  There is no clear stopping criterion nor right or wrong.  Uniqueness  Each problem is embedded in a distinct physical and social context making its solution totally novel.  *Horst Rittel

30 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course Tools for HRC 1.The Science & Technology of Interaction  modeling, reasoning, execution  perception, actuation 2.Physical and Interaction Design  morphology, behavior 3.Evaluation: HCI, Human Factors, Education  formative & summative techniques

31 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course DiSalvo: formalizing Product Four dimensions: Materiality Expression Function Form

32 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course DiSalvo: formalizing Product Materiality

33 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course DiSalvo: formalizing Product Expression – Tatsuya Matsui

34 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course DiSalvo: formalizing Product Expression

35 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course DiSalvo: formalizing Product Expression "Today, we are using technology to further an agenda of destruction and violence, which is why—more than ever—we need to rethink its role in our society and make sure that it is only used to better humanity. By creating Posy, I hope to unleash a weapon of peace—a reminder that one small robot's step is a giant leap toward a peaceful and equitable future for all." —Tatsuya Matsui

36 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course DiSalvo: formalizing Product Function

37 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course DiSalvo: formalizing Product Form as organization of all other dimensions

38 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course DiSalvo: formalizing Product Form as organization of all other dimensions

39 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course Pearl: example & discussion

40 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course Projects Insect Telepresence: HCI formal techniques Chips in museums: informal learning assessment Grace: human tests and drama; perception USAR: urban search and rescue Mobot: long-term historical experiment

41 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course Insect Telepresence Educational telepresence designed using formal HCI inquiry tools.

42 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course Insect Telepresence Robot Problem Increase visitors’ engagement with and appreciation of insects in a museum terrarium at CMNH. Approach Provide a scalar telepresence experience with insect-safe visual browsing Apply HCI techniques to design and evaluate the input device and system Cultural modeling, expert interview, baseline observation Measure engagement indirectly by ‘time on task’ Partner with HCII, CMNH

43 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course Insect Telepresence Robot Innovations Asymmetric exhibit layout Mechanical transparency Clutched gantry lever arm FOV-relative 3 DOF joystick

44 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course Insect Telepresence Robot

45 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course Insect Telepresence Robot Evaluation Results: Average group size: 3 Average age of users: 19.5 years Three age modes: 8 years, 10 years, and 35 years Average time on task of all users: 60 seconds Average time on task of a single user: 27 seconds Average time on task for user groups: 93 seconds

46 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course Insect Telepresence Time on Task: from 15 seconds to 5 minutes

47 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course Robots in Museums Educational tours in public spaces.

48 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course Visitor observation Robot observation Demographic analysis Knowledge tests.5.9All dinosaurs lived during same period..5.7All dinosaurs were huge animals..5.8Other animals lived on the Earth with din..4.8All dinosaurs were carnivorous..4.7Scientists agree how to assemble bones..4.5All bones in Dinosaur hall are real. Robots in Museums

49 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course Evolving museum robots Human attention and expectation Body pose and verbal attitude

50 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course HRC Insights Reliable public deployments are possible Iterative design cycle is essential Diagnostic, interaction transparency Two-way interaction is preferable Human learning in human-robot collaborations can be quantified. Rich robotic interaction can trigger human behavioral change.

51 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course A Human-Scale Museum Edubot Problem Increase visitors’ engagement and learning at secondary exhibits in Dinosaur Hall. Approach Lead visitors to secondary exhibits and new facts Design a robot to share the human social space Establish long-term iterative testing over years, not days Time on task, observation and learning evaluations Partner with Magic Lantern, Maya, CMNH

52 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course Museum Edubot: Technical Contributions Required Robot Competencies: Safety, navigation, longevity Approaches Property-based control programming Visual landmark-based SUF (Latombe) Visual self-docking h/w and s/w restart diagnostics Fault detection & communication

53 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course Museum Edubot: Technical Contributions Required Robot Competencies: Safety, navigation, longevity Outcome Zero human injuries 4 years deployment, over 500 km traversed MTBF converging beyond 1 week Uptime: 98% Active diagnosis approaching 100%

54 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course Museum Edubot: Iterative Design Cycle Design Refinements Physical Design –Morphological Transparency: designing informative form Interaction Design –Behavioral Transparency: affective interaction model –Shortened length of media segments –Two-way interaction, goal-based learning

55 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course Human-scale Interaction Grange, Meyer, Soto, Kunz, Willeke Educational tours in public spaces.

56 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course Human-scale Interaction Grange, Meyer, Soto, Kunz, Willeke Educational tours in public spaces.

57 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course Human-scale Interaction Grange, Meyer, Soto, Kunz, Willeke Educational tours in public spaces.

58 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course Interaction Design Process Educational design: education division Content development: production company Behavior specification: education division Formative evaluations and re-design robot observation, human observation interviews, written tests

59 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course Robot Components Nomadic XR-4000 base Pentium-scale running Linux Vision, ultrasonic, ir, tactile 8 lead-acid deep-cycle batteries –12V, ~25AH each –~ 5 hrs endurance Customized interaction “top” –LCD + DVD media system –Interaction button(s) –High-quality speaker system

60 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course Chips Carnegie Museum of Natural History Autonomy –5 years, > 500 km navigated, auto-docking –MTBF convergence at 1 week –Proactive health state identification

61 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course Chips - BBC

62 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course Sweetlips Hall of North American Wildlife 3 years, > 185 km navigated Tour theme interaction

63 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course Joe Historybot Heinz History Center 2 years, > 160 km Touchscreen, quiz, speech generation

64 Illah Nourbakhsh | CMU Robotics Institute | HRI Summer Course Adam Free-agent robot for hire More than 30 days of work finished –Republican National Conv. –Democratic National Conv.


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