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Oklahoma City Community College

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Presentation on theme: "Oklahoma City Community College"— Presentation transcript:

1 Oklahoma City Community College
Class Aves BIO 2215 Oklahoma City Community College Dennis Anderson

2 Fig. 27.2

3 Class Aves Feathers No teeth Flexible long neck Scales on legs
One occipital condyle Scales on legs Bones with air spaces Endothermic Four chambered heart

4 Adaptations for Flight
Honey combed bones Air cavities Less weight

5 Light Weight Skeleton Frigate bird 7 foot wing span 4 ounce skeleton

6 Adaptations for Flight
Enlarged sternum Flight muscle attachment Long neck balance

7 11-25 Cervical Vertebrae

8 Fig. 27.7a

9 Pygostyle

10 Skull Most bones fused Much lighter than reptile or mammal skull

11 Fig

12 Adaptations for Flight
Wing lift

13 Adaptations for Flight
Feathers Light weight Strong


15 Adaptations for Flight
Reduce body weight No teeth No urinary bladder No penis Only one ovary

16 Fig

17 Migration Sissor-tailed flycatchar
Migates to Central and South America in October Returns in April

18 Migration Arctic tern Migrates 25,000 miles!


20 Beak Adaptations Ripping flesh

21 Beak Adaptations Eating seeds

22 Beak Adaptations Sucking nectar from flowers

23 Beak Adaptations Drilling wood

24 Beak Adaptations Catching fish

25 Beak Adaptations Basket-like bill to hold fish caught under water

26 Beak Adaptations Filtering



29 Digestive System Crop Proventriculus Gizzard Cloaca Storage Enzymes
Grind food Cloaca Waste Reproduction

30 Vision Up to 8 times keener than human vision
Each eye moves indendtantly

31 Respiratory System Nine air sacs Fresh air always moving
Connect to lungs and centers of bones Cools the bird Fresh air always moving No dead ends as in mammals Each wing beat moves air Never run out of air

32 Benefits of Birds to Man
Eat insects, rodents and weeds Spread seeds for flowers and trees Food Sport Pets

33 Fastest Animal Peregrine falcon Strikes prey at 180 mph

34 Elephant Bird Eleven feet tall 1100 pounds Largest egg ever
Extinct in late 1600’s

35 Giant Moa New Zealand Hunted to extinction about 1600

36 Hummingbirds Fly up, down, left, right, backwards and upside down
Wings beat times per second Heart rate =600 bpm Eat 2/3 body weight each day Nectar, pollen & insects

37 Chicks Altricial Precocial No feathers Cannot walk or see
Cannot feed themselves Precocial Down feathers Can walk and see Can feed themselves


39 Caudipteryx Feathered dinosaur Flightless Transitional fossil
Dinosaur arms Dinosaur teeth Only front of upper jaw Bird feathers

40 Archaeopteryx 147 MYA Transitional fossil Characteristics of reptiles
Characteristics of birds

41 Fig. 27.7b

42 Archeopteryx Reptile characteristics Bird characteristics Teeth
Boney tail Fingers with claws Bird characteristics Feathers Furcula

43 Click Image for Movie

44 Evolution of Flight Running Hypothesis

45 Microraptor gui

46 Evolution of Flight Gliding Hypothesis

47 Sexual Selection

48 Bird Classification 28 orders 9600 species

49 Order Struthioniformes
Large flightless bird Two toes

50 Order Pelecaniformes Gular sac

51 Order Ciconiiformes Long legs for wading Long necks

52 Order Anseriformes Flat bill Webbed feet

53 Order Falconiformes Hooked bill Talons Eagle Hawk Falcon

54 Order Passeriformes Perching foot Songbirds 5000 species Mocking bird
Thrushes Swallows Magpie Crow Starling Jays

55 Order Columbiformes Short neck Short legs Pigeons Doves

56 Order Strigiformes Large eyes Silent flight Nocturnal predator Owls

57 Order Apodiformes Small bird Rapid wingbeat Hummingbirds

58 Order Galliformes Chicken like Strong beaks Heavy feet Chicken Turkey
Pheasants Quail

59 Order Charadriiformes
Short bill Strong fliers Shorebirds Gulls

60 Order Psittaciformes Thick tongue Hinged and movable upper beak
Bright colors Parrots Parakeets

61 Order Piciformes Two toes forward and two toes backward woodpeckers

62 Order Sphenisciformes
Webbed feet Wings as used for swimming penquins

63 Bird Information

64 The End Fig.

65 The End

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