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1 Class Aves BIO 2215 Oklahoma City Community College Dennis Anderson.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Class Aves BIO 2215 Oklahoma City Community College Dennis Anderson."— Presentation transcript:

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2 1 Class Aves BIO 2215 Oklahoma City Community College Dennis Anderson

3 2

4 3 Class Aves Feathers No teeth Flexible long neck –One occipital condyle Scales on legs Bones with air spaces Endothermic Four chambered heart

5 4 Adaptations for Flight Honey combed bones –Air cavities –Less weight

6 5 Light Weight Skeleton Frigate bird 7 foot wing span 4 ounce skeleton

7 6 Adaptations for Flight Enlarged sternum –Flight muscle attachment Long neck –balance

8 Cervical Vertebrae

9 8

10 9 Pygostyle

11 10 Skull Most bones fused Much lighter than reptile or mammal skull

12 11

13 12 Adaptations for Flight Wing –lift

14 13 Adaptations for Flight Feathers –Light weight –Strong

15 14

16 15 Adaptations for Flight Reduce body weight –No teeth –No urinary bladder –No penis –Only one ovary

17 16

18 17 Migration Sissor-tailed flycatchar Migates to Central and South America in October Returns in April

19 18 Migration Arctic tern Migrates 25,000 miles!

20 19

21 20 Beak Adaptations Ripping flesh

22 21 Beak Adaptations Eating seeds

23 22 Beak Adaptations Sucking nectar from flowers

24 23 Beak Adaptations Drilling wood

25 24 Beak Adaptations Catching fish

26 25 Beak Adaptations Basket-like bill to hold fish caught under water

27 26 Beak Adaptations Filtering

28 27

29 28

30 29 Digestive System Crop –Storage Proventriculus –Enzymes Gizzard –Grind food Cloaca –Waste –Reproduction

31 30 Vision Up to 8 times keener than human vision Each eye moves indendtantly

32 31 Respiratory System Nine air sacs –Connect to lungs and centers of bones –Cools the bird Fresh air always moving –No dead ends as in mammals Each wing beat moves air –Never run out of air

33 32 Benefits of Birds to Man Eat insects, rodents and weeds Spread seeds for flowers and trees Food Sport Pets

34 33 Fastest Animal Peregrine falcon Strikes prey at 180 mph

35 34 Elephant Bird Eleven feet tall 1100 pounds Largest egg ever Extinct in late 1600’s

36 35 Giant Moa New Zealand Hunted to extinction about 1600

37 36 Hummingbirds Fly up, down, left, right, backwards and upside down Wings beat times per second Heart rate =600 bpm Eat 2/3 body weight each day Nectar, pollen & insects

38 37 Chicks Altricial –No feathers –Cannot walk or see –Cannot feed themselves Precocial –Down feathers –Can walk and see –Can feed themselves

39 38

40 39 Caudipteryx Feathered dinosaur Flightless Transitional fossil –Dinosaur arms –Dinosaur teeth Only front of upper jaw –Bird feathers

41 40 Archaeopteryx 147 MYA Transitional fossil –Characteristics of reptiles –Characteristics of birds

42 41

43 42 Archeopteryx Reptile characteristics –Teeth –Boney tail –Fingers with claws Bird characteristics –Feathers –Furcula

44 43 Click Image for Movie

45 44 Evolution of Flight Running Hypothesis

46 45 Microraptor gui

47 46 Evolution of Flight Gliding Hypothesis

48 47 Sexual Selection

49 48 Bird Classification 28 orders 9600 species

50 49 Order Struthioniformes Large flightless bird Two toes

51 50 Order Pelecaniformes Gular sac

52 51 Order Ciconiiformes Long legs for wading Long necks

53 52 Order Anseriformes Flat bill Webbed feet

54 53 Order Falconiformes Hooked bill Talons Eagle Hawk Falcon

55 54 Order Passeriformes Perching foot Songbirds 5000 species Mocking bird Thrushes Swallows Magpie Crow Starling Jays

56 55 Order Columbiformes Short neck Short legs Pigeons Doves

57 56 Order Strigiformes Large eyes Silent flight Nocturnal predator Owls

58 57 Order Apodiformes Small bird Rapid wingbeat Hummingbirds

59 58 Order Galliformes Chicken like Strong beaks Heavy feet Chicken Turkey Pheasants Quail

60 59 Order Charadriiformes Short bill Strong fliers Shorebirds Gulls

61 60 Order Psittaciformes Thick tongue Hinged and movable upper beak Bright colors Parrots Parakeets

62 61 Order Piciformes Two toes forward and two toes backward woodpeckers

63 62 Order Sphenisciformes Webbed feet Wings as used for swimming penquins

64 63 Bird Information

65 64 The End

66 65 The End


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