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1Set up Cornell Notes on pg. 17 Topic: 9.4 Genetic EngineeringEssential Question:Why is the offspring of asexual reproduction a clone?9.4 Genetic Engineering2.1 Atoms, Ions, and MoleculesWhy is the offspring of asexual reproduction a clone?KEY CONCEPT DNA sequences of organisms can be changed.
2Click and Clone Questions Please copy down the questions on p.16. Leave room for the answers.Click and Clone QuestionsWhat two types of cells do you need in order to create a clone?How many organisms does it take to make a clone?Which two mice will be genetically identical?Will the clone always look and act identical to its genetic donor?
3KEY CONCEPT DNA sequences of organisms can be changed. CC= Copy Cat or Carbon Copy
4Entire organisms can be cloned. A clone is a genetically identical copy of a gene or of an organism.Born Dec 22, 2001 after 86 unsuccessful triesCC- The first cloned cat
5Cloning occurs in nature. bacteria (binary fission- makes a copy of itself)some simple animals and plants (budding, regeneration)Identical twins
6Mammals can be cloned through a process called nuclear transfer. nucleus is removed from an egg cellnucleus of a cell from the animal to be cloned is implanted in the donor egg
8Click and Clone Questions What two types of cells do you need in order to create a clone?How many organisms does it take to make a clone?Which two mice will be genetically identical?Will the clone always look and act identical to its genetic donor?
9Click and Clone Questions What two types of cells do you need in order to create a clone?Somatic cell and egg cell2. How many organisms does it take to make a clone?3: Somatic cell donor (who we are cloning), egg donor, and surrogate mother (who carries the baby)3. Which two mice will be genetically identical?The somatic cell donor and the clone4. Will the clone always look and act identical to its genetic donor?No. The behavior may be very different from the original.
10Ch. 9 Study GuidePlease get a Ch. 9 Study Guide and an Eyes of Nye: Cloning WorksheetStudy Guide due Friday- NO LATE SGs accepted!16 ?s on testFocus on ***Starred*** parts
12Dolly and her lamb Bonny MEET DOLLYIn 1996 Dolly became the first mammal to be cloned using an adult somatic (body) cell. She was born on the 277th try.Dolly and her lamb BonnyDid you know?She was derived from a mammary glandShe was named after Dolly Parton
13Known animals to have been cloned as of 2012: Carp (fish)CatPigCattlePyrenean ibex (type of goat)Deer*first extinct animal to be cloned- only lived 7 minsDogFerretRabbitFrog (tadpole)RatFruit FliesRhesus MonkeyGaur (wild cattle)SheepGoatWater BuffaloHorseWolfMiceMouflon (wild sheep)Mule
14benefitsorgans for transplant into humanssave endangered speciesconcernslow success rate (approx. 1-3 % are successful)clones “imperfect” and less healthy than original animaldecreased biodiversity
15Issues with DollyShe developed and grew normally, but she had health problemsDid not live as long as typical sheep
16Pet owners expecting to clone an exact copy of their furry friend will be disappointed… *CC does not have the health issues normally associated with other clones.May not look, act, or behave like the original. Likely to have health issues, and a shorter life span.
17Cloning in movies and books The Island (2005)People on the island are told what to eat, wear, and how to act.They are clones. Held prisoner to be used for spare parts or as surrogatesThe Boys from BrazilAfter WWII, Nazis create 94 Hitler clones in hopes that one will grow up to be like the original Hitler and create a fourth Reich
18The Eyes of Nye: Cloning Please answer the questions as the video playsYou will be writing an essay about EITHERGenetically Engineering humans (think GATTACA)Pros/ConsORThe ethics behind cloning humans
19Table Talk- Eyes of Nye: Cloning Benefits of cloning (full organisms or only genes)?Concerns of cloning?Discuss the PROBLEMS with cloning humans.Think success rateHealth of clonesBe ready to share out with the class
20The Clone AgeWhen watching the video, please consider the advantages and disadvantages of cloning humans.ReligionMedical advancesEthicsHealth of human clones
21The Clone Age Questions 1. What types of cloning occur naturally in nature?What are a few of the concerns with cloning?Please write a paragraph explaining the pros and cons of human cloning in your opinion.
221. What types of cloning occur naturally in nature? The Clone Age Answers1. What types of cloning occur naturally in nature?bacteria (binary fission- makes a copy of itself)some simple animals and plants (budding, regeneration)Identical twins2. What are a few of the concerns with cloning?low success rate (approx. 1-3 % are successful)clones “imperfect” and less healthy than original animaldecreased biodiversity
23Set up Cornell Notes on pg. 19 Topic: 9.4 Genetic EngineeringEssential Question:Explain how recombinant DNA is used to make transgenic organisms.9.4 Genetic Engineering2.1 Atoms, Ions, and MoleculesExplain how recombinant DNA is used to make transgenic organisms.
25Open your biology book to page 225, and on the top section of pg Open your biology book to page 225, and on the top section of pg. 18 write a paragraph explaining how genetic engineering is responsible for making this mouse glow.
26The mouse’s green glow comes from the green fluorescent protein GFP The mouse’s green glow comes from the green fluorescent protein GFP. Scientists put a gene from a glowing jellyfish into a virus that was allowed to infect a mouse egg. The jellyfish gene became part of the mouse’s genes. As a result the mouse cells produce the same protein.
27Table TalkWhat do you think genetic engineering involves?Examples?What sorts of things can we genetically engineer?PlantsAnimalsBacteria
28Genetic engineering involves changing an organism’s DNA to give it new traits by inserting cloned genes from one organism into a different organism.Possible because the genetic code is shared by all organisms (all living things share the same 4 nucleotides A,T,C,G)
29Draw/label /color code on pg. 19 (small) Genetic engineering uses Recombinant DNA which is DNA that contains genes from more than one organism.Foreign DNADraw/label /color code on pg. 19 (small)Original DNA
301. restriction enzymes cut plasmid and foreign DNA Bacterial plasmids are often used to make recombinant DNA. Plasmids are closed loops of DNA found in bacteria1. restriction enzymes cut plasmid and foreign DNA2. foreign gene inserted into plasmid3. Plasmid put into bacteria4. Bacteria will multiply*Result: New proteins will be expressed in the bacteria!(bacterial DNA)
31Genetic engineering produces organisms with new traits! A transgenic organism has one or more genes from another organism inserted into its genome.
32Jurassic Park Questions Why does Dr. Grant need a drop of blood from Dr. Grant?What is inaccurate about the cloning of Dr. Grant?How do the Jurassic Park scientists manipulate the dinosaur DNA to make transgenic dinosaurs?What type of egg do they use to allow the dinosaurs to develop in? (Very quiet, in the background)Do we need a surrogate?Why were the dinosaurs unable to breed?
33Why does Dr. Grant need a drop of blood from Dr. Grant? To extract DNA fromWhat is inaccurate about the cloning of Dr. Grant?A real clone would not be the same age, it would be a babyHow do the Jurassic Park scientists manipulate the dinosaur DNA to make transgenic dinosaurs?They fill in the “gaps” in the dinosaur DNA with frog DNAWhat type of egg do they use to allow the dinosaurs to develop in? (Very quiet, in the background)They use unfertilized ostrich eggs (This is why there is no need for a surrogate.Do we need a surrogate?No. Just the egg donor (ostrich) and DNA from the animalWhy were the dinosaurs unable to breed?They were all female.
34Divide the rest of pg. 19 into 3 sections: (Tree Map formation) TransgenicAnimalsTransgenicBacteriaTransgenicPlantsWhat are they produced for?Real life Examples
35Transgenic animals are used to study diseases and gene functions. *The hope is to treat/cure diseases in humansHard to produce!Must get a fertilized egg-insert the foreign DNA back into femaleOnly a small % of these will mature normallyOnly some will be transgenic
36The animals that are transgenic will have the foreign gene as part of their DNA *Gene will be in ALL of their cells, including the sperm/egg, and therefore they can pass it on to their offspring
37Transgenic bacteria can be used to produce many useful chemicals Cancer drugsPesticidesInsulin*Ex: Insulin is made by introducing human recombinant DNA into a plasmid allowing it to multiplyIt is then collected and used to treat people with diabetes
38*Bacteria used to produce artificial sweeteners Aspartame- Widely used artificial sweetenerDiet sodaSugar-free gum and candySugar-free dessertsSugar-free condiments
39Transgenic plantstransgenic bacteria infect a plantmany crops are now genetically modified(GM)Ex: resistance to frost/diseases/insects***In order for plants to “pass down” the genetic trait to their offspring they must be sure that the gene is present in the seed of the plant!***
40Farmers use pesticides to get rid of “pests” Farmers use herbicides to get rid of weedsIf we spray a “herbicide” on a crop full of weeds what might happen?Scientists have developed genetically engineered plants that are resistant to the herbicides
41Scientists have concerns about some uses of genetic engineering. possible long-term health effects of eating GM foodspossible effects of GM plants on ecosystems and biodiversity
42Draw a double bubble map comparing and contrasting cloning and genetic engineering. Give examples.
43Genetically identical copy of a gene or organism Changes DNA to give it new traitsBiotechnologyGenetic EngineeringCloningMouse that has jellyfish DNAUses nuclear transferMay involve manipulating DNADolly the Sheep, CC the catWeather/drought resistant fruits and veggies