Presentation on theme: "9.1 Manipulating DNA Set up Cornell Notes on pg. 17 Topic: 9.4 Genetic Engineering Essential Question: 1.Why is the offspring of asexual reproduction a."— Presentation transcript:
9.1 Manipulating DNA Set up Cornell Notes on pg. 17 Topic: 9.4 Genetic Engineering Essential Question: 1.Why is the offspring of asexual reproduction a clone? 2.1 Atoms, Ions, and Molecules 9.4 Genetic Engineering 1.Why is the offspring of asexual reproduction a clone? KEY CONCEPT DNA sequences of organisms can be changed.
9.4 Genetic Engineering Click and Clone Questions 1.What two types of cells do you need in order to create a clone? 2.How many organisms does it take to make a clone? 3.Which two mice will be genetically identical? 4.Will the clone always look and act identical to its genetic donor? Please copy down the questions on p.16. Leave room for the answers.
9.4 Genetic Engineering KEY CONCEPT DNA sequences of organisms can be changed. CC= Copy Cat or Carbon Copy
9.4 Genetic Engineering Entire organisms can be cloned. A clone is a genetically identical copy of a gene or of an organism. CC- The first cloned cat Born Dec 22, 2001 after 86 unsuccessful tries
9.4 Genetic Engineering Cloning occurs in nature. –bacteria (binary fission- makes a copy of itself) –some simple animals and plants (budding, regeneration) –Identical twins
9.4 Genetic Engineering Mammals can be cloned through a process called nuclear transfer. –nucleus is removed from an egg cell –nucleus of a cell from the animal to be cloned is implanted in the donor egg
9.4 Genetic Engineering Clone Mimi the Mouse http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/tech/cloning/clickandclone/
9.4 Genetic Engineering Click and Clone Questions 1.What two types of cells do you need in order to create a clone? 2.How many organisms does it take to make a clone? 3.Which two mice will be genetically identical? 4.Will the clone always look and act identical to its genetic donor?
9.4 Genetic Engineering Click and Clone Questions 1.What two types of cells do you need in order to create a clone? Somatic cell and egg cell 2. How many organisms does it take to make a clone? 3: Somatic cell donor (who we are cloning), egg donor, and surrogate mother (who carries the baby) 3. Which two mice will be genetically identical? The somatic cell donor and the clone 4. Will the clone always look and act identical to its genetic donor? No. The behavior may be very different from the original.
9.4 Genetic Engineering Ch. 9 Study Guide Please get a Ch. 9 Study Guide and an Eyes of Nye: Cloning Worksheet –Study Guide due Friday- NO LATE SGs accepted! –16 ?s on test –Focus on ***Starred*** parts
9.4 Genetic Engineering In 1996 Dolly became the first mammal to be cloned using an adult somatic (body) cell. She was born on the 277 th try. Dolly and her lamb Bonny MEET DOLLY She was derived from a mammary gland She was named after Dolly Parton Did you know?
9.4 Genetic Engineering Carp (fish) Carp Cat Cattle Deer Dog Ferret Frog (tadpole) Frog Fruit Flies Gaur (wild cattle) Gaur Goat Horse Mice Mouflon (wild sheep) Mouflon Mule Pig Pyrenean ibex (type of goat) Pyrenean ibex *first extinct animal to be cloned- only lived 7 mins Rabbit Rat Rhesus Monkey Sheep Water Buffalo Wolf Known animals to have been cloned as of 2012:
9.4 Genetic Engineering benefits –organs for transplant into humans –save endangered species concerns –low success rate (approx. 1-3 % are successful) –clones “imperfect” and less healthy than original animal –decreased biodiversity
9.4 Genetic Engineering Issues with Dolly She developed and grew normally, but she had health problems Did not live as long as typical sheep
9.4 Genetic Engineering Pet owners expecting to clone an exact copy of their furry friend will be disappointed… May not look, act, or behave like the original. Likely to have health issues, and a shorter life span. *CC does not have the health issues normally associated with other clones.
9.4 Genetic Engineering Cloning in movies and books The Island (2005) People on the island are told what to eat, wear, and how to act. They are clones. Held prisoner to be used for spare parts or as surrogates The Boys from Brazil After WWII, Nazis create 94 Hitler clones in hopes that one will grow up to be like the original Hitler and create a fourth Reich
9.4 Genetic Engineering The Eyes of Nye: Cloning Please answer the questions as the video plays You will be writing an essay about EITHER –Genetically Engineering humans (think GATTACA) Pros/Cons OR –The ethics behind cloning humans Pros/Cons
9.4 Genetic Engineering Table Talk- Eyes of Nye: Cloning Benefits of cloning (full organisms or only genes)? Concerns of cloning? Discuss the PROBLEMS with cloning humans. –Think success rate –Health of clones Be ready to share out with the class
9.4 Genetic Engineering The Clone Age When watching the video, please consider the advantages and disadvantages of cloning humans. Religion Medical advances Ethics Health of human clones
9.4 Genetic Engineering 1. What types of cloning occur naturally in nature? 2.What are a few of the concerns with cloning? 3.Please write a paragraph explaining the pros and cons of human cloning in your opinion. The Clone Age Questions
9.4 Genetic Engineering The Clone Age Answers 1. What types of cloning occur naturally in nature? 2. What are a few of the concerns with cloning? –bacteria (binary fission- makes a copy of itself) –some simple animals and plants (budding, regeneration) –Identical twins low success rate (approx. 1-3 % are successful) clones “imperfect” and less healthy than original animal decreased biodiversity
9.1 Manipulating DNA Set up Cornell Notes on pg. 19 Topic: 9.4 Genetic Engineering Essential Question: 1.Explain how recombinant DNA is used to make transgenic organisms. 2.1 Atoms, Ions, and Molecules 9.4 Genetic Engineering 1.Explain how recombinant DNA is used to make transgenic organisms.
9.1 Manipulating DNA Divide pg. 18 into 3 sections
9.4 Genetic Engineering Open your biology book to page 225, and on the top section of pg. 18 write a paragraph explaining how genetic engineering is responsible for making this mouse glow.
9.4 Genetic Engineering The mouse’s green glow comes from the green fluorescent protein GFP. Scientists put a gene from a glowing jellyfish into a virus that was allowed to infect a mouse egg. The jellyfish gene became part of the mouse’s genes. As a result the mouse cells produce the same protein.
9.4 Genetic Engineering Table Talk What do you think genetic engineering involves? –Examples? What sorts of things can we genetically engineer? –Plants –Animals –Bacteria
9.4 Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering involves changing an organism’s DNA to give it new traits by inserting cloned genes from one organism into a different organism. –Possible because the genetic code is shared by all organisms (all living things share the same 4 nucleotides A,T,C,G)
9.4 Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering uses Recombinant DNA which is DNA that contains genes from more than one organism. Foreign DNA Original DNA Draw/label /color code on pg. 19 (small)
9.4 Genetic Engineering (bacterial DNA) Bacterial plasmids are often used to make recombinant DNA. Plasmids are closed loops of DNA found in bacteria 1. restriction enzymes cut plasmid and foreign DNA 2. foreign gene inserted into plasmid 3. Plasmid put into bacteria 4. Bacteria will multiply –*Result: New proteins will be expressed in the bacteria!
9.4 Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering produces organisms with new traits! A transgenic organism has one or more genes from another organism inserted into its genome.
9.4 Genetic Engineering Jurassic Park Questions Why does Dr. Grant need a drop of blood from Dr. Grant? What is inaccurate about the cloning of Dr. Grant? How do the Jurassic Park scientists manipulate the dinosaur DNA to make transgenic dinosaurs? What type of egg do they use to allow the dinosaurs to develop in? (Very quiet, in the background) Do we need a surrogate? Why were the dinosaurs unable to breed?
9.4 Genetic Engineering Why does Dr. Grant need a drop of blood from Dr. Grant? To extract DNA from What is inaccurate about the cloning of Dr. Grant? A real clone would not be the same age, it would be a baby How do the Jurassic Park scientists manipulate the dinosaur DNA to make transgenic dinosaurs? They fill in the “gaps” in the dinosaur DNA with frog DNA What type of egg do they use to allow the dinosaurs to develop in? (Very quiet, in the background) They use unfertilized ostrich eggs (This is why there is no need for a surrogate. Do we need a surrogate? No. Just the egg donor (ostrich) and DNA from the animal Why were the dinosaurs unable to breed? They were all female.
9.4 Genetic Engineering Divide the rest of pg. 19 into 3 sections: (Tree Map formation) Transgenic Bacteria Transgenic Plants Transgenic Animals What are they produced for? Real life Examples
9.4 Genetic Engineering Transgenic animals are used to study diseases and gene functions. –*The hope is to treat/cure diseases in humans –Hard to produce! –Must get a fertilized egg-insert the foreign DNA back into female –Only a small % of these will mature normally –Only some will be transgenic
9.4 Genetic Engineering The animals that are transgenic will have the foreign gene as part of their DNA *Gene will be in ALL of their cells, including the sperm/egg, and therefore they can pass it on to their offspring
9.4 Genetic Engineering Transgenic bacteria can be used to produce many useful chemicals –Cancer drugs –Pesticides –Insulin *Ex: Insulin is made by introducing human recombinant DNA into a plasmid allowing it to multiply It is then collected and used to treat people with diabetes
9.4 Genetic Engineering *Bacteria used to produce artificial sweeteners Aspartame- Widely used artificial sweetener –Diet soda –Sugar-free gum and candy –Sugar-free desserts –Sugar-free condiments
9.4 Genetic Engineering Transgenic plants –transgenic bacteria infect a plant –many crops are now genetically modified(GM) –Ex: resistance to frost/diseases/insects ***In order for plants to “pass down” the genetic trait to their offspring they must be sure that the gene is present in the seed of the plant!***
9.4 Genetic Engineering Farmers use pesticides to get rid of “pests” Farmers use herbicides to get rid of weeds –If we spray a “herbicide” on a crop full of weeds what might happen? –Scientists have developed genetically engineered plants that are resistant to the herbicides
9.4 Genetic Engineering Scientists have concerns about some uses of genetic engineering. –possible long-term health effects of eating GM foods –possible effects of GM plants on ecosystems and biodiversity
9.4 Genetic Engineering Draw a double bubble map comparing and contrasting cloning and genetic engineering. Give examples.
9.4 Genetic Engineering Cloning Genetic Engineering Changes DNA to give it new traits Genetically identical copy of a gene or organism Mouse that has jellyfish DNA Biotechnology May involve manipulating DNA Weather/drought resistant fruits and veggies Dolly the Sheep, CC the cat Uses nuclear transfer