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© Colin Frayn, 2008 www.frayn.net Punctuated Equilibria A term coined by Stephen Jay Gould & Niles Eldredge (1972) The idea –Most of the time there is no change –Occasionally, change happens very quickly This is mainly true –The speed of evolutionary change is variable –Sometimes slow, sometimes fast –So neither extreme view is fully correct
© Colin Frayn, 2008 www.frayn.net Transitional Fossils How many are there? –The claim that no transitional fossils exist is hugely false –Many fossil sequences exist, joining every major stage of evolution How many do we expect? –Fossils are very hard to find Large parts of the planet have never been adequately searched Huge efforts in China are now providing lots of new finds –When we do find lots, it’s unsurprising that they are all very similar The local conditions were good for fossilisation Perhaps only for a short period of time –Several major transitions would have occurred rapidly We wouldn’t expect any transitional fossils
© Colin Frayn, 2008 www.frayn.net Reptiles to Birds Therapod dinosaurs … Coelophysis (late Triassic) Compsognathus (Jurassic) Deinonychus, Oviraptor, and other advanced theropods (late Jurassic, Cretaceous) Lisboasaurus estesi & other "troodontid dinosaur-birds" (mid-Jurassic) –GAP: The exact reptilian ancestor of Archeopteryx is unknown Protoavis (Triassic, ~225 Ma) -- A highly controversial fossil that may or may not be an extremely early bird. Archeopteryx lithographica (Late Jurassic, 150 Ma) Sinornis santensis ("Chinese bird", early Cretaceous, 138 Ma) Iberomesornis, Concornis and Eoalulavis (early Cretaceous, 135 Ma) Ambiortus dementjevi, Yanornis (early Cretaceous, 125 Ma) Gansus (Cretaceous 110 Ma) Hesperornis, Ichthyornis, and other Cretaceous diving birds (94-75 Ma) … Modern birds
© Colin Frayn, 2008 www.frayn.net W E Swinton’s Quote Claimed that bird evolution has no evidence –Writing in 1960! Well, he was more-or-less right in 1960… Since then, we’ve learned a lot!
© Colin Frayn, 2008 www.frayn.net Horse Evolution Early perissodactyls … Loxolophus: (early Paleocene) Tetraclaenodon: (mid-late Paleocene, ~64 Ma) SMALL GAP: There are almost no known perissodactyl fossils from the late Paleocene. Should be solved with new Asian fossil hunts Radinskya yupingae: (late Paleocene, ~55 Ma, China) Hyracotherium: (early Eocene, about 55-45 Ma; previously "Eohippus") Hyracotherium vassacciense: (early Eocene, ~55 Ma) Orohippus: (mid-Eocene, ~50 Ma) Epihippus: (late Eocene, ~45 Ma) Mesohippus celer: (late Eocene, 40 Ma) Mesohippus westoni: (early Oligocene, ~37 Ma) Miohippus assiniboiensis: (mid-Oligocene, ~37 Ma) Kalobatippus: (late Oligocene, 24 Ma) Parahippus: (early Miocene, 23 Ma) 'Parahippus' leonensis: (mid-Miocene, ~20 Ma) Merychippus gunteri: (mid-late Miocene, 18 Ma) Merychippus primus: (mid-late Miocene, 16 Ma) Merychippus: several other species of mid-late Miocene (18-15 Ma) SMALL GAP: It is not known which Merychippus species (stylodontus? carrizoensis?) gave rise to the first Dinohippus species Dinohippus: (late Miocene, 12 Ma) Equus (Plesippus): also called the "E. simplicidens" group (Pliocene, ~4 My) Equus (Hippotigris): (Pleistocene, 2Ma) Equus (Equus): (Pleistocene, 2Ma) … Modern horses
© Colin Frayn, 2008 www.frayn.net Whale Evolution Semi-aquatic mammals … Hapalodectes: Early Eocene (55 Ma) Pakicetus inachus: Early Eocene (53 Ma) Ambulocetus natans: Early to Middle Eocene (50-49 Ma) Rodhocetus: Mid-Eocene (47 Ma) Remingtonocetus: Middle Eocene (46-43 Ma) Indocetus ramani: earliest Middle Eocene Prozeuglodon : Mid Eocene (40 Ma) Dorudon: Mid-to-late Eocene (41-33 Ma) Basilosaurus: Mid-to-late Eocene (40-34 Ma) Eocetus: Late Eocene (35 Ma) Squalodon: Oligocene - Miocene (33-14 Ma) Cetotherium: Mid Miocene (15 Ma) … Modern whales
Science and Creationism 8. Transitional Fossils © Colin Frayn,
The Cenozoic: the Mammals take over! After the death of the Dinosaurs, no completely terrestrial animal larger than 100 pounds survived! There were large.
Evolution of Multicellular Life Precambrian - all periods before the Paleozoic era – 90% of Earth’s History – fossil evidence is contained in stromatolites.
Unit 3 Chapter 9 A View of the Earths Past. Section 1. Geologic Time The scale outlines the development of Earth and life on Earth. It is the summary.
Concept 25.6: Evolution is not goal oriented Evolution is like tinkering—it is a process in which new forms arise by the slight modification of existing.
Summary of Events Fossil Record Fossils Most found in marine sedimentary rock Three requirements: 1) need hard parts, e.g., shell, bone, teeth,
Welcome to Class Write down the four eras (put them in the correct order)
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Mammalian/Primate Evolutionary History I. More Taxonomic Concepts II. Time Scale III. Early Primate Evolution (Paleocene through Oligocene) IV. Miocene.
Paleogeography of North America Images by: Dr. Ron Blakey Professor of Geology Northern Arizona University
Evolution of the Horse: From the Swamps to the Sweeps By Dr. Jenifer Nadeau Dept. of Animal Science College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, UConn.
Knight (1897) Gallup ® – June Knight (1897) For a creationist it is possible that the various species of zebra had a common ancestor but this.
1 WHEEEEE ! 2 What are we Doing Today? Whale fossil hunt Whale ankle comparisons Whale DNA comparisons WHALE EVOLUTION.
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Geologic Time and the Rock Record 8 th Grade Earth and Space Science Class Notes.
Cenozoic Life Age of Flowers & Mammals. Oceans Similar to Mesozoic… …with new predators.
Fossils The Law of Superposition Consistent with Darwinian model of origins… Most Primitive Most Complex What early scientist is responsible for these.
17-3 Evolution of Multicellular Life How multicellular life evolved from its earliest forms to its present day diversity.
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Phylogeny. A Shared History We’ve talked a lot about common ancestors We’ve seen evidence that species are related to each other Today we’ll examine how.
12.5 Radiation of Multicellular Life This time period is known as the Cambrian explosion. It led to a huge diversity of animal species. Jawless fish similar.
Geological Timescale How do we measure the Earths Age?
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras Chapter 9 Objectives List.
Geological Time Scale. Division of Earth’s history into time units based largely on the types of life-forms that lived only during certain periods.
A View of Earth’s Past Section 3 Section 3: The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras Preview Objectives The Mesozoic Era Mass Extinction The Cenozoic Era Maps in.
Evolution Choice 1Choice 2Choice 3Choice
Evidence of Evolution CH 7 SEC 2 GOAL/PURPOSE STUDENTS LEARNED THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION. NOW THEY WILL LEARN ABOUT THE EVIDENCE THAT’S SUPPORTS THE THEORY.
This period is about 5 times as long as the Paleozoic and Mesozoic combined, a very long time. Less is known about it than the younger time periods. The.
Fossils In this presentation you will: Investigate the extent to which fossils support the theory of evolution Examine the development of the horse through.
A View of Earth’s Past Section 3 Section 3: The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras Preview Key Ideas The Mesozoic Era Mass Extinction The Cenozoic Era Maps in.
No intermediate forms? This false claim reveals a fundamental misunderstanding of evolution. He doesn’t get it.
Taxonomy & Evolutionary History I. Taxonomic Concepts II. Taxonomic Principles III. Time Scale IV. Rate of Evolutionary Change.
Macroevolution: Processes of Vertebrate and Mammalian Evolution Chapter 5.
The Cladogram The cladogram is used to show evolutionary relationships between organisms, NOT ancestry. The human shares more DNA with the Chimpanzee than.
By Sebastian Farrugia A timeline helps us to understand when and how things happened over a period of time. A dinosaur timeline shows us how long ago.
Section 18.1,18.2 By: Christian Flores and Jordan
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1 Evolution. Darwin’s Finches Darwin collected 31 specimens from 3 islands in the Galápagos Islands –Darwin not an expert on birds –Took them back to.
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Unit 5: Formation of the Earth Objectives: E5.3B - Explain the process of radioactive decay and explain how radioactive elements are used to date the rocks.
History of life on earth. hadean archaeanproterozoicpaleozoicmesozoiccenozoic Millions of years ago.
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