Presentation on theme: "Evidence of Evolution. ßWhat evidence do we have that life has evolved gradually from simple life forms to complex life forms over millions of years?"— Presentation transcript:
Evidence of Evolution
ßWhat evidence do we have that life has evolved gradually from simple life forms to complex life forms over millions of years?
There are 4 major types of Evidence that Evolution has occurred. 1. Fossil Evidence 2. Comparative Anatomy and Vestigial Structures 3. Similar Embryonic Development 4. Biochemical similarities
Evidence of Evolution Fossil Evidence
What is a fossil? ßThe preserved or mineralized remains (bone, tooth, or shell) or traces (footprints, burrow, or imprint) of an organism that lived long ago. Dinosaur fossil - (bone) Ammonite fossil (shell)
Fossils come in many forms Dinosaur footprint Shark teeth Imprint of fish
Fossils are very old Beetle fossil 50 million years old Stingray fossil 95 million year old Trilobite fossils 445 million years ago Bird egg fossil 1 million years old
How do We Know How Old things Are? ßCarbon dating half –life of carbon 14 is 5730 years.
How do fossils form? ßMost fossils are laid down in sedimentary rock -(particles carried by streams and rivers that eventually settle to the bottom in layers) Many fossils in the Grand Canyon
ßThe oldest particles, and therefore the oldest fossils will be at the bottom, with new layers being added. ßThe deeper down you go, the simpler the life forms are. ßThis leads some to believe that life began as simple prokaryotic cells and gradually became more complex because…
Older, simpler fossils at the bottom
What is the “fossil record” ßOver the years, paleontologists (scientists that study fossils) have collected millions of fossils. This groups of fossils is called the Fossil Record ßThe fossil record represents the preserved collective history of the the Earth’s organisms.
The fossil record shows that some organisms that once lived are now extinct archeopterous triceratops stegosaurous
The fossil record can show that organisms changed gradually over time 60 million years ago Today Fossil record of the whale
Fossil record of the modern horse 55 million years ago Today
Fossil record of the camel Today 40 million years ago
Evidence of Evolution Comparative Anatomy & Vestigial Structures
A. Comparative Anatomy: The limbs of all of these organisms are similar in structure even though their function may be different
ßAs vertebrates evolved, particular sets of bones were sometimes put to different uses…This may indicate a common ancestry
Some animals appear to have structures that no longer serve a function – (called vestigial structures) ßVestigial leg bones in a python
ßVestigial wings in a flightless bird Ex a penguin and an ostrich
Human appendix is vestigial ßThe human appendix has no function in humans but is very important in horses and other animals
Human tailbone is a vestigial vertebrate tail Human tail bone consists of fused vertebrae that no longer function as a tail
Evidence of Evolution Embryological Development
Similarities in Early Development
ßSimilar development must mean similar genes at work ßSimilar genes indicated common ancestry. ßDifferences in development are caused by genes that have mutated during the course of evolution.
Biochemical Evidence of Evolution ß Hemoglobin in the blood
ßThe more similar two organisms are, the more similar their DNA is. ßThis would indicate that they animals evolved from a common ancestor.