3 ENERGY & MATTER Energy is not the only thing ENERGY & MATTEREnergy is not the only thingthat moves through the ecosystem.Atoms are never destroyed only transformed.Take a deep breath.The atoms you just inhaled may have been inhaled by a dinosaur millions of years ago.
4 4 ATOMS make up 95% of the body in most organisms OXYGENCARBONHYDROGENNITROGENThe same molecules are passed aroundagain and again within the biosphere in___________________________BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
5 WATER CYCLE = ___________________ HYDROLOGIC CYCLE
6 WHY IS WATER IMPORTANT? Makes up 60-70% of your body Oxygen and Hydrogen are found in all the ________________________: carbohydrates, proteins,nucleic acids, lipidsHydrogen in H2O suppliesprotons (H+) & electronsfor_______________building blocks of cellsphotosynthesis
7 WHY IS WATER IMPORTANT? SOLVENT Water is a good _________________ Many molecules dissolve in water so itprovides a place for chemical reactionsto happenWater doesn’t change temperature easily so it helps with__________________SOLVENTHOMEOSTASIS
9 The evaporation of water from the surface of plant leaves The evaporation of water from the surface of plant leaves= ________________TRANSPIRATIONThe return of water to the surface in the form ofrain, snow, sleet, hail, etc.= ____________________PRECIPITATION
10 WATER CYCLE PH ONLINE LINK Put in code: cbp-2033 Choose Start Image edited from:WATER CYCLEPH ONLINE LINKPut in code: cbp Choose Start
11 CARBON CYCLE CO2 in atmosphere CO2 in ocean BIOLOGY; Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006
12 4 main CARBON reservoirs in BIOSPHERE In ____________ as CO2 gasIn _______ as dissolved CO2 gasOn _______ in organisms, rocks, soil__________ as coal & petroleum (fossil fuels) and calcium carbonate in rocksatmosphereoceanlandUndergroundCO2 inatmosphereCO2 inOceanBIOLOGY; Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006
13 Where does CO2 in atmosphere come from? OceanVolcanic activity___________________________________________________________ of dead organismsHuman activity (burning fossil fuels)Cellular respirationDecompositionBIOLOGY; Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006
14 WHY IS CARBON IMPORTANT? BUILDING BLOCKSFound in all the _______________ of cells: carbohydrates, proteins,nucleic acids, lipidsImage by Riedell
15 WHY IS CARBON IMPORTANT? Carbon in CO2 provides the atoms for__________ production during __________________...the fuel that all living things depend on.GLUCOSEPHOTOSYNTHESIS
16 NITROGEN CYCLE NH3 NO3- and NO2- N2 in Atmosphere Section 3-3 BIOLOGY; Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006
17 WHY IS NITROGEN IMPORTANT? NITROGEN BASES__________________make DNA and RNAATPAdenine (nitrogen base) is used in _______amino acidsMakes AMINO part of _________ (proteins)Image by RiedellImage by Riedell
18 79% of the atmosphere is made up of NITROGEN gas (N2) BUT we _____ use the nitrogen gaswe breathe!The bond in N2 gas is sostrong it can only be broken by___________________________________CAN’TlightningVolcanic activityfew special bacteriaImage by RiedellImage by Riedell
19 Bacteria that live ______________ and in _________ relationships with plants called _________, takenitrogen from the atmosphere andturn it into ______________, a formthat is usable by plants.THIS PROCESSIS CALLED _________________in the soilsymbioticlegumesAMMONIA (NH3)NITROGEN FIXATION
20 Other bacteria in the soil convert ammonia into ________________ & _________________which plants can also use.The nitrogen we need for proteins,ATP, and nucleic acids comes fromthe ______________________we breathe!NITRATES (NO3- )& NITRITES (NO2-)FOOD WE EATNOT THE AIRImage from: andmodified by Riedell
21 NITROGEN CYCLE NH3 NO3- and NO2- N2 in Atmosphere Section 3-3 BIOLOGY; Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006
22 Bacteria that live ______________ also carry out the reverse process ___________ → _____________.THIS PROCESSIS CALLED _________________in the soilNITRATES& NITRITESNITROGEN GASDENITRIFICATION
23 PHOSPHORUS CYCLE Phosphate moves through food web Image from: Pearson Education Inc; Publishing as Pearson Prentice HallPHOSPHORUS CYCLEPhosphate movesthrough food webProducers absorb phosphate from soil and waterPhosphate returns to soil and water from waste or decompositionWeathering wears away rocks and sediments and releases phosphate into soil and waterSediments form “new land” to complete cycle
24 is only biogeochemical cycle that does Phosphorus cycleis only biogeochemicalcycle that doesNOT cycle through the ______________atmosphereBIOLOGY; Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006
25 WHY IS PHOSPHORUS IMPORTANT? Makes DNA and RNATransfers energy as ATPMakes phospholipids for cell membranesImage by RiedellImage by Riedell
26 SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS LIFE SCIENCE: Indicator 3: Analyze how organisms are linked to one anotherand the environment.9-12.L Students are able to identify factors that can cause changes in stability of populations, communities, and ecosystems.Predict the results of biotic and abiotic interactions.Examples:Fluctuation in available resources (water, food, shelter) Biogeochemical cycles
27 SOUTH DAKOTA CORE EARTH SCIENCE STANDARDS Indicator 1: Analyze the various structures and processes of the Earth system.9-12.E Students are able to explain how elements and compounds cycle between living and non-living systems.Diagram and describe the N, C, O and H2O cycles.Describe the importance of the N, C, O and H2O cycles to life on this planet.Examples: water cycle including evaporation, cloud formation, condensation.
28 SOUTH DAKOTA ADVANCED SCIENCE STANDARDS EARTH SCIENCE: Indicator 1: Analyze the various structures and processesof the Earth system.9-12.E.1.1.A Students are able to explain how elements and compounds cycle between living and non-living systems.Diagram and describe the P, S, and Ca cycles.
29 Core High School Earth Science Performance Descriptors High school students performing at theADVANCED level:predict the effect of an interruption in a given cycles;predict how human activity may change the land, ocean, and atmosphere of Earth.PROFICIENT level:explain how H20, N, C, and O cycle between living and non-living systems;explain how human activity changes the land, ocean, and atmosphere of Earth.BASIC levelgive an example of human activity that changes the land, ocean, or atmosphere of Earth.