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BIOLOGY CONCEPTS & CONNECTIONS Fourth Edition Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Neil A. Campbell Jane B. Reece.

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Presentation on theme: "BIOLOGY CONCEPTS & CONNECTIONS Fourth Edition Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Neil A. Campbell Jane B. Reece."— Presentation transcript:

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2 BIOLOGY CONCEPTS & CONNECTIONS Fourth Edition Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Neil A. Campbell Jane B. Reece Lawrence G. Mitchell Martha R. Taylor From PowerPoint ® Lectures for Biology: Concepts & Connections CHAPTER 15 Tracing Evolutionary History Modules 15.1 – 15.5

3 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Are Birds Really Dinosaurs with Feathers? Did birds evolve from dinosaurs? Evolutionary biologists investigate this question by looking at the fossil record

4 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The fossil of the earliest known bird, Archeaopteryx, was discovered in 1861 Fossils of dinosaurs with feathers may support the bird- dinosaur theory

5 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Divergent Evolution Similar species develop different adaptations to different environments

6 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Coevolution Two or more species adapting to each other

7 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Rate of Evolution Slow and Steady or in Spurts? Gradualism Gradualism – the idea that small changes build up slowly over time to produce large changes. many Expectations – many intermediate “ missing link ” fossils

8 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

9 Punctuated Equilibrium The idea that populations go through periods of stability followed by short periods of rapid change. Expectations – fewer intermediate fossils

10 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 15.1 The fossil record chronicles macroevolution Macroevolution consists of the major changes in the history of life –The fossil record chronicles these changes, which have helped to devise the geologic time scale EARTH HISTORY AND MACROEVOLUTION

11 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15.1

12 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15.1

13 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15.1

14 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15.1

15 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15.1

16 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15.1

17 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 15.2 The actual ages of rocks and fossils mark geologic time The sequence of fossils in rock strata indicates the relative ages of different species Radiometric dating can gauge the actual ages of fossils

18 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Dating How do scientists determine the relative age of a fossil? Stratification Radiometric dating

19 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Stratification The deeper strata (layers) were deposited first. Fossils found in lower layers are older than in higher layers.

20 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

21 Radiometric Dating Isotopes – atoms with a different mass than usual Half life – the time required for half of the isotopes to decay. Carbon 14 – half life 5730 yrs Potassium 40 – half life 1.25 billion years

22 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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24 C-14 isotope levels. Expect 100 g of C-14 in a fresh sample, A. Remains have 50 g. ½ of amount = one half-life 5,730 years old B. Remains have only 25 g ¼ of amount or ½ of ½ = 2 half-lives 11,460 years old C-14 Limited to about 50,000 years

25 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 15.3 Continental drift has played a major role in macroevolution Continental drift is the slow, incessant movement of Earth ’ s crustal plates on the hot mantle Figure 15.3A Pacific Plate North American Plate Nazca Plate South American Plate African Plate Eurasian Plate Split developing Indo-Australian Plate Edge of one plate being pushed over edge of neighboring plate (zones of violent geologic events) Antarctic Plate

26 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Continental Drift

27 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings This movement has influenced the distribution of organisms and greatly affected the history of life –Continental mergers triggered extinctions –Separation of continents caused the isolation and diversification of organisms Figure 15.3B Millions of years ago Eurasia CENOZOIC MESOZOIC PALEOZOIC North America Africa India South America Antarctica Australia Laurasia Gondwana Pangaea

28 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings LungFish 3B&gs_rn=4&gs_ri=psy- ab&gs_mss=archeaopteryx&pq=archaeopteryx &cp=5&gs_id=9x&xhr=t&q=lungfish&es_nrs= true&pf=p&sclient=psy- ab&oq=lungf&gs_l=&pbx=1&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.r_qf.&bvm=bv ,d.b2I&fp=dcb 7caf e1&biw=1351&bih=652

29 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Continental drift explains the distribution of lungfishes –Lungfishes evolved when Pangaea was intact Figure 15.3C

30 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15.3D NORTH AMERICA SOUTH AMERICA EUROPE AFRICA ASIA AUSTRALIA = Living lungfishes = Fossilized lungfishes

31 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 15.4 Connection: Tectonic trauma imperils local life Plate tectonics, the movements of Earth ’ s crustal plates, are also associated with volcanoes and earthquakes –California ’ s San Andreas fault is a boundary between two crustal plates Figure 15.4A San Andreas fault San Francisco Santa Cruz Los Angeles

32 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings By forming new islands, volcanoes can create opportunities for organisms –Example: Galápagos But volcanic activity can also destroy life –Example: Krakatau Figure 15.4B, C

33 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 15.5 Mass extinctions were followed by diversification of life-forms At the end of the Cretaceous period, many life- forms disappeared, including the dinosaurs –These mass extinctions may have been a result of an asteroid impact or volcanic activity

34 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure million years ago Cretaceous extinctions 60 ?

35 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Every mass extinction reduced the diversity of life –But each was followed by a rebound in diversity –Mammals filled the void left by the dinosaurs

36 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 15.6 Key adaptations may enable species to proliferate after mass extinctions Adaptations that have evolved in one environmental context may be able to perform new functions when conditions change –Example: Plant species with catch basins, an adaptation to dry environments Figure 15.6

37 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 15.7 “ Evo-devo: ” Genes that control development play a major role in evolution “ Evo-devo ” is a field that combines evolutionary and developmental biology Major adaptations may arise rapidly if mutations occur in genes that control an organism ’ s early development

38 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Paedomorphosis, the retention of juvenile characteristics in the adult, seems to have played a role in human evolution Figure 15.7A, B Chimpanzee fetusChimpanzee adult Human fetusHuman adult

39 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Stephen Jay Gould argued that there was a connection between our juvenile physical traits and our long period of dependency –The youthful features of Mickey Mouse elicit affectionate, parental responses Figure 15.7C

40 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 15.8 Evolutionary trends do not mean that evolution is directed toward a goal Evolutionary trends may reflect unequal speciation or survival of species on a branching evolutionary tree

41 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15.8

42 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 15.9 Phylogenetic trees strive to represent evolutionary history Phylogeny is the evolutionary history of a group of organisms

43 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15.9 Medium ground finch Cactus ground finch Small tree finch Large ground finch Small ground finch Large cactus ground finch Sharp-beaked ground finch Vegetarian finch Seed eaters Ground finches Cactus flower eaters Bud eaters Tree finches Insect eaters Medium tree finch Large tree finch Mangrove finch Woodpecker finch Green warbler finch Gray warbler finch Warbler finches Common ancestor from South America mainland

44 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Molecular Clocks A molecular clock compares the similarity in a certain gene to see who related more closely

45 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Systematists classify organisms by phylogeny Reconstructing phylogeny is part of systematics –the study of biological diversity and classification Taxonomists assign a two-part name to each species –The first name, the genus, covers a group of related species –The second name refers to a species within a genus SYSTEMATICS AND PHYLOGENETIC BIOLOGY

46 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Taxonomy Taxonomy – the classification of living things

47 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Classification of Living Things Carol Linnaeus – ( ) Genus species Binomial nomenclature Bi – 2 nom – name nomenclature – naming Canis lupus – gray wolf Latin – universal language of scholars

48 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings of-natural- history/biographies/linnaeus/index.htmlhttp://www.nhm.ac.uk/nature-online/science- of-natural- history/biographies/linnaeus/index.html

49 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Hierarchy Address Planet - Earth Continent – North America Country – United States of America State - Kansas County - Rush Town - LaCrosse Street - Washington number - 400

50 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Hierarchy of Classification Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species

51 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Remembering the order KingdomKing PhylumPhillip ClassCame OrderOver Family From GenusGreat SpeciesSpain

52 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Taxonomy of the Grizzly

53 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

54 Genera are grouped into progressively larger categories Table 15.10

55 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Taxonomists often debate the particular placement of organisms in categories as they strive to make their categories reflect evolutionary relationships

56 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure SPECIES Felis catus (domestic cat) Mephitis mephitis (striped skunk) Lutra lutra (European otter) Canis familiaris (domestic dog) Canis lupus (wolf) Felis GENUS FAMILY ORDER MephitisLutraCanis CanidaeMustelidaeFelidae Carnivora

57 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Homology indicates common ancestry, but analogy does not Homologous structures are evidence that organisms have evolved from a common ancestor

58 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Homology indicates common ancestry, but analogy does not In contrast, analogous similarities are evidence that organisms from different evolutionary lineages have undergone convergent evolution –Their resemblances have resulted from living in similar environments

59 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Convergent Evolution

60 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings California ocotillo and allauidia of Madagascar Figure 15.11

61 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Molecular biology is a powerful tool in systematics Systematists increasingly use molecular techniques to –classify organisms –develop phylogenetic hypotheses Figure 15.12B HumanChimpanzeeGorillaOrangutan

62 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings A phylogenetic tree based on molecular data Figure 15.12A Pleistocene Pliocene Miocene Oligocene Brown bear Polar bear Asiatic black bear American black bear Sun bear Sloth bear Spectacled bear Giant panda Raccoon Lesser panda Ursidae Procyonidae Common ancestral carnivorans

63 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Systematists attempt to make classification consistent with phylogeny Homologous features are used to compare organisms Cladistic analysis attempts to define monophyletic taxa

64 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cladogram A diagram that shows the relationships among members of a group vertebrae Bony skeleton 4 limbs Amniotic egg Preorbital fenestra hair

65 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Derived Character A trait that appears in the newer members of a group, but not the older members

66 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15.13A Outgroup (Reptiles) TAXA Ingoup (Mammals) Eastern box turtle Duck-billed platypus Red kangarooNorth American beaver CHARACTERS Long gestation Gestation Hair, mammary glands Vertebral column Long gestation 1 Vertebral column 2 Hair, mammary glands 3 Gestation

67 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cladistic analysis is often a search for the simplest hypotheses about phylogeny –Phylogenetic tree according to cladistic analysis Figure 15.13B, C LizardsSnakesCrocodilesBirds LizardsSnakesCrocodilesBirds –Phylogenetic tree according to classical systematics

68 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Arranging life into kingdoms is a work in progress For several decades, systematists have classified life into five kingdoms THE DOMAINS OF LIFE Figure 15.14A MONERAPROTISTAPLANTAEFUNGIANIMALIA Earliest organisms

69 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings A newer system recognizes two basically distinctive groups of prokaryotes –The domain Bacteria –The domain Archaea A third domain, the Eukarya, includes all kingdoms of eukaryotes Figure 15.14B BACTERIAARCHAEAEUKARYA Earliest organisms

70 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings DomainBacteri a AchaeaEukarya Kingdom Eubacter ia Archae bacteria Protista FungiPlantaeAnimalia Nucleus No Yes Multicell ular/ Specializ ed cells No Yes Cell wall composit ion Peptidog lycon Pseudo murein ChitinCellulose None Auto Heterotr oph Both Both HeteroAuto Hetero


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