Presentation on theme: "Modifiers provide additional information about nouns, pronouns, and verbs. They help us describe what we have seen and heard. Vincent Van Gogh painted."— Presentation transcript:
Modifiers provide additional information about nouns, pronouns, and verbs. They help us describe what we have seen and heard. Vincent Van Gogh painted quickly and forcefully. Question answered: How did Van Gogh paint?
Modifiers can also help describe feelings about things and people. Van Gogh was happiest when he painted outdoors. Bright, yellow sunflowers were a favorite subject.
What is an adjective? a word that modifies a noun or pronoun (NOT A VERB) Some adjectives tell how many or what kind about the words they modify. Some adjectives tell which one or which ones.
Examples: The older painters disapproved of Van Gogh’s style. He tried new techniques in his first paintings. Those peasants are in the field. What are the different types of adjectives?
What is an adverb? modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb help make meaning clear by telling how, when, where, or to what extent something is true
Look at this list of adverbs: How?When?Where?To What Extent? carefully quickly hurriedly sometimes once finally inside here there fully very extremely Notice how adverbs make the sentences clearer. The door of the tomb opened. Finally, the door of the tomb slowly opened.
Adverbs that tell to what extent can also modify adjectives and other adverbs. Frequently Used Adverbs Verynotsomewhatmore Justnearlysomost The tomb was dark. The tomb was nearly dark. The guide spoke softly. The guide spoke very softly.
Many adverbs are made by adding –ly to an adjective. Careful + ly = carefully Easy + ly = easily (can be spelling changes) Some modifiers, like soon, quite, and very, can be used only as adverbs.
Use the comparative form of an adjective to compare two things. Use the superlative form of an adjective to compare more than two. KEY RULE: COPY INTO READING NOTEBOOK
The Comparative Form Use the comparative form of the adjective to compare one thing or person with another thing or group. The comparative is formed in two ways: 1. For short adjectives, such as great or fierce, add –er. great + er = greater fierce + er = fiercer COPY INTO READING NOTEBOOK
2. For longer adjectives, such as unusual or remarkable, use more. more unusual more remarkable Most adjectives ending in –ful and –ous also form the comparative with more. more successfulmore curious COPY INTO READING NOTEBOOK
The Superlative Form To compare a thing or a person with more than one other of its kind, use the superlative form of the adjective. Dinosaurs were the largest land animals ever to live. However, they are not the most ancient animals. What do you notice about superlatives? The superlative of an adjective is formed by adding –est or using most. COPY INTO READING NOTEBOOK
Notice how the adjectives in the chart change forms according to the rules. AdjectiveComparativeSuperlative strongstrongerstrongest fastfasterfastest mysteriousmore mysteriousmost mysterious COPY INTO READING NOTEBOOK
Tips to Remember: Do not leave out the word “other” when you are comparing something with everything else of its kind. Ex:Tyrannosaurus rex was more ferocious than any dinosaur. Tyrannosaurus rex was more ferocious than any other dinosaur.
Tips to Remember: Do not use both –er and more or –est and most. Ex:Dinosaurs are note the most oldest of all reptiles. Dinosaurs are not the oldest of all reptiles. COPY INTO READING NOTEBOOK
Irregular Comparisons AdjectiveComparativeSuperlative goodbetterbest wellbetterbest badworseworst illworseworst littleless or lesserleast muchmoremost manymoremost farfartherfarthest COPY INTO READING NOTEBOOK
Use the comparative form of an adverb to compare two actions. Use the superlative form of an adverb to compare more than two actions. KEY RULE: COPY INTO READING NOTEBOOK
The Comparative 1. For short adverbs, such as soon or high, add –er. The parade entered the big top sooner than we expected. The lion leaped higher than the tiger. COPY INTO READING NOTEBOOK
The Comparative 2. For most adverbs ending in –ly, use more to make the comparative. Sara laughed more frequently than Andy. The horse ran more rapidly around the ring this time than he had earlier. COPY INTO READING NOTEBOOK
The Superlative Use the superlative form of the adverb to compare an action with two or more others of the same kind. Of the three horses, that one runs fastest. The lion roared the most ferociously of all the big cats. What do you notice about how superlative adverbs are formed? COPY INTO READING NOTEBOOK
The Superlative The superlative of adverbs is formed by adding –est at the end of the adverb or adding most before the adverb in the sentence. COPY INTO READING NOTEBOOK
Keep these points in mind: 1. Use the comparative to compare two actions and the superlative to compare more than two. 2. Do not leave out the word other when you are comparing one action with every other action of the same kind.
Keep these points in mind: 3. Do not use both –er and more or –est and most together. COPY INTO READING NOTEBOOK
Let’s see what you know… 1. The romans celebrated holidays (frequently) than we do. 2. They invented the circus as a form of celebration, and they clapped (loud) of all for the most spectacular performances. 3. Chariot races were (bitterly) contested than any modern auto race. 4. The best driver was not the one who raced (fast). 5. He was the one who (quickly) forced other drivers to crash. more frequently loudest more bitterly fastest most quickly