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CHORDATA By: Caroline Chandler, Meredith Wehrle, and Meredith Dickey.

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Presentation on theme: "CHORDATA By: Caroline Chandler, Meredith Wehrle, and Meredith Dickey."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHORDATA By: Caroline Chandler, Meredith Wehrle, and Meredith Dickey

2 F ACTS ABOUT P HYLUM C HORDATA Bilateral symmetry Three germ layers- endoderm, ectoderm, mesoderm Well developed coelom Triploblastic Specialized tissues compose unique organs Urochordata- sessile Cephalochordate and Vertebrates are motile- body designed for movement with ease Type of movement depends on species-jump, swim, walk, etc.

3 D EVELOPMENT Body development in the Phylum Chordata varies greatly Vertebrata: -some embryo develop in egg -others develop in mothers uterus and are born live -many specialized structures and organs Urochordata: -produce free swimming larvae with notochord, dorsal tubular nervous system, and gill slits -larval stage ends when organism finds a rock suitable for life -adults have neither a notochord or nervous system Cephalochordata: -have dorsal nerve cord, notochord, and gill slits -maintain throughout life

4 R EPRODUCTION AND LIFE CYCLES Sexual reproduction Several urochordata species reproduce asexually Life cycles vary

5 3 Subphyla: -Urochordata -Cephalochordata -Vertebrata

6 U ROCHORDATA marine sessile feed by filtering food particles from seawater taken in through one opening, or siphon, and squirted out the other disperse themselves with free-swimming larvae

7 C EPHALOCHORDATA Body laterally compressed and transparent (fish like) All four chordate characteristics persist throughout lifetime Motile

8 P HYLOGENIC T REE … Chordata UrochordataCephalochordataVertebrata Agnatha Chondrichthyes Osteichthyes Amphibian Reptilia AvesMammalia


10 A GNATHA Most primitive vertebrates Jawless fish with cartilaginous skeleton Also characterized by lack of paired fins Notochord persists throughout life Most are parasitic Lamprey Hagfish

11 C HONDRICTHYES “Chondra”=cartilage; “icthyes”=fish Cartilaginous skeleton with jaw Notochord becomes vertebrae in adults Most fertilization internal Shark Manta rays

12 O STEICHTHYES “Oste”=bone; “ichthyes”=fish Bony skeleton and jaw Most fertilization is external Notochord becomes spinal chord Most have swim bladder Carp-ray finned fish Coelacanth lobe-finned fish

13 A MPHIBIANS First vertebrates to move to land Amphibian means “double life”- refers to metamorphosis and the fact that larvae live in water and adults live on land Evolved from lobe-finned fish Frog Toad Salamander

14 D ID YOU KNOW … …one of the differences between toads and frogs is that toads lay their eggs in long, tube-like protective membranes, while frogs lay theirs in clusters? Toads also have more dry, “warty” skin, while frogs have more smooth and slimy skin Contrary to popular belief, toads do NOT give you warts…

15 R EPTILIA Evolved from amphibians Adapted to live in hot, dry places Internal fertilization First class to have amniotic egg Carnivores, developed strong teeth and claws Structure of the amniotic egg

16 A VES Adapted for flight Thought to be evolved from dinosaurs Feathers and wings Hollow bones make birds lighter for flight Have a beak instead of a jaw Internal testes- external testes would cause balance problems Amniotic egg

17 A VES A NCESTORS … Birds are thought to have evolved from flying dinosaurs… Until 1991, everyone thought birds evolved from the Archaeopteryx. Then… …a paleontologist found fossils of a flying dinosaur believed to be even older. It was named Protoavis Due to inconsistencies in information, the Archaeopteryx is still viewed as the ancestor of birds

18 M AMMALIA Evolved from reptiles Almost all give birth to live young Have fur/hair and subcutaneous (under-the-skin) fat for insulation Well suited for cold climates 3 groups: -Monotremes: lay eggs, most primitive -Marsupials: give birth to young very early in development and complete development in mother’s pouch -Placentals: complete development in uterus

19 A T SOME POINT, ALL CHORDATE HAVE … Notochord- a longitudinal, flexible rod formed from the dorsal mesoderm and located between the gut and the nerve cord in all chordate embryos Hollow dorsal nerve cord- dorsal to notochord, late become brain and spinal cord Pharyngeal gill slits- used for feeding; slits lined with beating cilia pull in water and filter it for food Postanal tail-an extension beyond the anus of the notochord or backbone and of the body-wall musculature, containing no internal organs

20 W ORKS CITED Pictures: “The Vertebrates” Cephalochordata Urochordata Hagfish Lamprey Shark Manta rays Carp Coelacanth Toad Frog Salamander Amniotic egg Dinosaur Bird Platypus Kangaroo with joey Cat with kittens Frog life cycle Chicken egg Lancelet Urochodate

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