Presentation on theme: "REACHING ALL CHILDREN IN THE CLASSROOM: AN OVERVIEW OF DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGIES COMPILED BY JEN MITCHELL."— Presentation transcript:
1REACHING ALL CHILDREN IN THE CLASSROOM: AN OVERVIEW OF DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGIES COMPILED BY JEN MITCHELL
2Differentiation: Introduction That students differ may be inconvenient, but it is inescapable. Adapting to that diversity is the inevitable price of productivity, high standards, and fairness to the students.~Theodore SizerSizer, T. (1984). Horace’s Compromise: The Dilemma of the American High School (p. 194). Boston: Houghton- Mifflin
3What is Differentiation? Curriculum differentiation is a process used to maximize student learning by improving the match between a student's individual needs and the curriculum.A general term used to describe the range of strategies, which are used to ensure children’s needs are met.Curriculum differentiation is a broad term referring to the need to tailor teaching environments and practices to create appropriately different learning experiences for different students.Adapting the curriculum to meet the unique needs of learners by making modifications in complexity, depth, and pacing.
4Teachers can Differentiate the: According to Students’: CONTENT:Knowledge, skills and attitudes we want children to learn; differentiating content requires that students are pre-tested so the teacher can identify the students who do not require direct instructionPROCESS:Varying learning activities / strategies to provide appropriate methods for students to explore the concepts; important to give students alternative paths to manipulate the ideas embedded within the concept (different grouping methods, graphic organizers, maps, diagrams, or charts)PRODUCT:Varying the complexity of the product that students create to demonstrate mastery of the concepts; students below grade level may have different performance expectations than students above grade level (ie. more complex or more advanced thinking~ Bloom’s Taxonomy)According to Students’:READINESS/ DEVELOPMENTAL:Some students are ready for different concepts, skills, or strategies; others may lack the foundation needed to progress to further levelsINTEREST:Student interest inventories provide information to plan different activities that respond to individual student’s interestLEARNING STYLEIndividual student preference for where, when or how students obtain and process information (visual, auditory, kinesthetic; multiple intelligences; environment, social organization, physical circumstance, emotional climate, psychological climate)
5Differentiation: WHAT To Teach Essential QuestionsCurriculum Map TemplateUnit DesignLesson PlanningSkills List
6What to Teach??? Essential Questions ~ conceptual understandings (Mctighe & Wiggins, 2004, p. 91, 93-93)Curriculum Map/Unit DesignCurriculum Map TemplateSee other unit templateSample Skills List (Heacox, p. 61)Turn, Share and/or revise Essential Questions or Skills for your Unit of Study
10Differentiation Strategies: Part I Pre AssessmentCurriculum CompactingLearning Contracts
11PRIOR KNOWLEDGE/READINESS: The Value of Pre-Assessment... Textbook PretestStudent/Teacher Conference - as short as a 5 minute talkK-N-W Chart - What do I Know, Need to know & Want to knowJournal - Write what you know about...List - If I say What does it make you think of?Concept Map...Student Reflection~You can’t figure out what to teach ’em if you don’t know ’em!Jot down some ideas for “pre-learning assessment” for your unit; you may want to think about some strategies represented in Beyond the Blueprint, Chapter 7
12I’ve mapped out the concepts I’ve already grasped to save you time.
13PACING: Curriculum Compacting Modify and/or streamline regular curriculum to:eliminate repetition of previously mastered materialupgrade the challenge level of the regular curriculumdetermine student “readiness”provide time for enrichment and/or acceleration activities
14Eight Compacting Steps (Student Readiness) Identify objectives ( UbD Stage 1)Create pretest (end of unit expectations; UbD Stage 2)Identify students to PretestAdminister PretestEliminate content in areas of masteryStreamline instruction (UbD Stage 3)Offer enrichment or acceleration activities (Heacox, p. 139, 142)Keep records of progress
15Learning ContractsA written agreement between the student and the teacher which includes opportunities for the student to work relatively independently on primarily teacher-directed material.The student has:Some freedom in acquiring skills and understandingsResponsibility for learning independentlyGuidelines for completing workGuidelines for appropriate behaviorExpectations tailored to readiness levelSee sample: Compacting Form and Project Description (Heacox, p.142)Turn & Talk: Explain how learning contracts support curriculum compacting?
16Differentiation Strategies: Part II Differentiation by Interest, Learning Style (choice) & Readiness (challenge levels)Choice: Gardner’s Multiple IntelligencesChoice: Projects, Presentations & Performance (Heacox)Choice: Products & Performances/Performance Tasks (McTighe & Wiggins)Readiness: Bloom’s Taxonomy~ Challenge LevelsChoice by Challenge Level & Learning Style (Heacox)Flexible Grouping3 Kinds of Groups (Heacox)
17Differentiate by Choice: Interest Interest Inventories (Heacox, p )Grouping Index Cards/Use for Centers:Item 5: Have students list topics they rated 1 and 2 (use to create teams of common interests)Item 7: Use to group for exploratory topicsItem 13: Use to identify “specialists” for particular areas of studyItem 19/20: To create partnerships or learning groupsReview the inventory; how do you think and learn? Reflect upon how your strengths have been supported/neglected. Turn and share.
18Differentiate by Students’ Learning Style & Challenge Levels Learning Style: How We Think and LearnVariety: Multiple Intelligences (Heacox, p )Howard Gardner(Projects, Presentations, Performances; Heacox, p )Challenge Levels (readiness): Rigor, Relevance & ComplexityChallenge! NOT more.Blooms Taxonomy: 6 Levels of ThinkingChallenge Levels (Heacox, p. 69 & 75)
19CHOICE: Challenge & Learning Style: Bloom’s Taxonomy & Gardner’s M.I. Brief Lesson Plan (Heacox, p. 73, 156)Content + Process + Product = learning experienceContent=what are students learning about?Process=what level of thinking is required?Product= how will the results of learning be represented/ assessed?Ex: Compare and contrast a scene in a novel with the movie version of the same scene by presenting your ideas in a storyboard of words and pictures.Your Turn…
20CHOICE: Challenge & Learning Style: Double-sided Lesson Plan Matrix (Bloom’s & Multiple Intelligences)Heaxox, p , 82-83Small group (triad/diad) plan to incorporate concepts into your unit of study using the matrix…
21Flexible Grouping“A hallmark of an effective differentiated classroom….is the use of flexible grouping, which accommodates students who are strong in some areas and weaker in others.~Carol TomlinsonThree Types of Groups:Flexible (readiness, learning style…)Ability/AptitudeCooperative(Heacox, p. 87)
22Differentiation Strategies: Part III Tiered ActivitiesChoice: Tic Tac ToeAnchoring ActivityQuestioning & Discussion
23Tiered Activities Tiered Instruction features: Whole group introduction and initial instructionIdentification of developmental differencesLadder Analogy (bottom – up; challenge/complexity)Increase or Decrease the:Abstraction/Challenge Levels (ie. application, analysis & synthesis)Extent of SupportComplexity of:outcomesresources (reading levels, types of text [on-line, magazine, etc…], based on prior-knowledge levels)processes (way in which students obtain information)products (M.I. products)
24Tiered Assignment~ Middle School Unit: Dinosaurs Objective: In their study of dinosaurs, the students will be able to research and identify various theories of dinosaur extinction.Task 1 - After researching and identifying various theories of dinosaur extinction, students will be able to create their own theory and draw a picture or diagram illustrating that theory.Task 2 - After researching and identifying various theories of dinosaur extinction, students will be able to create a visual representation of their theory (i.e. diorama, timeline, or three dimensional model).Task 3 - After researching and identifying various theories of dinosaur extinction, students will be able to create a visual representation of their theory and defend their theory during a class debate.“Shipwreck at the Bottom of the World” example & planning templateBrainstorm your own!
25CHOICE: Use as a choice of required products Code to identify challenge levels or learning styleWarm-up/Cool-down activitiesPure “choice” timeAlternatives for students(via curriculum compacting)Project Menu Cards (Heacox, p. 106)Tic Tac Toe
27Anchoring Activity (See the Anchoring Activity for: The Giver) Self-paced, purposeful, content-driven activities that students can work on independently throughout a unit, a grading period, or longerMeaningful ongoing activities related to the curriculumA list of activities that a student can do at any timeA long-term projectAn activity center/learning station located in the roomThese activities must be worthy of a student’s time and appropriate to their learning needs
28Management Suggestions Explain the activity and the procedureswith the whole classMake expectations clear – develop ground rules for:BehaviorPerformanceUse tasks that require time and thinking – this is not an extension of the “seat-work” conceptProvide clear instructions, materials, responsibilities, check points, and expectations (rubrics)
29QUESTIONING & DISCUSSION "I have no answers, only questions."~Socrates, c. 300 B.C.University of Nebraska-Lincoln Study: of questions teachers ask approximately:60% require only recall of facts20% require students to think20% are procedural in natureResource:Appendix B: Differentiating Classroom Discussion (Heacox, pgs. 150 & 152); how would you use this resource during instruction?
30Open Ended Questions have no “right” answer can be discussed and debatedprovoke and sustain student inquiryraise other important questionsaddress the conceptual or philosophical foundations of a disciplinestimulate vital, ongoing reflection of big ideas and assumptions
31Now, all you round pegs get back into your square holes!” “Summer’s over kids!Now, all you round pegs get back into your square holes!”
32The biggest mistake we have made in past centuries in teaching has been to treat all children as if they were variants of the same individual and thus to feel justified in teaching them the same subjects in the same ways.~Howard Gardner