Thaumatrope William Henry Fitton (1826) A two-sided disk (bird on one side, cage on the other) with a central string Images merge when disk was spun
Zoetrope (ZOH-uh-trohp) Invented by William George Horner (1834) Based on the persistence of vision property Appeared in the US in 1837
Phenakistoscope Joseph Antoine Ferdinand Plateau (1832) (Also Simon Ritter von Stampfer – Stroboscope) The inner disk held the pictures in order on the rim The viewer looked through slits in an outer
Polyrama Panoptique French (1860) When doors are opened and closed in the top and back the pictures change from day to night Based on Daguerre's Diorama
Praxinoscope Emile Reynaud (1877) Based on Zoetrope First to project a moving image onto a big screen
Winsor McKay & Gertie the Dinosaur McKay, a cartoonist, produced three animations Little Nemo (1911) The Story of the Mosquito Gertie the Dinosaur (1914)
Winsor McKay & Gertie the Dinosaur Little Nemo, based on one of McKay’s comic strips, was a dreamlike experiment in motion The Story of the Mosquito tells a comic story of a mosquito's encounter with a drunken man Both films were huge successes in McKay’s vaudeville act
Winsor McKay & Gertie the Dinosaur In 1913, McKay began to animate Gertie the Dinosaur A neighbor, John A. Fitzsimmons, traced the backgrounds, while McKay animated all other elements by hand
Winsor McKay & Gertie the Dinosaur In Gertie, Mckay paid attention to such details as falling dirt particles and drops of water Gertie was also a huge success and is still considered a masterpiece of animation
Walt Disney 1919: Forms Iwerks-Disney Commercial Artists with Ub Iwerks Hired by Kansas City Film Ad Company In spare time, creates Laugh-O-Grams for Newman Theater Company
Walt Disney 1923-26: Creates Alice’s Wonderland, and other Alice films, which combined a live-action Alice with animation
Walt Disney 1927: Introduced Oswald the Rabbit, a precursor to Mickey Mouse Introduced pencil test technique
Walt Disney 1928: Plane Crazy – first appearance of Mickey Mouse Steamboat Willie - first animation to synchronize sound with the action on the screen Barn Dance Steamboat Willie Walt Disney (1928)
Max Fleischer 1917-1929: Creates series, Out of the Inkwell, with character KoKo the Clown Koko was drawn using Rotoscoping; single frames of live-action film are projected onto a drawing surface, where they are traced onto animation cels
Other Animators Walter Lantz The King of Jazz (1930) Includes first technicolor animation Woody the Woodpecker
Other Animators Tex Avery Created Porky Pig, Daffy Duck, and the personality of Bugs Bunny
Secondary actions Directly results from another action Can be used to increase the complexity and interest in a scene Should be subordinate to and not compete with the primary action Example: Facial expression on a character
Overlapping actions Make for your animation more fluid. Use the body, hair, tail, clothing, etc. to follow the lead actions and movements Know the motivational force of the action ( which part of the body or force makes it move). Use “S” curves during movement transitions (when changing directions). Look for the main actions to drag other elements - like body parts, hair. clothes, tails, etc.
Anticipation SET UP or TELEGRAPH the audience (a theater device). KEEP the auidence with the character's actions. Builds MOMENTUM for the main action. The anticipation MATCHES the action.
Follow-through When the main body of the character stops all other parts continue to catch up to the main mass of the character, such as arms, long hair, clothing, coat tails or a dress, floppy ears or a long tail (these follow the path of action). Nothing stops all at once. This is follow through.
Line of action Helps your poses "read". It makes them clear and understandable and gives them a distinct non- ambiguous direction Can be obvious and exaggerated Creates a solid and clear easy to read attitude
Solid Drawing Has interesting, well proportioned shapes and good sense of weight and volume Just as there are principles of animation, drawing also has its own, taught at drawing art schools and books Weight Silhouettes
Arcs All actions, with few exceptions (such as the animation of a mechanical device), follow an arc or slightly circular path. Arcs give animation a more natural action and better flow.
Timing/Pacing Weight can effect TIMING (heavier - slower / lighter - faster). Emotions effect TIMING. (burdened, sad - slower / happy, victorious - faster). The same with Energy: (rundown, tired - slower / awake, vibrant - faster).
Staging A pose or action should clearly communicate to the audience the attitude, mood, reaction or idea of the character as it relates to the story and continuity of the story line.
Exaggeration Exaggeration is not extreme distortion of a drawing or extremely broad, violent action all the time. It’s like a caricature of facial features, expressions, poses, attitudes and actions. A character must move more broadly to look natural. The same is true of facial expressions, but the action should not be as broad as in a short cartoon style. Exaggeration in a walk or an eye movement or even a head turn will give your film more appeal. Use good taste and common sense to keep from becoming too theatrical and excessively animated.
Appeal A live performer has charisma. An animated character has appeal. Does not mean just being cute and cuddly. All characters have to have appeal whether they are heroic, villainous, comic or cute. Includes an easy to read design, clear drawing, and personality development that will capture and involve the audience’s interest.
Slow-In & Slow-Out As action starts, we have more frames near the starting pose, one or two in the middle, and more frames near the next pose. Fewer frames make the action faster and more frames make the action slower. Slow-ins and slow-outs soften the action, making it more life-like. For a gag action, we may omit some slow-out or slow-ins for shock appeal or the surprise element. This will give more snap to the scene.