Presentation on theme: "Dr. Arthur Keith, Scottish anatomist and anthropologist. He wrote the introduction to an earlier edition of Darwin’s Origin of Species. “Evolution is unproved."— Presentation transcript:
Dr. Arthur Keith, Scottish anatomist and anthropologist. He wrote the introduction to an earlier edition of Darwin’s Origin of Species. “Evolution is unproved and unprovable. We believe it only because the only alternative is special creation which is unthinkable.” Cited in Origins?, by BG Ranganathan, p.22
"The irony is devastating. The main purpose of Darwinism was to drive every last trace of an incredible God from biology. But the theory replaces God with an even more incredible deity - omnipotent chance." T. Rosazak, "Unfinished Animal", 1975, p. 101-102.
"the assumption that evolution is an established fact of science is absolutely false. Thus, evolution can only be correctly labeled as a belief, a subjective philosophy of origins, the religion of many scientists." T. Rosazak, "Unfinished Animal", 1975, p. 101-102.
The God Delusion is a 2006 book by British biologist Richard Dawkins, holder of the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford.Richard DawkinsCharles SimonyiUniversity of Oxford In The God Delusion, Dawkins contends that a supernatural creator almost certainly does not exist and that belief in a god qualifies as a delusion, which he defines as a persistent false belief held in the face of strong contradictory evidence. He is sympathetic to Robert Pirsig's observation that "when one person suffers from a delusion it is called insanity. When many people suffer from a delusion it is called religion." supernatural creatorgod delusion evidenceRobert Pirsig As of November 2007, the English version of The God Delusion had sold over 1.5 million copies and had been translated to 31 languages. It was ranked #2 on the Amazon.com bestsellers' list in November 2006. In early December 2006, it reached #4 in the New York Times Hardcover Nonfiction Best Seller list after nine weeks on the list. It remained on the list for 51 weeks until September 30, 2007. It has attracted widespread commentary, with several books written in response. Amazon.comNew York Times Hardcover Nonfiction Best Seller
God is not Great: How Religion Poisons Everything (published in the United Kingdom as God is Not Great: The Case Against Religion ) is a non- fiction book by author and journalist Christopher Hitchens.non- fiction Christopher Hitchens In the book, Hitchens contends that religion is "violent, irrational, intolerant, allied to racism, tribalism, and bigotry, invested in ignorance and hostile to free inquiry, contemptuous of women and coercive toward children." Hitchens' main arguments for his points include a combination of personal stories, documented historical anecdotes and critical analysis of religious texts. His commentary focuses mainly on the Abrahamic religions, although he discusses other religions such as Hinduism and Buddhism as well.racismtribalismcoerciveAbrahamic religionsHinduism Buddhism
Root of All Evil? The Original Program 2- DVD Set A beautiful new digital transfer from the master, with new artwork and special features. In this two-part documentary, Oxford Professor Richard Dawkins examines how religious faith is gaining ground in the face of rational, scientific truth. The program takes you to some of the world's religious hot-spots, both in America and the Middle East. Dawkins meets with religious leaders and their followers, as well as scientists and skeptics to examine the power of religion. Interviews with former Pastor Ted Haggard, the novelist Ian McEwan, the former Bishop of Oxford, and others offer valuable insights into the global impact and consequences of faith in the 21st century. Along with his million-copy bestseller The God Delusion, Richard Dawkins' Root of All Evil? has helped inspire people of reason worldwide to say "Enough is enough!" Our modern world is the product of a long march from ignorance and fear to the Enlightement and beyond, always guided by the power of science and reason. To now abandon our endeavour toward progress and knowledge for faith and superstition puts humanity in peril
The Blind Watchmaker is a 1986 book by Richard Dawkins in which he presents an explanation of, and argument for, the theory of evolution by means of natural selection. He also presents arguments to refute certain criticisms made on his previous book The Selfish Gene. (Both books are intended to popularise the gene-centric view of evolution.)1986Richard Dawkinsevolutionnatural selectionThe Selfish Gene gene-centric view of evolution
" `Creation,' in the ordinary sense of the word, is perfectly conceivable. I find no difficulty in conceiving that, at some former period, this universe was not in existence; and that it made its appearance in six days in consequence of the volition of some pre- existing Being."—* Thomas Huxley, quoted in *Leonard Huxley, Life and Letters of Thomas Henry Huxley, Vol. II (1903), p. 429.
Dr. Robert Jastrow (September 7, 1925 – February 8, 2008) Received his A.B., A.M and Ph.D. in theoretical physics from Columbia University in 1948. Joined NASA when it was formed in 1958. First chairman of NASA’s Lunar Exploration Committee, which established the scientific goals for the exploration of the moon during the Apollo lunar landings Chief of the Theoretical Division at NASA (1958-61). Founding director of NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies in 1961. Served until his retirement from NASA in 1981. Director Emeritus of Mount Wilson Observatory and Hale Solar Laboratory Dr. Robert Jastrow, American astronomer, physicist, agnostic: "Scientists have no proof that life was not the result of an act of creation.“ Robert Jastrow, The Enchanted Loom: Mind in the Universe (1981), p. 19.
Q: What do you suppose accounts for children's obsession with dinosaurs? Interview By Michael Krasny with Stephen Jay Gould, January/February 1997 Issue of Mother Jones Magazine. A: I once asked Sheldon White, the child psychologist, and I loved his answer: "Big, fierce, and extinct."
Water level needed for sight and breathing. nostrils Tail like a cedar
This enormous plant-eater measured about 70- 90 feet long and about 15 feet tall at the hips. It weighed roughly 33-38 tons. Believed to be one of the largest dinosaurs that ever existed. APATOSAURUS (Brachiosauros; obsolete name= Brontosaurus) The "Deceptive Lizard”- - A Harmless Giant
Compsognathus was a bird-like dinosaur that walked on two long, thin legs; it had three-toed feet. A long tail acted as a counterbalance and for stability during fast turns. Compsognathus was about the size of a modern chicken and believed to be one of the smallest dinosaurs. Compsognathus Smallest of the dinosaurs
The first dinosaur to be described scientifically was Megalosaurus. This genus was named in 1824, by William Buckland. Buckland (1784-1856) was a British fossil hunter and clergyman. Megalosaurus was up to 30 feet long, 10 feet tall, and weighed about 1 ton.
The biggest known carnivorous dinosaur. 40’ long, 15 to 20’ tall. Weighed roughly 5 to 7 tons.
Triceratops horridus "Horrible Three-horned Face" Triceratops 30’ long, 10’ tall, weighed up to 6-12 tons.
Human Variation Watusi Pygmy Dwarfism Basketball players Eskimo (Inuit) Billy Barty 3-foot-9 Shaquille O’neal 7-foot -1 This is an example of genetic variation and natural selection and NOT evolution
Origin of Dinosaurs? Dinosaurs evolved 220 million years ago The Standard Story
Origin of Dinosaurs “The question of the origin of dinosaurs is one that has puzzled paleontologists for many years.” The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs, Dr. David Norman, 1985, p. 186.
Origin of Dinosaurs “Where did dinosaurs come from? That apparently simple question has been the subject of intense debate amongst scientists for over 150 years,…” The Natural History Museum Book of Dinosaurs, 1998, p. 12.
Evolution and Evidence Thecondonts “Small lizards that ran on two legs and gave rise to the giant reptiles collectively known as the dinosaurs” The Nature of Life, 1995 “Small lizards that ran on two legs and gave rise to the giant reptiles collectively known as the dinosaurs” The Nature of Life, 1995 The Origin of Dinosaurs The only evidence presented in any major biology textbook
Gen 1:24 Then God said, "Let the earth bring forth the living creature according to its kind: cattle and creeping thing and beast of the earth, each according to its kind"; and it was so. Gen 1:25 And God made the beast of the earth according to its kind, cattle according to its kind, and everything that creeps on the earth according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. 6 th day
Job 40:15 Look now at the behemoth, which I made along with you; He eats grass like an ox. Job 40:16 See now, his strength is in his hips, And his power is in his stomach muscles. Job 40:17 He moves his tail like a cedar; The sinews of his thighs are tightly knit. Job 40:18 His bones are like beams of bronze, His ribs like bars of iron. Job 40:19 He is the first of the ways of God; Only He who made him can bring near His sword.
Job 41:1 Can you draw out Leviathan with a hook, Or snare his tongue with a line which you lower? Job 41:2 Can you put a reed through his nose, Or pierce his jaw with a hook? Job 41:26 Though the sword reaches him, it cannot avail; Nor does spear, dart, or javelin.
Job 41:18 His sneezings flash forth light, And his eyes are like the eyelids of the morning. Job 41:19 Out of his mouth go burning lights; Sparks of fire shoot out. Job 41:20 Smoke goes out of his nostrils, As from a boiling pot and burning rushes. Job 41:21 His breath kindles coals, And a flame goes out of his mouth.
Job 41:25 When he raises himself up, the mighty are afraid; Because of his crashings they are beside themselves. Job 41:34 He beholds every high thing; He is king over all the children of pride."
Alan Charig, A New Look at the Dinosaurs (New York, NY: Facts on file, Inc., 1983). “Now comes the important question. What caused all these extinctions [of dinosaurs and other animals] at one particular point in [history]? Dozens of reasons have been suggested, some serious and sensible, others quite crazy, and yet others merely as a joke. Every year people come up with new theories on this thorny problem. The trouble is that if we are to find just one
reason to account for them all, it would have to explain the death, all at the same time, of animals living on land and of animals living in the sea; but, in both cases, of only some of those animals, for many of the land-dwellers and many of the sea-dwellers went on living quite happily into the following period. Alas, no such one explanation exists.” Alan Charig, A New Look at the Dinosaurs (New York, NY: Facts on file, Inc., 1983).
Evolution’s Explanation of Life All species evolved over millions of years from a common ancestor How did this happen? Engines: mutation, natural selection Proof: fossil record
Mechanism for Change Single cellInvertebrate InvertebrateVertebrate (fish) FishAmphibian Amphibianreptile ReptileBird/mammal Ape-like creatureHuman What was the mechanism that could cause all this to happen?
Ability to adapt to the environment Survival of the fittest Can natural selection cause one kind (species) to become a new kind? Genetic Variation Can only select from existing information Can cause a loss of information Has no foresight into the future
A change in biological form and or function that results from changes in DNA structure. Most mutations are negative and detrimental or neutral and lateral in effect. On rare occasions mutations can show some advantage. What is mutation?
Mutations occur randomly and have random effects. When a mutant breeds, these genetic mutations are inherited by the offspring. Extra Fingers (Polydactyl) Sickle Cell Anemia
Mutations Insertions Deletions Inversions Duplications Translocations Recombination's Most are harmful or neutral Programmed gene expressions –Bacteria resistance to antibiotics None of them add new progressive DNA information necessary for evolution.
Mutations “But in all the reading I’ve done in the life-sciences literature, I’ve never found a mutation that added information… All point mutations that have been studied on the molecular level turn out to reduce the genetic information and not increase it.” Lee Spetner (Ph.D. Physics – MIT, taught information and communications at Johns Hopkins University), Not By Chance, 1997, pp. 131, 138
Mutations and Evolution “But there is no evidence that DNA mutations can provide the sorts of variation needed for evolution… There is no evidence for beneficial mutations at the level of macroevolution, but there is also no evidence at the level of what is commonly regarded as microevolution.” Jonathan Wells, Ph.D. Molecular Biology
Mutations “Mutations are rare phenomena, and a simultaneous change of even two amino acid residues in one protein is totally unlikely. … One could think, for instance, that by constantly changing amino acids one by one, it will eventually be possible to change the entire sequence substantially… Maxim D. Frank-Kamenetski, Unraveling DNA, 1997, p. 72. (Professor at Brown U. Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering) continued
These minor changes, however, are bound to eventually result in a situation in which the enzyme has ceased to perform its previous function but has not yet begun its ‘new duties’. It is at this point it will be destroyed – along with the organism carrying it.”
Natural Selection and Mutations Time Natural selection should eliminate harmful disorders Mutations and disorders If evolution is true
Natural Selection and Mutations 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 1999 MIM Entries Mendelian Inheritance in Man encyclopedia of human genes and disorders Observed data Man is literally de-evolving!!