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Chapter 3 Reformation and Post-Reformation Periods, 1500-1750 Alister E. McGrath Historical Theology: An Introduction to the History of Christian Thought.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Reformation and Post-Reformation Periods, 1500-1750 Alister E. McGrath Historical Theology: An Introduction to the History of Christian Thought."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3 Reformation and Post-Reformation Periods, 1500-1750 Alister E. McGrath Historical Theology: An Introduction to the History of Christian Thought

2 Reformation – or Reformations? A clarification of terms ◦ The German Reformation (Lutheranism) ◦ The Swiss Reformation (Calvinism/Reformed) ◦ The radical Reformation (Anabaptism) ◦ The English Reformation (Anglicanism) ◦ The Catholic Reformation (Counter-Reformation) ◦ Second Reformation

3 The German Reformation – Lutheranism ◦ Martin Luther, 1522 The Swiss Reformation – the Reformed church ◦ Institutional, ethical, and social reform ◦ John Calvin – Geneva, 1550s The radical Reformation – Anabaptism ◦ Anabaptist = rebaptizer ◦ sola scriptura The English Reformation – Anglicanism ◦ Henry VIII, 1527 ◦ The Elizabethan settlement (1558-9) The Catholic Reformation ◦ Council of Trent, 1545 Protestant Orthodoxy (1559-1622) ◦ Confessionalization

4 Post-Reformation movements The consolidation of Catholicism ◦ Council of Trent (1545-63) ◦ Continuity and constancy – semper eadem Puritanism ◦ Version of Reformed Orthodoxy in 16 th -century England ◦ Richard Baxter (1615-91) ◦ American Jonathan Edwards (1703-58) Pietism ◦ Philip Jakob Spener, Pia desideria, 1675 ◦ Nikolaus Ludwig Graf von Zinzendorf (1700-60) – “religion of the heart” ◦ John Wesley (1703-91) – “living faith”

5 Key theologians Martin Luther (1483-1546) ◦ University of Wittenberg Huldrych Zwingli (1484-1531) ◦ Zurich John Calvin (1509-64) ◦ Geneva Teresa of Avilà (1515-82) ◦ Mystical theology

6 Theodore Beza (1519-1605) ◦ Genevan Academy Johann Gerhard (1582-1637) ◦ Lutheran Orthodoxy (Loci communes) Roberto Bellarmine ◦ Catholic theology Jonathan Edwards (1703-58) ◦ America’s great theologian

7 Key theological developments The sources of theology ◦ Scripture and tradition The doctrine of grace ◦ Justification by faith ◦ Unconditional election The doctrine of the sacraments ◦ Outward signs of the invisible grace of God The doctrine of the church

8 Developments in theological literature Catechisms ◦ Luther’s Greater and Lesser Catechisms ◦ Calvin’s Geneva Catechism ◦ Catholic catechisms Confessions of faith Scripture, creeds, confessions Works of systematic theology ◦ Philip Melanchthon, Loci communes (1521) ◦ Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536-59) ◦ Roberto Bellarmine, “Disputations concerning the controversies of the Christian faith against the heretics of this age” (1586)

9 Case study 3.1 Bible and tradition in the Reformation debates The canon of Scripture ◦ The Old Testament and the Apocrypha The authority of Scripture ◦ Catholic theologians: the church “presides over the Word of God” ◦ Protestant reformers: the church “reverently subjects herself to the Word of God” ◦ Historical continuity (Catholics) or doctrinal continuity (Protestants)

10 The role of tradition ◦ Tradition 0: radical Reformation  rejection of tradition ◦ Tradition 1: magisterial Reformation  traditional way of interpreting Scripture within the community of faith ◦ Tradition 2: Council of Trent  tradition as separate, equally authoritative source of revelation The Catholic position ◦ Scripture and tradition of equal authority ◦ Apocrypha & Vulgate ◦ Authority of the church to interpret Scripture The translation of the Bible ◦ The vernacular (e.g., German) or Latin

11 Case study 3.2 Justification by faith: Protestantism and the Council of Trent Justification = entering into right relationship with God Martin Luther ◦ The righteousness of God = a righteousness that God gives sinners as a gift ◦ Luther’s view of faith ◦ Luther v. Augustine: the “alien righteousness of Christ” Forensic justification: Philip Melanchthon and John Calvin ◦ Justification and sanctification/regeneration The Council of Trent ◦ The nature of justification ◦ The nature of justifying righteousness ◦ The nature of justifying faith ◦ The assurance of salvation

12 Case study 3.3 The nature of the real presence: Luther, Zwingli, and the Council of Trent Transubstantiation ◦ Aristotle – substance and accident Luther: consubstantiation ◦ Christ’s real presence Zwingli: memorialism ◦ This “is” my body = this signifies my body ◦ Eucharist as a pledge ◦ Commemoration of Christ in his absence

13 Case study 3.4 The debate over infant baptism The New Testament Origins of infant baptism Martin Luther ◦ Baptism generates faith Huldrych Zwingli ◦ Baptism as circumcision (rite of belonging) Anabaptism: Menno Simons ◦ Return to authentic apostolic Christianity ◦ Outward sign of inward spiritual reality – the faith of the believer

14 Case study 3.5 The doctrine of the church: Trends within Protestantism Catholic view of the church: visible, historic, continuity with apostles Radical Reformation: the true church in heaven Magisterial Reformation: a middle ground ◦ Temporary schism? Martin Luther: central role of the Word of God The radical Reformation: the true church concealed until the end of time ◦ Augustine: the wheat and the weeds John Calvin: the Word of God preached, the sacraments rightly administered ◦ The visible and invisible church

15 Case study 3.6 Theology and astronomy: The Copernican and Galileian debates Nicholas Copernicus, 1543 The heliocentric view and the Bible ◦ Literal approach ◦ Allegorical approach ◦ Accommodation John Calvin’s contributions Galileo Galilei’s condemnation ◦ Paolo Antonio Foscarini, 1615 Innovations rejected – unchangeability of the Catholic tradition


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