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Chapter 3 Reformation and Post-Reformation Periods,

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1 Chapter 3 Reformation and Post-Reformation Periods, 1500-1750
Alister E. McGrath Historical Theology: An Introduction to the History of Christian Thought

2 Reformation – or Reformations?
A clarification of terms The German Reformation (Lutheranism) The Swiss Reformation (Calvinism/Reformed) The radical Reformation (Anabaptism) The English Reformation (Anglicanism) The Catholic Reformation (Counter-Reformation) Second Reformation

3 The German Reformation – Lutheranism
Martin Luther, 1522 The Swiss Reformation – the Reformed church Institutional, ethical, and social reform John Calvin – Geneva, 1550s The radical Reformation – Anabaptism Anabaptist = rebaptizer sola scriptura The English Reformation – Anglicanism Henry VIII, 1527 The Elizabethan settlement (1558-9) The Catholic Reformation Council of Trent, 1545 Protestant Orthodoxy ( ) Confessionalization

4 Post-Reformation movements
The consolidation of Catholicism Council of Trent ( ) Continuity and constancy – semper eadem Puritanism Version of Reformed Orthodoxy in 16th-century England Richard Baxter ( ) American Jonathan Edwards ( ) Pietism Philip Jakob Spener, Pia desideria, 1675 Nikolaus Ludwig Graf von Zinzendorf ( ) – “religion of the heart” John Wesley ( ) – “living faith”

5 Key theologians Martin Luther (1483-1546) Huldrych Zwingli (1484-1531)
University of Wittenberg Huldrych Zwingli ( ) Zurich John Calvin ( ) Geneva Teresa of Avilà ( ) Mystical theology

6 Theodore Beza (1519-1605) Johann Gerhard (1582-1637)
Genevan Academy Johann Gerhard ( ) Lutheran Orthodoxy (Loci communes) Roberto Bellarmine Catholic theology Jonathan Edwards ( ) America’s great theologian

7 Key theological developments
The sources of theology Scripture and tradition The doctrine of grace Justification by faith Unconditional election The doctrine of the sacraments Outward signs of the invisible grace of God The doctrine of the church

8 Developments in theological literature
Catechisms Luther’s Greater and Lesser Catechisms Calvin’s Geneva Catechism Catholic catechisms Confessions of faith Scripture, creeds, confessions Works of systematic theology Philip Melanchthon, Loci communes (1521) Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion ( ) Roberto Bellarmine, “Disputations concerning the controversies of the Christian faith against the heretics of this age” (1586)

9 Case study 3.1 Bible and tradition in the Reformation debates
The canon of Scripture The Old Testament and the Apocrypha The authority of Scripture Catholic theologians: the church “presides over the Word of God” Protestant reformers: the church “reverently subjects herself to the Word of God” Historical continuity (Catholics) or doctrinal continuity (Protestants)

10 The translation of the Bible
The role of tradition Tradition 0: radical Reformation rejection of tradition Tradition 1: magisterial Reformation traditional way of interpreting Scripture within the community of faith Tradition 2: Council of Trent tradition as separate, equally authoritative source of revelation The Catholic position Scripture and tradition of equal authority Apocrypha & Vulgate Authority of the church to interpret Scripture The translation of the Bible The vernacular (e.g., German) or Latin

11 Case study 3.2 Justification by faith: Protestantism and the Council of Trent
Justification = entering into right relationship with God Martin Luther The righteousness of God = a righteousness that God gives sinners as a gift Luther’s view of faith Luther v. Augustine: the “alien righteousness of Christ” Forensic justification: Philip Melanchthon and John Calvin Justification and sanctification/regeneration The Council of Trent The nature of justification The nature of justifying righteousness The nature of justifying faith The assurance of salvation

12 Case study 3.3 The nature of the real presence: Luther, Zwingli, and the Council of Trent
Transubstantiation Aristotle – substance and accident Luther: consubstantiation Christ’s real presence Zwingli: memorialism This “is” my body = this signifies my body Eucharist as a pledge Commemoration of Christ in his absence

13 Case study 3.4 The debate over infant baptism
The New Testament Origins of infant baptism Martin Luther Baptism generates faith Huldrych Zwingli Baptism as circumcision (rite of belonging) Anabaptism: Menno Simons Return to authentic apostolic Christianity Outward sign of inward spiritual reality – the faith of the believer

14 Case study 3.5 The doctrine of the church: Trends within Protestantism
Catholic view of the church: visible, historic, continuity with apostles Radical Reformation: the true church in heaven Magisterial Reformation: a middle ground Temporary schism? Martin Luther: central role of the Word of God The radical Reformation: the true church concealed until the end of time Augustine: the wheat and the weeds John Calvin: the Word of God preached, the sacraments rightly administered The visible and invisible church

15 Case study 3.6 Theology and astronomy: The Copernican and Galileian debates
Nicholas Copernicus, 1543 The heliocentric view and the Bible Literal approach Allegorical approach Accommodation John Calvin’s contributions Galileo Galilei’s condemnation Paolo Antonio Foscarini, 1615 Innovations rejected – unchangeability of the Catholic tradition

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