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Gordon Joughin, The University of Queensland, Australia

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1 Gordon Joughin, The University of Queensland, Australia
Plato versus AHELO: The nature and role of the spoken word in assessing and promoting learning. Gordon Joughin, The University of Queensland, Australia Barbara Ischinger Director Directorate for Education and Skills

2 Déroulement Context A short story: Explorations in orality
Orality examined ‘Secondary orality’? 2

3 The learner learning The Conversational Framework (Laurillard) Tuition
thinking, being supported, acting Listening/ Reading Guidance Articulating ideas TC Tuition Discussion LC LC OC Asking Questions Concepts Others’ ideas Producing Adaptation Reflection Working to a goal Feedback Action plans Preparing Outputs TP Practice LP LP Collaboration OP Investigating Others’ Outputs Revising The Conversational Framework (Laurillard)

4 CRICOS Provider No 00025B


6 Deep approaches to learning
Surface approach Intention To understand To complete the task Structure Holistic Atomistic Focus Underlying meaning of the task The surface of the task: words, sentences, product Learning by Relating & organising Memorising Learning is .. A window into reality Separate from everyday reality Ramsden, P. (2003). Learning to teach in higher education. London: Routledge.

7 U = V x R x C x I x A x F CRICOS Provider No 00025B

8 Viva the viva! CRICOS Provider No 00025B

9 Law students on the ‘viva’
“In a written assignment you can remain quite remote from what you write.” “ …I’ll just write some kind of rubbish, whether it relates to the topic or not. But in the viva you know you’re going to look a fool so you make sure you know what you are saying.” “In an exam you’re just a number but the viva’s personalised and you’re in direct contact with the people who assess you.”

10 Theology students: Purpose
“ the whole process was to try to explain it to other people” “ I tried to be really certain that I knew what I was talking about” “I’ve really wanted to convince people”

11 “ I tried to be really certain that I knew what I was talking about”
“ It’s your way of trying to define meaning or to interpret the things happening around you.” “You take a line and you stick to it.” “you’ve got to really understand it because if someone asks you a question …” “it’s really a battle between me and them” CRICOS Provider No 00025B

12 “I was dreadfully nervous.” “It’s directly associated with you.”
Fear and loathing in OA “I was dreadfully nervous.” “It’s directly associated with you.” “When it’s verbal, people often take it as an attack.” CRICOS Provider No 00025B

13 Comparison with written assessment
Intention Content Interaction Audience Feelings Comparison with written assessment CRICOS Provider No 00025B

14 Oral assessment as richer
‘Tom’ More preparation More personal More understanding More learning More ownership ‘David’ More authentic Higher quality learning Deeper engagement ‘Mary’ More understanding More work Greater responsibility Intention Content Interaction Feelings Audience Comparison with written assessment


16 Feelings Students were NOT asked about their feelings.
Every student commented on this aspect of their experience.

17 Feelings approaching the viva
“The unknown is a bit stressful; really stressful” “Pretty nerve-wracking – you never know if they’re going to ask you the one question that you don’t know. .. it’s your last exam and after this you’re a vet ... heightened sense of arousal” I’m happy with it. I don’t really particularly get overly nervous or stressed out. Nerve-wracking – 8; nervous – 4; stressful – 1; scary – 2; less stressful than written exams – 1; happy – 1; No student reported nervousness as affecting their performance during the viva. Many students commenting on the relaxing and supportive environment of the viva itself. Anxiety seems to be associated with a number of aspects of the viva: the presence of the examiners; the extent to which questions cannot be predicted; the anticipation of probing; a fear of appearing foolish.

18 The interviews explored the influence of assessment on learning.
The ‘mechanics’ of preparing: I read my notes.... I talked to other students .... The Facebook phenomenon

19 Does the viva improve learning?
“... in exams, they get you to remember a specific list of something, and so you just rote learn it. You don’t understand it. Whereas a viva is more, understanding.” “I try and make it clinically relevant, because my brain doesn't work by remembering. It's like what I said, I like working backwards. If I start just trying to learn everything, I don't retain my knowledge.” “... it's mostly rote learning and making lists; lists are fun.” 13/17 described what might be considered appropriate approaches to learning for the long term – developing connections; actively applying material to cases; questioning one’s own understanding; explicitly rejecting memorising. 3 described clearly surface approaches to learning – covering as much content as possible and focusing on memorising. Many contrasted their approach to the viva and to written exams. Note: the role of the pictures as a focus; anticipating future practice; “That’s most of what the study comes from – just the ‘what if’. “

20 Written vs oral “I feel like it's a more reasonable assessment of my ability as a clinician” “The viva lets you explain more and then they can ask more questions” “the written exams - you can hide”. “(the written exam) It's not really training you to think. I suppose it's just training you to tell.” Quote 13 at length Near universal endorsement of the viva as a superior form of assessment. Only 1 interviewee preferred the written exam. Reasons: more authentic; a better test of what they know; the ability to clarify understanding - or both questions and responses; speaking aids understanding

21 The viva as a rite of passage
“I think it's been a verification for me that I am going to be able to be a vet next year, in terms of speaking to people, looking at something, explaining. I think it's been quite - it's a validation.”

22 The Vet Viva: Assessors’ perspectives
Probing Assessing thinking Clarifying Adapting Confirming CRICOS Provider No 00025B

23 Summing up Deep approaches Engagement Anxiety Interaction Audience Uncertainty Confrontation Authenticity Learning Judging CRICOS Provider No 00025B

24 A word from our sponsor! CRICOS Provider No 00025B

25 Orality CRICOS Provider No 00025B

26 The psychodynamics of orality: Ong
Dabar! Writing separates the knower from the known. Orality is the sphere of controversy and aggression. The spoken word proceeds from the human interior and shows us as human. Speaker and hearer are fully present.

27 “Writing restructures consciousness”
CRICOS Provider No 00025B

28 Collaboration, Contextualisation and Communication Using New Media:
Introducing Podcasting into an Undergraduate Chemistry Class Emma Bartle, Nancy Longneckerb, Mark Pegrumc International Journal of Innovation in Science and Mathematics Education, 19(1), 16-28, 2011. CRICOS Provider No 00025B

29 Talking about chemistry with other people – get a different perspective of the topic from other people The main advantage was the research that was put in – I found I understood the topic more after doing the research and taking the time to understand it. The podcasting assignment encouraged us to take a more active role in studying our topic and reinforced the main ideas of the topic. CRICOS Provider No 00025B

30 “I just stumbled upon the most awesome podcast
“I just stumbled upon the most awesome podcast! Check out Wed 2-5 lab group, Alum4 AB; it will seriously be worth your 3 minutes!” This post received a reply: “Yeah big respect to this one…takes an uppercut!! Lol”. CRICOS Provider No 00025B

31 Assessment 2: Blog on beliefs about LL
For this blog-based task, you are required to write an academic-style opinion piece about your beliefs about language learning and the use of technologies in your language learning experience. ... You also should utilise the affordances of blog technologies to express your opinions in a multi-modal format (for example, using pictures, links, videos etc). Your blog will be available for other students to see unless you prefer that only the course coordinator will be able to see your blog CRICOS Provider No 00025B

32 CRICOS Provider No 00025B

33 A short guide to oral assessment. LMU ShortGuideOralAssess1_WEB.pdf CRICOS Provider No 00025B

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